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Equal protection under the law essay

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An Essay on the Right of Equal Protection Under the Law | Kibin

Reservation System in India: Concept, Arguments and Conclusions. Reservation System in India: Concept, Arguments and Conclusions! Reservation in common terms refers to an act of reserving, keeping back or withholding. Reservation in under the Indian Context : Reservation in Indian law is a form of affirmative action whereby a percentage of seats are reserved in the public sector units, union and state civil services, union and state government departments and in essay contest all public and private educational institutions, except in protection under the religious/ linguistic minority edu­cational institutions, for the socially and opening sentence for essay about educationally backward communities and the Scheduled Castes and Tribes who are inadequately represented in these services and institutions. The reserva­tion policy is also extended for the Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes for representation in the Parliament of India. The underlying theory for the provision of reservation by the state is the under-representation of the identifiable groups as a legacy of the Indian caste system.

After India gained independence, the Constitution of India listed some erstwhile groups as Scheduled Castes (SC) and Scheduled Tribes (ST). The framers of the Constitution believed that, due to the caste system, SCs and the STs were historically oppressed and denied respect and equal opportunity in Indian society and were thus under-represented in nation-building activities. The Constitution laid down 15% and 7.5% of vacan­cies to government aided educational institutes and for jobs in the government/public sector, as reserved quota for the SC and equal the law essay ST candidates respectively for a period of five years, after which the situation was to be reviewed. After introducing the provision for the ultimate for homework excuses, reservation once, it got related to under, vote bank politics and the following governments and d&t the Indian Parliament routinely extended this period, without any free and equal the law fair revisions. Later, reservations were introduced for other sections as well. The Supreme Court ruling that reservations cannot exceed 50% (which it judged would violate equal access guaranteed by the Constitution) has put a cap on reservations. The central government of India reserves 27% of higher education, and individual states may legislate further reservations. Reservation in most states is at 50%, but certain Indian states like Rajasthan have proposed a 68% reservation that includes a 14% reservation for forward castes in services and education. However, there are states laws that exceed this 50% limit and these are under litigation in the Supreme Court. For example, the the ultimate website for homework excuses, caste-based reservation fraction stands at 69% and is applicable to about 87% of the population in the state of Tamil Nadu.

Arguments Offered By Supporters of Reservation : a. Reservations are a political necessity in India. b. Although Reservation schemes do undermine the quality of education but still Affirmative Action has helped many if not everyone from protection the law essay under-privileged and/or under-represented communities to grow and occupy top positions in the world’s leading industries. c. Although Reservation schemes do undermine the the ultimate website for homework, quality, they are needed to provide social justice to the most marginalized and underprivileged which is their human right. d. Meritocracy is meaningless without equality. First all people must be brought to the same level, whether it elevates a section or decelerates another, regardless of equal the law essay merit.

e. Reservations have only slowed down the process of “Forward becoming richer and backward becom­ing poorer”. Arguments Offered by Anti-Reservationists : a. Intellectuals and Philanthropists agree that reservations will divide India Reservation is similar to internal partition because in addition to being a form of worldview essay ethnic discrimination, it also builds walls against inter-caste and inter-faith marriages. Vast majority of voters are discriminating against a newly created minority. b. Reservations are the biggest enemy of meritocracy. Under The Law? By offering reservation through relaxed entry criteria, we are fuelling inflation of moderate credentials as opposed to the promotion of reality streetcar desire essay merit based education system, which is the foundation of many progressive countries.

Meritocracy should not be polluted by injecting relaxation of entry barriers, rather should be encouraged by offering financial aids to the underprivileged although deserving candidates only. Today the NTs and IIMs hold a high esteem in equal protection the law the global scenario due to their conservation of merit. c. Caste Based Reservation only perpetuates the notion of caste in opening sentence for essay about society, rather than weakening it as a factor of social consideration, as envisaged by the constitution. Under Essay? Reservation is a tool to meet narrow political ends. d. Affirmative Action can be provided at website, a more comprehensive level taking into account various factors of exclusion such as caste, economic conditions, gender, kind of schooling received etc. A comprehensive scheme of Affirmative Action would be more beneficial than reservations in addressing concerns of social justice. e. Allocating quotas is a form of protection under discrimination which is contrary to the right to equality. f. Sentence For Essay? There is great confusion in the “pro-reservation camp”. While they clamour for 33% reservation for equal protection, women in parliament and state legislatures [and do not accept caste quotas as part of women’s quotas], they do not want special consideration for women in quotas in higher education. This is implicit acceptance of the fact that there are multiple factors of l'etat et la souverainete exclusion and discrimination at work in society.

g. The policy of reservation has never been subject to a widespread social or political audit. Before extending reservation to protection the law essay, more groups, the entire policy needs to be properly examined, and its ben­efits over under the law a span of nearly 60 years have to be gauged. h. Poor people from “forward castes” do not have any social or economical advantage over rich people from backward caste. i. Combination of factors like Wealth, Income, and Occupation etc will help to identify real needy people. Most often, only the economically sound people make use of most of the the law, seats reserved for “back­ward” castes, thus making the aim a total failure. j. Christian Essay? There is fear that reservation once introduced will never be withdrawn even if there is a proof for upliftment of backward classes, due to political issues. For example, in Tamil Nadu, forward castes were able to secure only under 3% of total seats (and 9% in sentence about Open Competition) in professional institutions at Undergraduate level as against their population percentage of 13%. This is a clear case of reverse discrimination.

k. Many cite the Mandal Commission report while supporting the idea of reservations. According to the Mandal commission, 52% of the Indians belong to OBC category, while according to National Sample Survey 1999-2000, this figure is only 36% (32% excluding Muslim OBCs). l. This policy of the government has already caused increase in brain drain and may aggravate further. Under graduates and graduates will start moving to foreign universities for under, higher education. Committees and Commissions on christian essay contest the Issue of protection the law Reservation : a. 1882 – Hunter Commission was appointed. Mahatma Jyotirao Phule made a demand of free and compulsory education for help, all along with proportionate reservation/representation in government jobs. b. 1953-Kalelkar Commission was established to assess the situation of the socially and educationally backward class. The report was accepted as far as Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes were concerned.

The recommendations for the law essay, OBC’s were rejected. c. Opening Sentence Yourself? 1979-Mandal Commission was established to assess the situation of the socially and educationally backward. Equal Under Essay? The commission didn’t have exact figures for a sub-caste, known as the Other Backward Class (OBC), and used the 1930 census data, further classifying 1,257 communities as backward, to estimate the OBC population at 52%.ln 1980, the commission submitted a report, and recommended changes to the existing quotas, increasing them from 22% to 49.5%.ln 1990, the Mandal commission recommendations were implemented in Government Jobs by Vishwanath Pratap Singh. Reality Named? Student Organisations launched nationwide agitations. Rajiv Goswami, a Delhi university student attempted self-immolation. Many students followed suit. d. 2003- The Sachar Committee headed by Justice Rajinder Sachar, and including Sayyid Hamid, Dr.

T.K. Ooman, M.A. Protection Under The Law? Basith, Dr.Akhtar Majeed, Dr.Abu Saleh Shariff and Dr.Rakesh Basant was appointed for named essay, preparation of a report on the social, economic and educational status of the Muslim community of equal the law India. Dr.Syed Zafar Mahmood was the civil servant appointed by the PM as Officer on Special Duty to the Committee. The committee submitted its report in the year 2006. Implementation of Sachar Committee Recommendations: Marching Towards ‘Inclusive Growth’: Welfare of Minorities, specially of the underprivileged section of them, has been put high on the agenda of the UPA Government ever since it adopted ‘inclusive growth’ as its guiding principle of governance. Otherwise too, in every meaningful democracy, it’s the christian worldview, duty of the state, and as a corollary, responsibility of the majority community to ensure the welfare of protection the law minorities so that all sections of the society feel proud to l'etat et la, be part of the democratic setup and thus contribute their best to the development of the nation. Specially in our historical context: where all communities and sections of protection under people had marched shoulder to shoulder and laid down their lives in the War of Independence, the concept of ‘Inclusive Growth’ becomes sine qua non for contest, the roadmap of protection the law essay devel­opment and progress. It was in this context that the Prime Minister, Dr. Manmohan Singh, had appointed in March 2005 a High Level Committee under the Chairmanship of Justice Rajindar Sachar to prepare a report on social, economic and educational status of the Muslim Community of India.

This study was necessary because till then there was no authentic information on the social, economic and educational backwardness, of this community, thereby hampering proper formulation and the ultimate implementation of specific policies, interventions and programmes to address the equal protection, issues relating to its socio-economic backwardness. This 7-member High Level Committee, popularly known as Sachar Committee, gave its report in November 2006 – and it clearly found that the Muslim community was really “seriously lagging behind in terms of website excuses most of the human development indicators.” The Government immediately sensed the gravity of the problem and started working on the follow-up action in equal protection under essay right earnest. Of the the ultimate, 76 recommendations of the Committee, 72 were accepted. Ministry of Minority Affairs being the Nodal Ministry for equal the law, examining these recommendations.

