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Essay on ramadan festival

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Shaka Zulu Essays and Research Papers. about 1,200 kilometers around the essay on ramadan Zulu Nation. Death Argumentative Essay Outline! Everywhere there were empty skulls of on ramadan festival a people driven off their land. Farm homes without . Old Northwest! windows, windows without curtains, gardens overgrown and dying, staff quarters empty and lifeless. Old farm equipment, rusting in essay festival the broken down shed, hungry cattle alone, because there parents had to be slaughter to produce poultry. Vultures having a feast day, like it is thanksgiving. The greatest Zulu leader in history, Shaka Zulu , often known as the Napoleon of. Assegai , Dingiswayo , Military tactics 1000 Words | 3 Pages.

Shaka Zulu There are many different tribes that spark the death interest of many people. The Zulu tribe is essay on ramadan festival one of the . Essay Sructure! largest groups in Africa. They fought hard to maintain all of the customs of on ramadan their vast heritage. Though many people wanted to change the way they lived, the Zulu people still raise animals and vegetables as their main source of subsistence. Many aspects of the Zulu culture that are in place today allow for them to continue in their normal customs.

The invasion by the British brought. Inkatha Freedom Party , KwaZulu-Natal , Mangosuthu Buthelezi 1563 Words | 4 Pages. The extreme pressure for the Zulu to find new land because of drought caused an expansion in territory and led to a series of wars for on punk rock, control . which was dubbed Mfecane. The Mfecane was a period of essay festival warfare between different ethnic groups which led to cavour italian unification essay many changes in the political structure of Southern Africa. This series of wars called the Mfecane was revolutionary during 1817-1828 ( and it was mainly due to the abolition of the essay on ramadan festival Trans ? Atlantic slave trade, coupled with the increase. Africa , Lesotho , Mfecane 2402 Words | 6 Pages.

? ZULU The Zulu Tribe ZULU This paper focuses on the history of the culture . and traditions of the Zulu people. The way they live, their beliefs, family and their levels of organization. Cavour Italian Essay! Each of these areas contribute to culture that is a source of much pride for the Zulu people. The Zulu are a diverse group of different people that came together to form one nation. Zulu make a living for their families by farming and festival, cattle herding, thus making them pastoralists.

Family , History of South Africa , KwaZulu-Natal 1275 Words | 4 Pages. Essay Topic Iii: Shaka Zulu - a Brief Overview. Southern Africa | Essay Topic III: Shaka Zulu – A Brief Overview | | Aidan Bizony | 18-Jul-13 | Essay Topic III: . Shaka Zulu – A Brief Overview Shaka began his relatively short life (by modern standards) as an illegitimate son of a chieftain of essay sructure a small tribe called the Zulu . Shaka was born in the tribal lands of essay on ramadan festival his mother’s people but as a young child went to live with his mother in his father’s tribe. In his late teens and early twenties, Shaka was installed as the military commander. Colony of Natal , Dingiswayo , History of letter to the editor South Africa 642 Words | 3 Pages. Shaka Zulu Shaka Zulu , also known as Shaka kaSenzangakhona, was the essay on ramadan festival most . influential leader in the Zulu Kingdom. Shaka was the first son of the chieftain Senzangakhona and editor assignment, Nandi, a daughter of Bhebhe, the past chief of the Elangeni tribe, born near present day Melmoth, KwaZulu-Natal Province.

In his early days, Shaka served as a warrior under the sway of essay local chieftain Dingiswayo and the Mthethwaa, to whom the Zulu were then paying tribute. Shaka granted permission to Europeans to enter Zulu. Dingiswayo , Durban , KwaZulu-Natal 652 Words | 2 Pages. King of the Zulu Tribe, Shaka: Great Leader or Bloodthirsty Tyrant? King of the with prompt Zulu Tribe, Shaka : Great Leader or Bloodthirsty Tyrant? One of the most documented African tribes is that of the . Zulu kingdom.

The rise and essay on ramadan, fall of the Zulu kingdom, in one way or another, relates to the most famous leader of the Zulu Empire, Shaka . Shaka brought the Zulu tribe from the bottom to the top, and only until his assassination in 1828 did the essay Zulu kingdom see a downfall in power and organization. Based on facts presented in festival case studies, as well as observing theories of. Mfecane , Shaka , Zulu 1604 Words | 5 Pages. Shaka Zulu was a fierce warrior, brilliant military strategist, Leader expecting complete fearlessness from cavour unification essay, his warriors, and a . Essay! murderous ruler. A Very Old Man With Enormous Wings! The Zulu nation today still takes pride in this revolutionary leader, who carved out the essay Zulu empire from essays on punk rock, simple beginnings. But Shaka was also brutal and fearless. During his reign he would execute men at will. The constant wars Shaka engaged in and the arbitrary executions eventually led to essay his downfall, when he was stabbed to death by a half-brother. Capital punishment , Dingiswayo , Mfecane 667 Words | 2 Pages. Shaka Zulu was the first son of the chieftain Senzangakhona and death, Nandi, a daughter of Bhebhe, the past chief of the Elangeni . tribe, born near present-day Melmoth, KwaZulu-Natal Province.

He was conceived out of wedlock somewhere between 1781 and 1787. Essay On Ramadan Festival! Shaka almost certainly spent his childhood in death penalty argumentative essay his mother's settlements. Shaka served as an Mthethwa warrior for perhaps as long as ten years, and distinguished himself with his courage, though he did not, as legend has it, rise to great position. Dingiswayo. Assegai , Dingiswayo , Durban 636 Words | 2 Pages. Shaka Zulu Shaka Zulu was the essay most influential leader of the Zulu Kingdom.

One of the letter to the editor . greatest in world history, Shaka started his accomplishments as a young boy, when he first entered battle. To many, he was considered a god and on ramadan festival, his people looked up to him. Shaka was a son of former chief, ruler of an insignificant small chiefdom, the Zulu . His mother was Nandi, the daughter of a Langeni chief. His career was a transforming influence in the history of essays southern and central Africa. On Ramadan Festival! Shaka’s early. Battle of Blood River , Dingiswayo , KILL 841 Words | 2 Pages. The Zulu Deion Johnson SCU University Anthropology Patty Ryan December, 3 2012 The Zulu Nation The . Zulu culture is essays on punk one of the most unique cultures. This culture was an independent nation located in on ramadan festival South Africa.

We will examine their belief and their values, the kinship and also the political organization in essays the Zulu culture. The Zulu culture is essay located in South Africa in the territory called the penalty essay Kwa- zulu –Natal Province. The Kwa- zulu – Natal Province is festival a beautiful place, which. Colony of italian essay Natal , Dingiswayo , Durban 2187 Words | 6 Pages. Shaka was born the son of Senzakhona, the Zulu chief, and the Langeni princess Nandi. Senzakhona had unintentionally impregnated . Nandi, but was obligated to take her as his third wife her in spite of the fact that she was from the festival lowly regarded Langeni clan. Due to this, she and her son were treated as outcasts and were unhappy. When an incident caused Senzakhona to essays of the old northwest banish Nandi and her children, they had to return to her people. Because an expelled woman was looked upon as being a diminished woman. Assegai , Dingiswayo , Family 694 Words | 2 Pages. The Zulu Tribe Of Africa KwaZulu-Natal is the smallest province in South Africa, yet it contains the remnants of the on ramadan festival once powerful . Zulu tribe.

The history of the essays rock Zulu people is rather short in comparison to other tribes in Africa. In this essay I hope to briefly discuss the Zulu history, what makes them unique, the Zulu religion, the interaction with the British colonial groups, how the essay on ramadan festival Zulu nation came to come into cavour italian essay, power, and where the present day Zulu people stand in society today. . Colony of Natal , Dingiswayo , History of South Africa 1848 Words | 5 Pages. ZULU Introduction/Thesis: The Zulu tribe is the best known African people to on ramadan festival many. Their military exploits led to the rise of a . A Very Essay! great kingdom that was feared for a long time over much of the African continent. In the early nineteenth century a young Zulu prince, Shaka , came onto the scene and welded most of the Nguni tribes into the powerful Zulu Kingdom. During the 1800’s, British troops invaded the Zulu territory and on ramadan festival, divided the Zulu land into thirteen chiefdoms. They never regained their.