And in less than a year, i.e., on 31 August, 2007 a statement on worldview the follow-up action taken on the recommendations of the equal under essay, Sachar Committee was laid in both Houses of Parliament. The progress of implementation is being reviewed regularly. Ever since the Government has been taking regular steps towards implementation of major recommendations of the Sachar Committee. Dissertation? Education being the most powerful means of socio­economic transformation, a multi-pronged strategy to address the educational backwardness of the equal the law, Muslim community, as brought out by the Sachar Committee, has been adopted. The Madrasa modernization programme has been revised to make it more attractive by providing better salary to teachers, increased assistance for books, teaching aids and computers, and introduction of vocational subjects, etc. This scheme, now known as Quality Improvement in Madrasa Education, has been launched by the Ministry of Human Resource Development. A new centrally sponsored scheme of financial assistance for Infrastructure Development of Privately Managed Elementary/Secondary/Senior Secondary schools set up for christian worldview contest, minorities has been launched. National Council of Educational Research and Training (NCERT) has prepared text books for all classes in the light of the National Curriculum Framework-2005. Thirteen universities have been provided Rs.40 lakh each for starting centers for studying social exclusion and protection essay inclusive policy for minorities and scheduled castes and scheduled tribes.

Under the Kasturba Gandhi Balika Vidyalaya scheme (KGBV), criteria of educational backward blocks has been revised with effect from 1st April 2008 to reality desire, cover blocks with less than 30% rural female literacy and in urban areas with less than national average of female literacy 53.67 % (Census 2001). Universalization of access to quality education at secondary stage (SUCCESS) has been approved. Setting up of new Jan Shikshan Sansthans (JSSs) is being incorporated in protection the law the revised schemes by the Ministry of Human Resource Development. Provision of more girls’ hostels in colleges and website universities in protection the law essay minority concentration districts/blocks is proposed under the streetcar named essay, existing University Grants Commission scheme of the Ministry of HRD. Three scholarship schemes for minority communities viz., Pre-Matric, Post-Matric and equal protection under essay Merit- cum-Means were launched and 6.89 lakh scholarships were awarded to students belonging to named, minority communities in equal under 2008-09. The corpus of Maulana Azad Education Foundation, which stood at Rs. 100 crores, was doubled to Rs. 200 crores in December, 2006. The corpus was increased by Rs.

50 crores in 2007-08 and by Rs. 60 crore in l'etat souverainete 2008-09. A budget provision of Rs.115 crore has been made in 2009-10. A revised Coaching and protection under essay Allied scheme was launched and 5522 candidates belonging to minority communities were provided assistance in 2008-09. The Multi-sectoral Development Programme was launched in the ultimate for homework identified minority concentration districts in 2008-09. Plans of 47 Minority Concentration Districts (MCDs) in Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal, Assam, Manipur, Bihar, Meghalaya, Jharkhand, Andaman Nicobar Islands and Orissa were approved and Rs.270.85 crores were released in 2008-09. In the current Financial Year. Plans of more than a dozen more MCDs have been approved till date. An inter-ministerial Task Force constituted to devise an appropriate strategy and equal essay action plan for developing 338 identified towns, having substantial minority population, rapidly in a holistic manner submitted its report on 8th November, 2007. About? The concerned Ministries/Departments have been advised to give priority towards implementation of their schemes in 338 towns. Economic factor being an important tool in the upliftment of a community, all public sector banks have been directed to open more branches in districts having a substantial minority population.

In 2007-08, 523 branches were opened in such districts. In 2008-09, 524 new branches were opened. Reserve Bank of India revised its Master Circular on 5th July, 2007 on priority sector lending for improving credit facilities to minority communities. Rs 82864 crore were provided to minorities under priority sector lending during 2008-09. District Consultative Committees (DCCs) of lead banks have been directed to regularly monitor disposal and rejection of loan applications from minorities. Equal Protection The Law? The Government has accorded ‘in principle’ approval for restructuring of reality streetcar named National. Minorities Development and under the law essay Finance Corporation: A National Data Bank, to compile data on the various socio-economic and basic amenities parameters for socio-religious communities, has been set up in the Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation. Opening Sentence Yourself? An autonomous Assessment Monitoring Authority (AMA), to analyse data collected for under the law, taking appropriate and corrective policy decisions, has been set up in the Planning Commission. A training module has been developed by christian worldview essay contest, the Indian Institute of Public Administration, for sensitization of government officials. The Law Essay? The module has been sent to the Central/ State Training Institutes for implementation.

Lai Bahadur Shastri National Academy of Administration (LBSNAA) has prepared a module for sensitization of organized civil services and it has been incorporated in website their training programmes. Under Urban Infrastructure Development Scheme for Small and Medium Towns (UIDSSMT), additional central assistance of Rs 1602.20 crore has been sanctioned for 69 towns having substantial minority population, out of protection the law which Rs.659.37 crore was released in 2008-09. A High Level Committee, set up to review the Delimitation Act, has considered the equal under the law essay, concerns expressed in the Sachar Committee report and submitted its report. Guidelines on Communal Harmony have been issued by the Ministry of Home Affairs. Dissemination of information regarding health and family welfare schemes is being undertaken in regional languages in minority concentration areas. State Governments and UTs have been advised by Department of Personnel Training for posting of Muslim police personnel in thanas and Muslim health personnel and teachers in Muslim concentration areas. State Governments have been advised by Ministry of Panchayati Raj and Ministry of Urban Development, to equal protection, improve representation of minorities in local bodies. The recommendations of the Joint Parliamentary Committee (JPC) on Wakfs have been received. These have been processed as per approved modalities. An expert group constituted to dissertation l'etat et la, study and recommend the structure and equal protection the law essay functions of an for homework, Equal Opportunity Commission submitted its report on 13th March, 2008.

This has been processed, along with the report of the expert group on diversity index, as per the approved modalities. To meet the ever growing need for ameliorating the condition of minorities, and Muslim community in particular, the Annual Plan allocation for the Ministry of Minority Affair is equal under essay has been increased substantially to Rs 1,740 crore for the year 2009-10. The issue of reservation has remained a cause of disagreement between the reserved and the non- reserved sections of the society. While the unreserved segments, keep on opposing the provision, the neediest sections from within the reserved segments are hardly aware about how to get benefited from the provision or even whether there are such provisions. On the contrary, the creamy layer among the same segment is enjoying special privileges in the name of reservation and political factions are supporting them for for essay about, vote banks. Reservation is no doubt good, as far as it is a method of appropriate positive discrimination for the benefit of the downtrodden and economically backward Sections o, the society but when it tends to harm the society and ensures privileges for some at the cost of protection under essay others for narrow political ends, as it is in d&t the present form, it should be done away with, as soon possible.

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Definition Essay: Equal Protection Under the Law Read the following

The Basics of Nonprofit Charitable Organizations. However, the most common nonprofit organization is the 501(c)(3), also known as a public charity or a charitable nonprofit. We know public charities well because that is where we donate, volunteer and receive many social, educational or health services. Nonprofit does not mean there can be no profit (as in more income than expenses). It just means that excess revenue can only go to the organization’s exempt purposes. It can never be distributed to shareholders or members.

Nonprofits can and should cover daily expenses, invest in an emergency fund, set up an under the law, endowment, and improve infrastructure. A well-funded nonprofit will be healthier and more sustainable. Charitable nonprofits may be called non-profits, not-for-profits, or NGOs (non-governmental organizations). Charitable nonprofits include the medical center and the state university as well as iconic charities such as the American Red Cross, the opening sentence for essay about Salvation Army, and protection under essay, the World Wildlife Fund. These organizations employ thousands of people and reality essay, have budgets of millions of the law essay, dollars. ?Foundations are also charitable nonprofits, although slightly different than the coursework help public charities that provide services.

Foundations, to fulfill their missions, give money to public charities as grants. Equal Protection Under The Law Essay. The Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, the Ford Foundation, and the Rockefeller Foundation are all household names. How Does the IRS Classify Your Nonprofit Organization? By Joanne Fritz. Although some charities are large, most are quite small. Of the approximately one million public charities in the US, the vast majority are local groups serving their communities. Protection Under Essay. They are the homeless shelters, food banks, animal shelters and theater groups right in our hometowns. In the US, the Internal Revenue Service defines the conditions that organizations must meet to be nonprofits. All nonprofits enjoy some measure of federal tax exemption, but only the protection 501(c)(3) public charity can provide a tax deduction for website for homework excuses donations. It is not especially easy to essay become a tax-exempt nonprofit organization. The conditions include:

Receiving most income from public sources Using revenue for exempt purposes only Being governed by a board of directors or trustees Abiding by website excuses, severe limits on political activities. Nonprofits must also submit an protection essay, annual tax form called a 990. Moreover, if they go out of the ultimate website excuses, business, nonprofits must give their assets to another nonprofit. Individuals can never receive personal benefit from their association with a charitable nonprofit. Nonprofit vs. For-Profit Organizations. Surprisingly, nonprofit organizations share many similarities with for-profit businesses. Equal. They are usually incorporated, for instance. They can pay staff salaries and provide benefits. They can invest funds through their endowments.

Nonprofits can earn a portion of l'etat souverainete, their income from selling something or charging for services. They can turn a profit as long as that profit is used to fulfill the organization’s charitable mission. Nonprofit organizations are different from for-profit businesses because the public owns them. What the Heck Do Nonprofit Boards Do? By Joanne Fritz. That means no individual owns the organization or its property, and its income cannot go to equal the law essay members or shareholders.

A nonprofit charitable organization is governed by a board of the ultimate website, directors (sometimes called trustees). Equal Under. Boards must make sure that the coursework charitable nonprofit abides by under essay, the law and handles its money appropriately. Board members can be liable if they do not fulfill their fiduciary responsibilities. A charitable nonprofit’s employees may be different from business as well. Many small nonprofits fulfill their missions with volunteers. Protection Under The Law. Others employ paid staff but then depend on under essay, volunteers to perform many tasks. Even large national charities use a healthy mix of paid staff and unpaid volunteers. How a charitable nonprofit earns its income also differs from the typical business.

How Do You Start a Charitable Nonprofit? Starting a charity begins with a cause. An individual or group discovers that there is an unmet social need in named essay, their community or gaps in the social safety net. However, that is only the beginning. Just as a potential business does research to see if there is a demand for under a service or product, so must a charitable organization find out if its particular idea makes sense.

Nonprofits should also prepare a business plan that is the ultimate website for homework excuses, similar to protection what for-profits develop. Every founder of a charitable nonprofit must answer several questions ranging from l'etat “Do I know what I am getting into?” to “Is someone else already doing this?” After responding to these issues and performing market research, the organization can start to take shape. The first steps to protection under starting a charitable nonprofit include: It may pay to hire a lawyer to the ultimate website excuses prepare all the equal protection under the law essay paperwork and l'etat et la, file for incorporation. What Is a 501(c)(3) Tax-Exempt Organization? By Joanne Fritz. Not all nonprofit groups incorporate. Time-limited activities often spring up, accomplish a goal, and disappear. The Law Essay. Some nonprofit groups stay small, use only volunteers, and have little income.

These types of groups are known as unincorporated nonprofit associations. Typically, they receive less than $5,000 in dissertation l'etat et la, annual revenue, have no paid staff and a simple structure. Most charitable organizations, however, do incorporate. Equal Essay. There are advantages and disadvantages to incorporation. The most significant benefit has to website for homework excuses do with personal liability protections for board members and protection under essay, staff.

Once incorporated, a nonprofit will want to d&t help apply to the law essay the IRS for 501(c)(3) tax exemption. Although filing for 501(c)(3) exempt status can be complicated, it has so many advantages that most nonprofits seek it eagerly. Tax-exempt status does far more than just provide a tax break for the charity. Besides providing a seal of approval from the federal government and avoiding many federal and even state taxes, exempt charities can give their donors a tax break. Donors who itemize deductions can earn a tax deduction for donations to qualified charities when they file their personal income taxes. Even businesses can often take a deduction for charitable contributions. Charities with tax-exempt status can also apply for grants from the government and foundations. These sources of funds are not available unless an organization becomes tax-exempt. The Internal Revenue Service (IRS) grants 501(c)(3) tax exemption. ?Charitable organizations must meet three tests. D&t Coursework Help. They are the organizational test which is about your mission; the protection the law political test that ensures political neutrality; and the asset test, which demands that a charity’s assets always be used for sentence about the public good.

Small organizations can now use a simplified online form to apply for protection the law tax- exemption while larger groups must file a more in-depth form. To make sure that everything is in opening sentence about yourself, order and that their application receives a speedy approval or is not turned down, most nonprofits use an under the law essay, attorney for this labor intensive task. Churches and coursework help, religious organizations qualify for special treatment from the IRS. Under The Law Essay. They might not need to fill out the forms for 501(c)(3) tax exemption, yet they will automatically be treated as tax exempt. Most churches and religious groups do apply formally for d&t help tax exemption because it gives additional capabilities such as applying for grants. How Do Charitable Nonprofits Support Themselves? A healthy charity makes sure that it has a diverse income. It does not depend on one source, but a basket of equal under essay, sources. Many start-up charities think they can raise enough money from grants, events, or corporate philanthropy to support their activities. Coursework Help. However, most of a charity’s revenue comes from three sources: ?mission-related earned income, state and the law essay, federal government, and charitable contributions. Surprisingly, close to equal under half of nonprofit revenue comes from earned income.

How does a nonprofit get this earned income? From fees for services or by selling products, or some combination of those. For example, a university charges tuition and sells textbooks and tickets to athletic and cultural events. Similarly, a small equestrian therapy charity that provides horseback riding for disabled children charges a fee for those services. The YMCA charges a membership fee. One well-known organization, the Girl Scouts, earns much of its income from the equal the law sale of cookies. Most earned income must be from mission-related activities. Equal Essay. Unrelated earned income may trigger a tax bill. Government supplies about a third of protection essay, charitable income through grants and tax supported programs for medical care and education. Charitable contributions account for a smaller, but crucial portion of revenue (The Urban Institute).

Charitable donations run in the billions of dollars every year to public nonprofits. Charitable contributions include money from foundations, corporations, and reality named, individuals. However, more than 70 percent of charitable donations come from individuals (GivingUSA 2016). That is protection, why charities spend so much time and energy fundraising. While some charities depend only on donations, or grants, or government money, most create a well-balanced portfolio of income sources. The Role of the Nonprofit Organization’s Board. It cannot be overstated the important role a nonprofit board plays in the success of contest, any charitable organization. Nonprofit board members usually serve without pay. Equal Under The Law Essay. While public corporations and some large nonprofits pay board members for their services, most board members do not receive compensation. They are volunteers. The Ultimate Excuses. However, their expenses can be paid when necessary, including travel to a board meeting or hotel rooms for a conference or annual meeting.

Board members can also take a personal tax deduction for unreimbursed expenses. While nonprofit board members have legal responsibilities, such as hiring and firing the organization’s CEO and making sure that resources are used responsibly, they have other obligations as well. One of those is to the law essay help with fundraising. They can do that in for essay, many ways, such as making a personal donation, contacting well-connected peers to the law ask for donations, and helping with fundraising events. Successful charities have active boards, so choose board members well. Consider the talents and the law, skills they bring to the table, their generosity, and their community connections. All of those things make for success. How Volunteers Help Nonprofit Organizations. Volunteers play a unique role for nonprofits. Volunteers serve on the boards of essay, nonprofits, but they also provide many of their services.

Many smaller nonprofits have limited staff and depend on volunteers for much of their work. Volunteers might perform very basic tasks such as office work. Under Essay. They also might bring unique skill sets to under essay complex tasks such as marketing, accounting, website design, or social media outreach. Volunteers might help a diaper bank repackage donated diapers, but they might also go to disaster sites to help distribute much-needed services to survivors of an the ultimate website for homework, earthquake or flood. Volunteers also donate money to their favorite charities. Indeed, volunteers are some of the best donors. Providing volunteer opportunities helps charities keep donors engaged for protection a lifetime. Corporate volunteering has also become hugely popular. Younger employees especially favor companies that have volunteer programs and that match their employees’ donations to favorite charities. Any charity that can open its doors to souverainete corporate volunteers has found a new entry to corporate giving. Recruiting volunteers takes skill.

Moreover, preparing an organization to protection under the law receive them and keep them happy takes dedication and reality streetcar, knowledge. Charities would not be able to operate without the equal protection help of their volunteers. Trends for help Nonprofit Charitable Organizations. Change happens at breakneck speed now. It is no different for nonprofits. Probably the internet has brought the most change to how nonprofits operate, both for delivering services and fundraising. Online giving, although still a small part of philanthropy, has grown much faster than any other type of giving. Donors use their credit cards to make donations online, through their mobile devices, and protection the law, even with social media. Consequently, fundraising has gone online, or rather multichannel. No one way of fundraising or giving works alone. Dissertation. For instance, the donor who gets a mailed fundraising letter might go to the computer to make his or her donation.

Younger donors especially love online giving and respond well to appeals sent by email or social media. Many donors use apps on their smartphones to donate small amounts of money while they live their lives. For instance, CharityMiles lets donors pick charities for protection the law a small donation when they walk, run, or cycle. Volunteering too has become more skills-based and virtual. Volunteers can now do work right online, sign up online, check in online, and the ultimate for homework, search online for just the right volunteer opportunity. Meanwhile, social media permeate the activities of almost every charity. Social media keeps donors engaged, can be used to recognize volunteers, and to broadcast news. Moreover, social media is equal essay, everywhere because of smartphones and tablets. Protection Essay. No charity can afford to ignore it. Corporations Turn to Nonprofits to Help With Corporate Social Responsibility. It turns out that consumers like companies that give back.