African people , African Union , Atlantic slave trade 890 Words | 5 Pages. Eating Ashes: How Zulu Subsistence Methods and on punk rock, Culture Changed After the Anglo-Zulu War. Eating Ashes How Zulu Subsistence Methods and Culture Changed After the Anglo- Zulu War Benjamin J. McInnis ANT101 Introduction . to Cultural Anthropology Instructor Mitra Rokni Eating Ashes: How Zulu Subsistence Methods and Culture Changed After the Anglo- Zulu War The Zulu people of on ramadan South Africa made an unprecedented development from a single clan of pastoralists much like the other clans and tribes in a very old man prompt the area of modern KwaZulu-Natal (Sithole, 2002. Essay On Ramadan Festival! “ Zulu Orientation”. Africa , Colonialism , Ethnic groups in essay sructure Africa 2475 Words | 7 Pages. culture which these people are associated within the African continent (Lecture notes,2013:70).

More specifically the on ramadan ethnic group within this vast African . continent will be the a very enormous Zulu speaking people in terms of ilobolo (Lecture notes,2013:74). The expense of lobolo was later organized when the essay festival first edition of the “Natal Code of Zulu Law” (South African Law Commission,1988) was declared in 1878 and then modified in 1891. The most important piece of information was the prearrangement of unification essay 11 ilobolo cattle. Africa , Family , KwaZulu-Natal 2140 Words | 7 Pages. ? Zulu Research Paper Deep in Southern Africa, along the coast of the essay on ramadan festival Indian Ocean, the Zulu people have made their home. This . province of italian unification essay Africa, is in essay fact named KwaZulu Natal. The Zulu people do in cavour unification essay fact speak their own native language, also known as Zulu , which falls under the subcategory of Bantu language. Many African tribes, and clans had been moving down Africa’s east coast for thousands of years, starting in about the 9th century, or 800’s.Settled around the essay on ramadan festival year 1709, the to the editor assignment Zulu tribe.

Colony of Natal , History of on ramadan festival South Africa , KwaZulu 1161 Words | 6 Pages. The People of the Zulu Culture: Past, Present and Future The Zulu Culture is one filled with rich traditions and essays economy, achievements . Essay On Ramadan! can be found throughout centuries, even in contemporary society. The people have fascinating stories and folklores that they embrace and that influence many of death penalty argumentative outline their current values and essay on ramadan festival, beliefs. The people are known for their great works in italian art and the impact that it has on current society. Essay! Their culture and beliefs that although are different than the cultures found in other. African National Congress , Inkatha Freedom Party , Jacob Zuma 2140 Words | 6 Pages. sshaka zulu potrayed as bloodthirst. (c.1818) was the result of Shaka's treachery, though firm testimony of this is lacking. However, it is cavour unification essay known that when Dingiswayo fought his last battle, . Shaka did not arrive at the scene until after his overlord's capture.

He thus retained his forces intact. Zwide later murdered Dingiswayo, and, when the leaderless Mthethwa state collapsed, Shaka immediately assumed leadership and began conquering surrounding chiefdoms himself, adding their forces to his own and building up a new kingdom. The defeat. Dingiswayo , Mfecane , Mzilikazi 1612 Words | 4 Pages. ? The Zulu Empire began their rise to power by Shaka Zulu . Essay Festival! He was born in 1787, but was not accepted by his . father, Senzangakona, so he and his mother were exiled. They lived with the Mthethwa people and Shaka fought for death penalty argumentative outline, them as well. When Senzangakona died, Dingiswayo, leader of the Mthethwa, helped Shaka become the rightful leader of the Zulu . After the essay death of Dingiswayo, Shaka also became the essays on the of the ruler of the Mthethwa people as well. Shaka was a born leader and a brilliant general. He was the Napoleon. Anglo-Zulu War , History of South Africa , KwaZulu-Natal 1278 Words | 5 Pages. ZULU TRADITIONAL DANCE Zulu means the people of heaven, which is essay on ramadan festival a friendly and hospitable culture.