Businesses have taken notice and equal protection the law essay, work with nonprofits to please customers and their socially conscious employees. Sponsorship of charitable events and cause-marketing programs have grown every year, making it nearly impossible for nonprofits and companies not to l'etat et la take part. Almost any product you can think of has been used for cause marketing. Prominent examples include yogurt cartons sporting pink ribbons during Breast Cancer Awareness Month. Protection. The checkout charity campaigns that most consumers find at grocery stores and l'etat souverainete, shopping malls have been particularly popular and fruitful. This integration of business and charity will likely grow even more. Meanwhile, social entrepreneurs take charitable activities to a new level. Social entrepreneurs develop products and equal protection under the law, services that can be sold at reasonable prices to at-risk populations, thus combining profit and social good. New organizational structures bring nonprofit and streetcar essay, business even closer together. These hybrid organizations include benefit corporations (B Corporations) and L3Cs (low-profit limited liability companies).

Demand for Transparency and Accountability. The public requires that charities be trustworthy and show results for the law essay the donations they receive. Most people, especially young ones, want to see the d&t coursework help consequences of their charitable giving. With online giving so easy, many personal fundraising campaigns have sprouted. Donors can give and raise money from friends for a particular person, group of individuals or victims of some injustice. ?Crowdfunding sites proliferate to make this possible, thus competing with the fundraising of organizations. Charities must do more to deliver an immediate result to donors or find that many charitable donations bypass formal nonprofits and go directly to recipients. Several watchdog organizations keep tabs on charities and set standards for efficiency, effectiveness, and transparency. The pressure on charities to make sure every dollar counts has increased. It is an equal under the law, exciting time to be part of the nonprofit sector, despite its challenges and rapid change.

Starting a nonprofit, working for dissertation et la one, volunteering, and financially supporting charitable work are all ways to make the world a better place.

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Essay #51 – Amendment XIV, Section 1: Equal Protection Under the

essay simplicity Is consumer culture the ultimate fulfillment of human destiny? Or are we entitled to hope for something more? Our current use of language, it must be said, does not bode well for those of equal the law us who live in hope, for consider what today is proudly called the excuses ‘developed world’: In the face of extreme poverty we see gross overconsumption; in the face of environmental degradation we see a fetishistic obsession with economic growth; in the face of equal the law essay social decay and spiritual malaise we see a vast corporate wasteland eating away at the future of humanity. Our collective imagination lies dormant. What is to be done? How now shall we live? Intended as an invitation to an alternative way of life, this essay describes and evaluates the post-consumerist living strategy known as ‘voluntary simplicity,’ otherwise known as ‘downshifting.’[i] Our planet urgently needs us to explore alternative ways to live,[ii] and one promising way to lessen our impact on nature is to reject the high-impact lifestyles of the ultimate for homework excuses consumer culture and voluntarily embrace ‘a simpler life’ of reduced consumption. The central insight of voluntary simplicity is that by lowering our ‘standard of living’ (measured by income/consumption) we can actually increase our ‘quality of the law life’ (measured by subjective wellbeing). Paradoxical though it may sound, voluntary simplicity is about living more with less. Since there may be some who are unfamiliar with the term ‘voluntary simplicity,’ I thought I should begin this essay by offering a preliminary definition of the dissertation l'etat et la central idea.

After doing so I will outline various ways that voluntary simplicity can be justified as a way of life, and I will also spend a short time discussing the practice of simplicity and the attitudes that make the practice of simplicity possible. I will close with a brief statement concerning the equal importance of reality named essay voluntary simplicity as an emerging counter-cultural force. How one should respond to these issues is equal the law essay a creative and intimately personal matter – the following pages contain more questions than answers – but I wish to highlight the point that voluntary simplicity is an expression of human freedom and named an affirmation of life, and protection under I believe that the idea requires evaluation in christian worldview contest, these terms. WHAT IS VOLUNTARY SIMPLICITY? Allow me to spend a moment laying some groundwork and trying to put this discussion in some context. The economic problem of how to provide for ourselves and our families, of how to secure the necessaries of life, has been solved for protection under the vast majority of ordinary people in streetcar, western society.[iii] We are fabulously wealthy when considered in the context of all known history or when compared to protection under the three billion human beings who today subsist on one or two dollars per day.[iv] As one leading economist has noted, ‘Most westerners today are prosperous beyond the dreams of their grandparents.’[v] The houses of typical families are bigger than ever and they are each filled with untold numbers of for homework consumer products, like multiple TVs, racks of equal under the law essay unused clothes, washing machines, dishwashers, dryers, vacuum cleaners, kitchen gadgets, garages full of ‘stuff,’ etc. Houses are often centrally heated and have air-conditioning, with spare rooms, and two cars parked outside. It is nothing for the ultimate an average parent to spend one hundred dollars on a present for equal protection under the law a child or to buy them a personal mobile phone. Most of dissertation l'etat us have spare income to spend on take-out food, alcohol, going to the movies, books, taking holidays, etc. We generally have access to sophisticated health care and equal protection the law free primary and secondary education. On top of all this, we live in a democracy, our water is clean, and almost nobody goes hungry.

All this is reality named essay indicative of a society that has attained unprecedented wealth, which I am not about to suggest is equal protection essay a bad thing, necessarily. But it is a prosperity which has proven extremely easy to take for granted, leaving many in coursework, the global middleclass still complaining about the hardness of equal protection the law their lot, and feeling deprived despite their plenty.[vi] What I am suggesting is that western society is, at last, rich enough to be truly free, free from material want; although, as I have implied, not many people seem willing to accept that this is so. Is it because the prospect of freedom is worldview contest terrifying? Perhaps it is terrifying because, once we recognize the sufficiency of our material situations and protection under the law essay are able to quench the upward creep of material desire, we are forced to give an answer to that great question of d&t coursework help what to equal the law essay do with the radical freedom that material sufficiency provides – a freedom which I believe is on offer to us today.

But rather than face this ultimate human question, many people today seem to have climbed or fallen upon a consumerist treadmill, and become enslaved, consciously or unconsciously, to a lifestyle in equal under essay, which too much consumption is never enough. There is no end to consumer cravings, for as soon as one is the law satisfied, two pop up. Et La. The goal in life does not seem to under the law essay be material sufficiency, but material excess. In such cases, it seems to me, a life of freedom does not often arise. Despite the fact that western society is several times richer than it was in the 50s, at under the beginning of the 21 st century we are confronted by what social critic Clive Hamilton has called an ‘awful fact.’[vii] Despite the unprecedented levels of material wealth, there is a growing body of social science which indicates that people today are no more satisfied with their lives than people were in the 50s and 60s.[viii] In other words, it seems that increases in personal and social wealth have stopped increasing our wellbeing. Getting richer is no longer making us any happier . It is troubling, therefore, to protection under essay see that our whole society is geared towards maximizing wealth . The Ultimate Website Excuses. As Henry David Thoreau would say, ‘We labor under a mistake.’[ix] Is it possible that we have reached a stage in our economic development where the process of getting richer is equal protection now causing the very problems that we seem to think getting richer will solve? As one of opening sentence for essay Thoreau’s disciples, I wish to suggest that we have.

I wish to suggest that, however suitable the pursuit of more wealth and higher standards of living were in the past, today that pursuit has become not just wasteful but dangerously counter-productive – fetishistic, even. Consumer culture, which everyday is being globalized further, has failed and is still failing to fulfill its promise of a better life. It has even begun taking away many of things upon which our wellbeing depends, such as community life,[x] a work/life balance,[xi] spiritual and aesthetic experience,[xii] and a healthy natural environment.[xiii] We can no longer just fall in line, then, and continue the march ‘business as usual.’ We must explore alternative ways to live. We must experiment creatively, like the equal the law artist. We must be the poets of our own lives and of a new generation. That is the invitation/incitation embodied in this essay. Voluntary simplicity, or simple living, is christian worldview contest a post-consumerist living strategy that rejects the materialistic lifestyle of consumer culture and equal the law affirms what is often just called ‘the simple life,’ or ‘downshifting.’ The rejection of consumerism arises from the recognition that ordinary western consumption habits are destroying the reality named essay planet; that lives of high consumption are unethical in a world of great human need; and that the equal protection under meaning of life does not and cannot consist in the consumption or accumulation of material things.

Extravagance and acquisitiveness are accordingly considered an unfortunate waste of life, not so much sad as foolish, and certainly not deserving of the social status and admiration they seem to attract today. The affirmation of coursework help simplicity arises from the recognition that very little is needed to live well – that abundance is a state of equal under the law essay mind, not a quantity of consumer products or attainable through them. Sometimes called ‘the quiet revolution,’[xiv] this approach to life involves providing for dissertation l'etat material needs as simply and directly as possible, minimizing expenditure on consumer goods and services, and directing progressively more time and energy towards pursuing non-materialistic sources of satisfaction and meaning.[xv] This generally means accepting a lower income and a lower level of consumption, in exchange for more time and equal the law essay freedom to pursue other life goals, such as community or social engagements, family time, artistic or intellectual projects, more fulfilling employment, political participation, sustainable living, spiritual exploration, reading, conversation, contemplation, relaxation, pleasure-seeking, love, and so on – none of which need to rely on money, or much money. The grounding assumption of voluntary simplicity is that all human beings have the potential to live meaningful, free, happy, and infinitely diverse lives, while consuming no more than an equitable share of nature. Ancient but ever-new, the message is that those who know they have enough are rich.[xvi] According to this view, personal and social progress is measured not by reality essay, the conspicuous display of wealth or status, but by increases in the qualitative richness of equal protection under the law essay daily living, the cultivation of relationships, and the development of social, intellectual, aesthetic, and spiritual potentials.[xvii] As Duane Elgin has famously defined it, voluntary simplicity is ‘a manner of living that is outwardly simple and inwardly rich, … a deliberate choice to live with less in the ultimate for homework excuses, the belief that more life will be returned to us in equal protection essay, the process.’[xviii]

Voluntary simplicity does not , however, mean living in poverty, becoming an ascetic monk, or indiscriminately renouncing all the advantages of worldview essay science and technology. It does not involve regressing to a primitive state or becoming a self-righteous puritan. And it is not some escapist fad reserved for saints, hippies, or eccentric outsiders. Rather, by equal under, examining afresh our relationship with money, material possessions, the d&t coursework help planet, ourselves and each other, ‘the simple life’ of equal under essay voluntary simplicity is about discovering the freedom and contentment that comes with knowing how much consumption is truly ‘enough.’ And this might be a theme that has something to say to dissertation et la souverainete everyone, especially those of essay us who are everyday bombarded with thousands of cultural messages insisting that ‘more is always better.’ Voluntary simplicity is an art of living that is aglow with the opening sentence about insight that ‘just enough is plenty.’ The spirit of late capitalist society, however, cries out like a banshee for us to expend our lives pursuing middle-class luxuries and coloured paper, for us to equal essay become faceless bodies dedicated to equal the law essay no higher purpose than the acquisition of nice things.

We can embrace that comfortable unfreedom if we wish, that bourgeois compromise. Protection The Law. But it is not the only way to live. Voluntary simplicity presents an alternative. So as not to be misunderstood, I now wish to for homework clarify and elaborate on a few points that I have just made, by protection essay, distinguishing voluntary simplicity from reality named essay, what it is not . Voluntary simplicity is not a glorification of protection the law essay poverty. Nor does it deny that a small percentage of people in equal protection the law, western society, and a large percentage around the rest of the world, still live lives oppressed by material deprivation. Far from glorifying or ignoring poverty, voluntary simplicity is about the importance of understanding and attaining material sufficiency , a concept that is all but unthinkable in a culture that generally assumes that ‘more is always better.’ My point is that living simply involves having an honest answer to the question of ‘How much consumption is enough?, and then honestly attaining that much, and not bothering with superfluities. And the voluntary simplicity movement is demonstrating, through the lives of millions of equal protection under the law participants, that surprisingly little is needed to live well and to be free, if only life is website for homework approached with the right attitude.[xix]

Just as voluntary simplicity does not mean living in poverty, nor does it imply that people must leave the under the law city to live to christian essay contest the country or join a hippie commune. Although some may decide that, for essay example, the coursework life of an independent, self-sufficient rural farmer is a very good and natural way to live, it will not be for everybody; nor will joining a hippie commune. Indeed, learning how to equal protection essay live more sustainably in dissertation, an urban setting strikes me as one of the greatest challenges of our age, especially since our political and equal protection under the law essay economic institutions and our social infrastructure make urban simple living, especially, much more difficult than it needs to be, a point which I will touch on reality streetcar named desire essay, again later.[xx] For now, suffice it to under the law essay say that voluntary simplicity is not synonymous with the ‘back to the land movement’ or the counter-cultures that arose in the 60s and 70s. I should note, however, that these movements do share some common ideals with voluntary simplicity, such as anti-consumerism, a reverence for nature, and non-violent resistance to unjust features of our society. Voluntary simplicity, furthermore, does not mean indiscriminately renouncing all the advantages of science and technology . It does not mean living in a cave, giving up electricity, or rejecting modern medicine. But it does question the assumption that science and technology are the only paths to health, happiness, and freedom. To live simply, as I am using the phrase, is to at least put one’s mind to the question of whether some new technology or scientific discovery actually improves our lives, or whether, on the contrary, it ultimately costs us more than it comes to, in d&t coursework help, terms of ‘life.’ Furthermore, the simple liver might come to see that there is a certain elegance and sophistication to the clothesline or the bicycle that the washing machine and the law essay the automobile decidedly lack.

The simple liver will not build a ten billion dollar, hi-tech, desalination plant. The simple liver will install a water tank and think up ways to use less water. Rather than using central heating, the simple liver will be inclined to put on a sweater. And so on and so forth. Et La Souverainete. Soon enough a new form of life emerges. Now that I have offered a preliminary definition of voluntary simplicity, I now wish to say a few words on why, exactly, we might want to adopt voluntary simplicity, why we might want to step out essay, of the rush and begin shaping a simple life of our own. I have divided my discussion of this question into four overlapping sections – personal, social, environmental, and dissertation spiritual. Consumer culture can distract us from what is best in our lives, and it functions to keep many locked in a work-and-spend cycle that has no end and attains no lasting satisfaction. Under. But if we rethink our relationship with money and possessions, we may be able to free up more time and energy for the pursuit of what truly inspires us and makes us happy, whatever that may be. In this way voluntary simplicity can be seen to under the law essay enhance the meaning of equal protection under the law our lives. I begin with this point not because it is the most important, necessarily, but because I believe that if the voluntary simplicity movement is to expand, it must be shown that simple living does not generate deprivations, but actually frees people from an insidiously addictive consumerism and an unhealthy relationship with money and ‘stuff.’[xxi]

Rather than dedicating one’s life to reality desire the pursuit of riches or status, simple livers are more likely to protection under essay have a balanced working life or even work part-time, and reality streetcar named desire are more likely to seek fulfilling employment and accept a modest income, rather than get too hung up about a high salary. With less time devoted to acquiring expensive things, simple livers will have more time to spend with friends and protection essay family, and more time to spend pursuing their private passions or enjoying their civic responsibilities.[xxii] The point is for homework excuses that disciplined and essay enlightened moderation with respect to our material lives will not tend to give rise to any sense of deprivation, but will ultimately lead to a happiness, a satisfaction, and a freedom far greater than that which is ordinarily known in the hectic, dead-end lifestyles of consumer culture. In short, many are drawn to the law simplicity because they want to protection escape the rat race and live more with less.[xxiii] Although there are indeed many personal incentives for adopting voluntary simplicity, it would be an impoverished philosophy that sought to under the law essay justify itself only in relation to protection the law essay personal self-interest. For Homework Excuses. For that reason, it is equal under the law essay important to recognize that there are also many social and humanitarian reasons for adopting voluntary simplicity. Living simply can be a powerful lifestyle response to social injustices, and many people are drawn to the ultimate simplicity because it can be understood to be an act of sharing, an act of human solidarity. It can therefore foster a heightened sense of human community, both locally and globally. One obvious way to share with others is the law essay simply to et la souverainete take less, to try to take only what one needs for a dignified life, and the law no more. This may not be easy, but it could be said that before the problem of global poverty can ever be solved, those in the consuming middleclass will need to show some enlightened, compassionate restraint in relation to l'etat et la souverainete their material lives, and equal protection accept that in a world of great human need the wasteful consumption of material things is an unambiguous act of website for homework excuses violence. The global population is expected to approach nine or ten billion by the middle of this century, and trends indicate that most of protection under the law essay these extra souls will find themselves born into the Third World.[xxiv] This, among other factors, has lead the christian worldview essay contest United Nations to publish several urgent and strongly worded warnings to protection the effect that if First World attitudes to l'etat et la consumption persist, then future generations not so far away should expect humanitarian crises beyond what we have ever experienced.[xxv]

Fortunately, at least part of the equal protection solution is at hand. As Mahatma Gandhi once said, ‘Live simply so that others may simply live.’ As well as personal and essay social reasons for simplifying, there are, of course, also environmental reasons for adopting voluntary simplicity. It is becoming increasingly obvious to more and equal under the law essay more people that simpler living, in some form or another, is needed to save our planet from real ecological disaster, and that lifestyles of reduced consumption will be a necessary part of streetcar desire essay any sustainable future for human civilization.[xxvi] We know this very well, I suspect, both in protection under the law, our heads and in opening sentence for essay, our hearts, so I need not review the details of the environmental predicament which is beginning to equal define our age. Let me just assert, then, that simple living is under essay one very promising way – if not the most promising way – to personally confront global environmental problems such as climate change, pollution, and the overconsumption of non-renewable resources. And given what is at stake here – the health of the life-support system we call Earth – perhaps this should be justification enough for everyone. Finally, for immediate purposes, there are what could be called spiritual reasons for living simply. I acknowledge that I am now touching on protection the law, a very private matter – ‘private,’ not because spiritual exploration must be done alone, but because nobody can do it for us. By shifting attention from the material to reality the non-material side of life, voluntary simplicity can facilitate a deeper awareness of the spiritual dimension of being. Protection Under Essay. I will not now argue this point, however, since it is one that I suspect can only be experienced, not explained; at least, not explained by me. I will only say this: That if we take time to isolate ourselves from consumer culture for long enough to unlearn it, for long enough to rouse ourselves from the daze of unexamined habit and reopen the doors of perception, we just might provoke a surprisingly fresh interpretation of the form of reality streetcar essay life behind, as well as provoke a new appreciation of the equal under essay possibilities of an alternative mode of being.

In other words, when we let ourselves be enchanted by ordinary experience,[xxvii] it quickly becomes clear that ‘a simple life’ is a profoundly beautiful life, one that is exciting and worth living. Reality Named. For simplicity is nothing if it is protection under the law not an affirmative state of mind, an authentic celebration of life, and it is a state of mind that often seems to reflect a mystical interpretation of life and a deep reverence for equal protection under essay nature, even if one does not subscribe to any traditional religion nor any crude pantheism. Earlier generations confronted spiritual questions face to face, we through their eyes. But why, as Emerson would insist, should we not also enjoy an original relation to the universe?[xxviii] THE PRACTICE OF SIMPLICITY.

Having now defined voluntary simplicity and offered a few words on why we might embrace it as a living strategy, it is important, I think, to say at least a few words about the practice of simplicity, about ‘how’ exactly one might go about simplifying one’s life, and ‘how’ one might try to live the idea , if one were convinced that this way of life was desirable. I will, however, be very brief on protection essay, this aspect of simplicity, not because it isn’t important. Obviously, it is very important. Christian Worldview Essay. But the fact is that there is no Doctrine or Code of Simplicity to follow, as such. There is no Method or Equation of Simplicity into which we can plug the equal the law facts of the ultimate website our lives and essay be told how to live. That is precisely what the idea cannot do – but perhaps that suits your disposition as well as it does mine. Voluntary simplicity, as I have said, is more about questions than answers, which implies that practicing simplicity calls for creative interpretation and personalized application.

It is not for me, therefore, or for anyone, to prescribe universal rules on how to live simply. About Yourself. We each live unique lives, and we each find ourselves in different situations, with different capabilities, and different responsibilities. Accordingly, the practice of simplicity by one person, in essay, one situation, will very likely involve different things to a different person, in a different situation. But, as I have implied, I do not think that this practical indeterminacy is an essay, objection to the idea. With that proviso noted, allow me say a few general and protection under essay very brief words on what a simple life might look like and the ultimate how one might begin to live it. Money: Although living simply is much more than just living cheaply and consuming less – it is also a state of equal mind – spending wisely plays an important role. The following exercise may surprise you: Over a one month period, record every purchase you make, and then categorize your expenses. Multiply each category by twelve to get a rough estimate of the annual cost. Reality. Then consider how much of your time and protection under energy you spent obtaining the money required to buy everything you consumed that month. Question not only the amount of reality streetcar essay money you spent on each category, but also the categories on which you spent your money. You might find that seemingly little purchases add up to an inordinate amount over a whole year, suggesting that the money might be better spent elsewhere, not at equal all, or exchanged for more time by working less.

One does not have to be a tightwad, as such, only thoughtful. ‘The cost of a thing,’ after all, ‘is the amount of life which is required to be exchanged for under essay it.’[xxix] You may find that some small changes to your spending habits, rather than inducing any sense of deprivation, will instead be life-affirming.[xxx] And when it comes to spending our money we should always bear in mind Vicki Robin’s profound democratic insight: That how we spend our money is how we vote on what exists in the world. If this is true, then the global middleclass has the potential to the law essay become a non-violent revolutionary class and change the world, simply by changing its spending habits. Christian Essay Contest. Money is power, and with this power comes responsibility. I repeat: How we spend our money is how we vote on what exists in the world. Shelter: Housing or accommodation is typically life’s greatest expense, so we should think especially carefully about where we live and why, and equal under the law how much of our lives we are prepared to d&t help spend seeking a nicer home. Protection Under Essay. Exactly what kind of equal protection under the law essay shelter does one need to live well and to be free? Obviously, we must answer this question for ourselves, but again the words of Henry David Thoreau might give us a moment’s pause: ‘Most people appear never to equal under the law essay have considered what a house is, and coursework help are actually though needlessly poor all their lives because they think that they must have such a one as their neighbors have.’[xxxi] The individual or family who today is admired for a large and luxurious house might find that our culture comes to admire those who have learned how to combine functional simplicity and the law beauty in a smaller, much more modest, home.[xxxii] Clothing: The historic purpose of clothing, of course, was to worldview keep us warm and, in time, for reasons of modesty. Today its primary purpose seems to be fashion and equal protection essay the conspicuous display of wealth and status.

People can, of course, spend thousands and thousands of dollars on opening for essay, clothing if they want, in search of themselves. But we should never forget that functional, second-hand clothing can be obtained extremely cheaply. And those who ‘dress down’ often express themselves more uniquely than those who are limited to equal under the styles found in shopping malls or who try to imitate celebrities. Many hundreds of christian worldview contest billions of dollars are spent each and equal under the law essay every year on reality streetcar, the fashion industry. Just imagine if even half of that money was redirected towards green energy or humanitarian initiatives? We would lose so little and equal protection the law gain so much. Once again, how we spend our money is d&t how we vote on what exists in the world. Food: Eating locally, eating green, eating out in moderation, eating less meat, eating simply and creatively – I know by experience this can be done very cheaply. Given some thought and a little discipline, a good diet can be obtained at a surprisingly low cost, especially if you are able to cultivate your own garden, which is a very natural and strangely satisfying thing to do.

Work: I have just outlined, with a very broad brush, a voluntarily simplistic perspective on equal under essay, acquiring the most basic necessities of life – shelter, clothing, and food. Once upon a time these necessities could be obtained by hunting and gathering in the commons, but in our day and age, of website for homework course, they must be obtained through economic transactions in under, the marketplace, usually through the medium of yourself money, which we must work to protection acquire. Equal. It is under essay important to for homework excuses consider, therefore, however briefly, the question of employment. When it comes to work, we would do well, I believe, to more carefully put our minds to the question of what our time is worth. For once we have obtained the necessities of life, and equal protection the law essay have acquired a few comforts appropriate for website for homework a dignified life, there is another alternative than to spend our lives working to obtain material superfluities. And that is to pass up those superfluities and instead ‘adventure on life now,’ as Thoreau would say, ‘our vacation from humbler toil having commenced.’[xxxiii] From the perspective of voluntary simplicity, this exchange of money for time will often prove to be a very good trade. If we keep raising our standard of living every time we come into more money, through a raise, for equal protection under the law essay example; or if we keep raising our standard of coursework help living every time we become more productive, through some new technological development, for example; then we will never shorten our working week. Most westerners, especially North Americans, are working longer hours today than they were in the 50s,[xxxiv] despite being many times richer and many times more productive. Why should we always be working for more consumer products and not sometimes be content with less?

Why should we not accept a lower standard of living and work half as much? Who can say what wonders such a cultural style might not bring! The immediate point is simply that if we can embrace the simple life and stop the upward creep of material desire, then we can take some of our pay increases or increases in productivity, not in terms of dollars and things, but in ‘freedom’ instead. Again, this seems like it would be a very good trade – a no-brainer, even. But history suggests that most westerners will choose otherwise. The ruts of conformity run deep. A Thumbnail Sketch: A comprehensive guide to protection under the law simple living would obviously require much more space than is available here, so let me just round off this part of my discussion by summarizing what simple living tends to involve. It tends to involve thoughtful thrift and reality streetcar named environmentally and equal protection essay socially conscientious spending habits.

It can involve recognizing that there is no good reason for desperately trying to l'etat et la souverainete ‘keep up with the Joneses,’ since modest accommodation and equal protection under the law few possessions are perfectly sufficient to help live a free and the law happy life. Simple living can involve buying secondhand clothing and furniture, creating one’s own style, and rejecting high fashion. It might involve cultivating a garden, eating simply, locally, and creatively, and discovering that doing so can be both cheap and help satisfying. And it might involve riding a bike instead of driving a car, choosing a washing line over a dryer, or even something as simple as choosing a book over television. Rather than stay at a luxurious resort, the simple liver might spend $12 a night bush camping in midst of nature. Rather than work long hours to afford a life dedicated to consumption, the simple liver might step out of the rush and reduce working hours, freeing up more time to paint, play the piano, meditate, spend with family, read, walk in Nature, etc. Rather than choose competition, the simple liver is likely to choose community. Equal The Law Essay. Not money, but meaning. Equal Protection. And so on and so forth, until the very elements of life have been transformed. Despite these tentative remarks on how to protection under essay practice simplicity, I wish to reiterate that there is not one way to live the simple life, and that anyone who wishes to d&t coursework help embrace simplicity must be prepared to think over the idea for protection under the law essay oneself, until it takes root in personal experience. I am convinced, however, both by website for homework, faith and by experience, that if someone is genuinely committed to the idea of simplicity then that person, with a little courage and some imaginative effort, will find a way to the law shape a simple life of their own.

Start with a few small steps, enjoy the protection under the law essay adventure, and protection under the law essay soon enough your life has changed. From what I have said so far, it should be clear that voluntary simplicity embodies a way of life that is very different from the high consumption, materialistic lifestyle that is widely celebrated in website, advanced capitalist society today. And it should be of concern to the law all those who are sympathetic to voluntary simplicity that this way of life is given very little serious attention by politicians and the mass media, two of the most powerful forces in our society. Our politicians and the mass media seem not just indifferent but fundamentally opposed to christian worldview essay contest the idea of equal protection voluntary simplicity, despite the occasional lip-service that is paid to the social and the ultimate website for homework environmental problems caused by overconsumption. It is protection under little surprise, then, that to date the voluntary simplicity movement has not entered the mainstream, although perhaps some light is beginning to break through the crust of convention, albeit with much difficulty.[xxxv]

The mass media, in particular, has very little interest in l'etat, promoting voluntary simplicity, since it is, by in large, made up of privately owned corporations, each of which is driven almost exclusively by the incentive of private profits. Corporate shareholders, by definition, it seems, want us only to equal under essay consume more and more – never less. Indeed, many of the world’s most sophisticated psychologists are today hired by corporations as ‘marketers,’ and yourself I do not think it misrepresents the situation to equal protection under say that these marketers spend all day thinking up ways to make us – potential consumers – feel dissatisfied with what we have, despite our plenty, in order to coursework help get us buy things we didn’t even know we wanted and certainly didn’t need. The message they convey in their slick, ever-present advertisements is that more money, more material things, more consumption, is what is needed to improve our lives. And we are easily persuaded.[xxxvi] Disappointingly, we can perceive the very same message in the rhetoric of our so-called ‘political representatives.’ In the protection under newspapers everyday, on under essay, the television news every night, and throughout every political campaign I have ever experienced, political parties seem to assume that it is the law essay their overriding objective to maximize economic growth. Almost every political party, whether on the Left or the Right, claims that they will run the economy ‘best,’ by which it is implied that they will increase our standard of living, make us all richer, and make us better able to buy more things – as if that were the solution to all our problems. This is the ultimate for homework a point that has been picked up on and criticized heavily by equal protection under essay, Clive Hamilton, who I mentioned earlier. Reality Streetcar Essay. To oversimplify slightly, he sums up contemporary public policy as follows: Unemployment is high: only economic growth can create the jobs; schools and hospitals are under-funded: economic growth will improve the budget; protection of the environment is too expensive: the solution is economic growth; poverty is entrenched: economic growth will rescue the poor; income distribution is unequal: economic growth will make everyone better off.[xxxvii] Just as with the mass media, the the law point is that our politicians are telling us that more money and more consumer products are the key to a better life. Voluntary simplicity rejects this approach.

To repeat a phrase mentioned earlier, in stark contrast to the idea that ‘more is always better,’ voluntary simplicity is an art of living that is named desire essay aglow with the insight that ‘just enough is plenty.’ But, whether we like it or not, most of us today have been educated into a materialistic culture that assumes the legitimacy of ever-higher levels of equal under consumption. Even though we are now aware that ordinary western-style consumption habits are destroying the planet, we think that it is normal and acceptable for the mass media and our politicians to dedicate themselves to for homework excuses encouraging and facilitating ever higher levels of consumption. Equal Protection Under The Law. So embedded are we in consumer culture that these perversities seem natural and inevitable; facts of d&t coursework life; just the way the world is. An alternative is almost unthinkable and largely unspeakable. When a whole society is geared towards producing and then consuming ever-more consumer products, it can be very difficult for people to live and think differently, even for those of us who want to. As I see it, there is no easy, silver-bullet, solution to this problem. But one step that can be taken is to under the law dedicate more of our attention to exploring alternatives, and that was one motivation I had for writing and publishing this essay. Obviously, just reading and talking about voluntary simplicity is not enough to change our lives and our society, but I am convinced that it is an important and perhaps necessary first step.

In a world such as ours, focused so intently on making money, it is important that we occasionally take time to step back and ask ourselves, ‘What is money is for ?” and reality streetcar named “What is our economy for ?” For when we ask ourselves these questions, it quickly becomes apparent that the meaning of equal life does not and cannot consist in d&t coursework help, the consumption and equal protection under essay accumulation of material things. There is more to life than desiring big houses, new carpet, fine clothing, expensive cars, and luxurious holidays, etc. Help. There is freedom from such desires.[xxxviii] What I am suggesting is protection the law that ‘the simple life’ is d&t coursework a viable alternative to consumer culture, one that will improve not only equal essay, our own lives, but the lives of others, and, at the same time, help save the l'etat et la planet from the environmental catastrophe towards which we are so enthusiastically marching. Protection The Law Essay. By reading and talking about voluntary simplicity, I believe we can revolutionize – a term I do not use lightly – the reality streetcar essay form of under the law life we have inherited from the worldview essay contest past. By giving more attention to equal under essay alternatives to the ultimate website for homework consumer culture, we will discover that there are other, better, more fulfilling ways to live.

By acting upon this realization, we can reshape our own lives, improve our culture, and equal protection the law essay upset the ruts of conformity. We can better face the social and environmental challenges which confront us today, and which will undoubtedly confront us for all of the foreseeable future. What we can be sure of is that the 21 st century will be defined, to about a large extent, by how we today deal with the problems caused by overconsumption – not only how we deal with them politically and economically, but perhaps most importantly how we deal with them through the under the law everyday decisions we make in our private lives. And it is for this reason that the idea of sentence for essay yourself voluntary simplicity gives me such hope, because it shows (although perhaps this is obvious) that the protection under essay power to change the opening sentence for essay about world ultimately lies in the hands of ordinary people. It is under the law a reminder that, in the end, the d&t coursework help nature of a society is the product of nothing more or less than the countless number of small decisions made by private individuals. The corollary of this, of course, is that those small decisions, those small acts of equal protection simplification – insignificant though they may seem in isolation – can be of revolutionary significance when added up and taken as a whole. And that, I wish to website for homework excuses emphasize, is one of the central messages I would like to convey: That if we are concerned about the direction our society is protection under essay heading, and if we seek a different way of life, then we must first look to our own lives, and l'etat et la begin making changes there, and equal under essay not be disheartened by the fact that our social, economic, and equal essay political institutions embody outdated materialistic values that we ourselves reject . As Gandhi once said, in a phrase that captures the revolutionary spirit of voluntary simplicity: ‘Be the change you wish to equal protection under essay see in the world.’[xxxix] This inspiring call to personal action complements the worldview essay contest call of another great simple liver, Henry David Thoreau, who never tired of reminding us that, ‘The individual who goes it alone can start today.’[xl] The point, as I understand it, is that there is protection under the law no reason, nor is l'etat souverainete there any time, to wait for politicians to deal with the problems that we face.

For what the world needs more than anything else is for brave visionaries to protection under quietly step out of the rat race and reality streetcar named desire show, by example, both to themselves and to others, that a different way of protection life is both possible and desirable. Let us, then, be pioneers once more. As the globalization of western consumption habits pushes our planet towards the brink of environmental collapse, as evidence mounts that consumer culture has failed to fulfill its promise of a better life, and at a time when three billion of our fellow human beings still live in the darkness of poverty amidst plenty, one may be forgiven for thinking that there is a certain inescapable logic to pursuing a way of life that is ‘outwardly simple, inwardly rich.’ Yet, from earliest childhood onward, first upon somebody’s knee, then through lessons ratified by polite society, we are educated into a materialistic form of life that squarely contradicts that of voluntary simplicity. Sentence Yourself. What is more, it seems we are forbidden to admit this. If it is true, however, as some existentialists have argued, that we can always make something new out of what we have been made into, then it might be interesting to inquire: Did you choose your mode of living because you preferred it to any other? Or did you honestly think that it was the only way? Reading and talking about voluntary simplicity with these questions in mind can be unsettling, rather like being shaken awake from the equal protection most dogmatic slumber. Equal Protection Under The Law Essay. But it can also be exhilarating and protection essay uplifting, in the most unexpected ways. I hope that some readers will find, or have already found, that this is so. Despite what seems to be a strong case for voluntary simplicity, one may nearly despair of the reality streetcar essay possibility that the entrenched economics of consumerism will ever lose its authority over western minds. But as Theodore Roszak has said:

There is protection the law one way forward: the creation of flesh-and-blood examples of low-consumption, high-quality alternatives to the mainstream pattern of life. This we can see happening already on the counter cultural fringes. And nothing – no amount of argument or research – will take the place of such living proof. Sentence For Essay About. What people must see is that ecologically sane, socially responsible living is under the law essay good living; that simplicity, thrift, and reciprocity make for an existence that is contest free.[xli] This essay will have served its purpose if the reader goes away with an increased curiosity about equal protection the law this life-affirming freedom, and an appreciation that with a little courage and some imaginative effort, the door to voluntary simplicity will swing gracefully open.

Our world can change. Thoughtful, dedicated people like you and me can change it. And if not us, then who? If not now, then when? My closing words must be that if it is not us, then it will be nobody. And if not now, then never. ‘Old deeds for old people, and protection under new deeds for new.’[xlii] [i] See generally, Samuel Alexander (ed.), Voluntary Simplicity: The Poetic Alternative to protection the law essay Consumer Culture (2009). [ii] For example, see New Economic Foundation, ‘100 Months: Technical Note’ (2008, www.neweconomics.org) (which calculates that 100 months from August 2008, atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases will begin to worldview essay exceed a point whereby it is protection under essay no longer be likely we will be able to essay avert potentially irreversible climate change). [iii] In Australia, for example, average income is over AU$50,000 per annum, as reported by the Australian Bureau of Statistics in August 2008 (see www.abs.gov.au). Under The Law. And there are 14 countries with higher GDP than Australia (in terms of coursework help Purchasing Power Parity), as reported by the International Monetary Fund in 2009 (World Economic Outlook Database, April 2009). [iv] World Bank Development Indicators, ‘Poverty Data’ (2008), available online at: [v] Clive Hamilton, Growth Fetish (2003) xi.

This paragraph draws on Hamilton’s discussion. [vi] See Clive Hamilton and Richard Denniss, Affluenza: When Too Much is Never Enough (2005) (arguing in all seriousness that western society is in the grip of a collective psychological disorder called ‘affluenza’ which deludes people into thinking that they are deprived despite their plenty.) [vii] Clive Hamilton, Growth Fetish (2003). [viii] For a comprehensive review and under analysis of this research, see Ed Diener and Martin Seligman, ‘Beyond Money: Toward an Economy of Well-Being’ (2004) 5(1) Psychological Science in the Public Interest 1 (reviewing over 150 studies assessing the correlation between financial wealth and wellbeing); See also, Robert E. Lane, The Loss of Happiness in for homework, Market Democracies (2000); Tim Kasser, The High Price of Materialism (2002); Richard Layard, Happiness: Lessons from a New Science (2005); Bruno Frey and Alois Stutzer, Happiness and under essay Economics (2002); Avner Offer, The Challenge of sentence for essay about yourself Affluence: Self-Control and Wellbeing in the United States and Britain since 1950 (2006); Bill McKibben, Deep Economy (2007). [ix] Henry David Thoreau, Walden , in Carl Bode (ed.) The Portable Thoreau (1982) (‘Men labor under a mistake.’) 261. [x] Robert D. Putnam, Bowling Alone: The Collapse and Revival of American Community (2001). [xi] Juliet Schor, The Overworked American: The Unexpected Decline of Leisure (1992). John de Graaf et al, Take Back Your Time: Fighting Overwork and Time Poverty in equal under, America (2003). [xii] David G. Myers, The American Paradox: Spiritual Hunger in an Age of help Plenty (2000).

[xiii] Exemplifying this consensus of protection under the law essay environmental degradation was the panel of 1,300 scientists assembled by christian essay contest, the United Nations which in 2005 issued a ‘Millennium Ecosystem Assessment’ report. They found that ‘human actions are depleting the protection under essay Earth’s natural capital, putting such strain on the environment that the ability to sustain future generations can no longer be taken for granted.’ Or see the Union of Concerned Scientists (UCS), a science-based nonprofit affiliation of scientists/citizens with over 250,000 members. Their publications include “World Scientists’ Warning to Humanity,” issued in 1992 by 1,600 of the world’s leading scientists, including the majority of d&t Nobel laureates in the sciences, which begins: ‘Human beings and the natural world are on a collision course. Equal Essay. Human activities inflict harsh and often irreversible damage on the environment and on critical resources. If not checked, many of our current practices put at serious risk the future that we wish for human society and the plant and animal kingdoms, and may so alter the equal protection essay living world that it will be unable to sustain life in the manner that we know. Equal Protection The Law. Fundamental changes are urgent if we are to avoid the collision our present course will bring.’ Towards the end of this publication the UCS concludes, ‘A new ethic is required.’ One could list several dozen such warnings. [xiv] Duane Elgin, Promise Ahead: A Vision of Hope and Action for the ultimate website for homework Humanity’s Future (2001) Ch. Equal Protection The Law Essay. IV. [xv] Amatai Etzioni, ‘A New Social Movement?’ in protection the law essay, William Halal and Kenneth Taylor (eds.) Twenty-First Century Economics (1999). [xvi] Lao Tzu, Tao Te Ching (300 BCE).

[xvii] By defining ‘progress’ in these terms I intend to position my discourse in relation to equal under the law essay the conception of d&t coursework help progress espoused by Arnold Toynbee in his Study of equal protection History (1972). D&t Coursework. According his ‘Law of Progressive Simplification,’ as a civilization evolves it will come to transfer increasing increments of under the law energy and attention from the material to christian worldview contest the nonmaterial side of life (relationships, contemplation, community, leisure, art, etc.), from which it follows that simplicity approaches the peak of civilization. (‘Nature is going to compel posterity to equal protection revert to a stable state on the material plane and to turn to the realm of the excuses spirit for satisfying man’s hunger for infinity.’) [xviii] Duane Elgin, Voluntary Simplicity: Toward a Way of Life that is Outwardly Simple, Inwardly Rich (Revised edition, 1993). [xix] See Mary Grigsby, Buying Time and Getting By: The Voluntary Simplicity Movement (2004). [xx] See generally, John de Graaf, ‘Political Prescriptions’ in protection essay, Samuel Alexander (ed.) Voluntary Simplicity: The Poetic Alternative to Consumer Culture (2009). [xxi] Amatai Etzioni, ‘A New Social Movement?’ in William Halal and Kenneth Taylor (eds.) Twenty-First Century Economics (1999). [xxii] For recent discussions of the sociology of the Voluntary Simplicity Movement, see Clive Hamilton and Richard Denniss, Affluenza: When Too Much is Never Enough (2005); and Mary Grigsby, Buying Time and Getting By: The Voluntary Simplicity Movement (2004). [xxiii] Discussing the ‘less is more’ paradox, see Philip Cafaro, ‘Less is More: Economic Consumption and d&t coursework the Good Life’ (1998) Philosophy Today 42(1) 26-39. [xxiv] United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs (UN, 2007).

[xxv] See, for the law example, the United Nations Development Programme, ‘Human Development Report,’ (2007/8) 3 (using the term ‘apocalyptic’ to et la souverainete describe what may lie in store for equal essay the poorer nations.) [xxvi] See note 13, above. [xxvii] See Jane Bennett, The Enchantment of Modern Life: Attachments, Crossing, and Ethics (2001). [xxviii] Ralph Waldo Emerson, ‘Nature’ in Carl Bode (ed) The Portable Emerson (1977) 7. [xxix] Henry David Thoreau, Walden , in Carl Bode (ed.) The Portable Thoreau (1982) 286. [xxx] For more elaborate financial exercises, see Vicki Robin and Joe Dominguez, Your Money or Your Life: Transforming your relationship with money and achieving financial independence (1992) and Jim Merkel, Radical Simplicity: Small Footprints on under, a Finite Planet (2003). [xxxi] Henry David Thoreau, Walden , in Carl Bode (ed.) The Portable Thoreau (1982) 290. [xxxii] Duane Elgin, Voluntary Simplicity: Toward a Way of Life that is protection essay Outwardly Simple, Inwardly Rich (Revised edition, 1993) 150-51. [xxxiii] Henry David Thoreau, Walden , in Carl Bode (ed.) The Portable Thoreau (1982) 270-71. [xxxiv] This argument has been made most famously by opening about yourself, Juliet Schor, in The Overworked American: The Unexpected Decline of Leisure (1992) and The Overspent American: Upscaling, Downshifting, and the New Consumer (1998), and by John de Graaf et al, in Take Back Your Time: Fighting Overwork and Time Poverty in America (2003). [xxxv] See Mary Grigsby, ‘Extending the Movement,’ in Samuel Alexander (ed.) Voluntary Simplicity: The Poetic Alternative to Consumer Culture (2009) (outlining ways that the under essay Voluntary Simplicity Movement could extend into dissertation et la the mainstream and become a more significant oppositional force.) [xxxvi] Juliet Schor, The Overspent American: Why We Want What We Don’t Need (1998). [xxxvii] Clive Hamilton, Growth Fetish (2003) 2. [xxxviii] See Erich Fromm, To Have or To Be? (1976). [xxxix] On Gandhi’s view of simplicity see, Mahatma Gandhi, ‘The Quest for Simplicity: My Idea of Swaraj,’ in Majid Rahnema (ed.) The Post-Development Reader (1997) 306-7.

[xl] Henry David Thoreau, Walden , in Carl Bode (ed.) The Portable Thoreau (1982) 326. [xli] Theodore Roszak, Where the protection under essay Wasteland Ends (1972) 422 (emphasis in original). [xlii] Henry David Thoreau, Walden , in Carl Bode (ed.) The Portable Thoreau (1982) 264. Also, see www.simplicitycollective.com. The Simplicity Collective is founded upon the idea that a 'simpler life' of reduced resource and the ultimate for homework energy consumption is a viable and equal the law desirable alternative to consumer culture. Our position is that simple living will improve not only our own lives, but the lives of others, as well as help save our planet from the environmental catastrophe towards which we are so enthusiastically marching. We must not just fall in line, then, and continue the march ‘business as usual.’ We must explore alternative ways to live. We must experiment creatively, like the christian essay contest artist.

We must be the under essay poets of our own lives and of a new generation. For a non-profit copy of Voluntary Simplicity: The Poetic Alternative to Consumer Culture by Samuel Alexander - Click Here. Listen to sentence about yourself Affluenza by essay, Senses of Walden - Click Here.