They have an expressive . On The! language punctuated with distinctive click sounds. The Zulu people are proud of their nation and treasure their heritage. During the essay festival 16th and to the, 17th centuries, they had a powerful king named Shaka Zulu . He helped expand the Zulu tribe territory and claimed that he was king of all Africa. Many cultures in Africa today still have traditions that were influenced by essay on ramadan the Zulu people. Dance , Social dance , South Africa 1225 Words | 4 Pages. ZULU CULTURE 1 When it comes to surviving, Zulu culture is the largest number of community members in South . Cavour Italian Unification Essay! Africa because ten to eleven million of people are in the culture. Men usually have too many wife’s and on ramadan festival, children to support, this might be the reason why there is a lot of sickness in the Zulu culture. Zulu culture is a Horticulturists society, they live off the land and raise cattle in order to on punk survive. Women are in on ramadan festival charge of mostly everything when it comes to old man enormous essay harvesting.

Alternative medicine , Ayurveda , Gender role 2262 Words | 6 Pages. History and Background of the essay festival Zulu Tribe. The Zulu people first moved south from the mountains, there were frequent struggles between the various tribes for control of land, cattle, and . power. A Very With Enormous Prompt! They were very good at utilizing many resources to insure their survival, from their beginnings as a true pastoral tribe to their times that go beyond this paper when they became a real empire. Essay Festival! The rich history of the Zulu people and their pastoral beginnings of male domination can be seen as the primary obstacle facing progress on essays on punk, the status of women. Gender role , KwaZulu-Natal , Man 1406 Words | 4 Pages.

The Zulu Tribe LaDonya Price ANT 101 Michael King Originated AmaZulu believing they’re descendants of . the patriarch Zulu , born to an Nguni Chief in the Congo Basin area 16th Century Zulu migrated southward, incorporating customs of the San, African Bushmen. On Ramadan Festival! Between the years of 1816-1828 the Zulu became the mightiest military force in S. African, increasing their land from 100 square miles to 11,500. Under the rule of King Shaka , they entered into treaties. Inkatha Freedom Party , KwaZulu-Natal , Mangosuthu Buthelezi 1983 Words | 6 Pages. The Zulu People ANT. 101 Instructor Brooks June 1, 2013 The Zulu People Have you ever wondered why people in . foreign countries live so differently than us in the United States? It has a lot to death penalty essay outline do with their culture backgrounds and what they believe in.

There are several different cultures and beliefs outside of the United States that we do not realize or even understand. We question ourselves about festival, why people from different countries do things so much different than us, and if we. Culture , God , KwaZulu-Natal 2438 Words | 6 Pages. The film Zulu Dawn was directed by Douglas Hickox in which the Battle of Islandlwana is depicted. It was written by Cy Endfiled and published . by American Cinema Releasing in 1979. The purpose of the film is to inform the audience of the struggle between the British military and Zulu warriors during the letter editor assignment winter of 1879 in South Africa. As well as being informational Zulu Dawn also serves to on ramadan festival entertain because it conjures anger and a very old man, sympathy in the minds of it’s audience. The movie begins with. British Armed Forces , British Army , Royal Air Force 1355 Words | 4 Pages.

Zulu Amanda McClure ANT101: Introduction to Cultural Anthropology Daniel Diaz Reyes 04/02/2013 Introduction In my research I will . share information on the Zulu Tribe, which is one of South Africa's largest ethnic group population that is estimated about 10-11 million people. The majority of the essay festival people live in KwaZulu-Natal Natal Province which is also referred as Zululand. Other Tribes or groups live in Zimbabwe, Zambia and Mozambique. On Punk Rock! The Zulu reside in the rural part of South Africa. Agriculture , KwaZulu-Natal , Mangosuthu Buthelezi 2245 Words | 6 Pages.

A Book Review of Zulu Wilderness Shadow and Soul. ?Book Review Zulu Wilderness: Shadow and essay on ramadan, Soul by Dr. Ian Player Question 1 Dr. Ian Player’s memoir, Zulu Wilderness: Shadow and . Soul, is a magnificent account of old man with one man’s development from the unsatisfied job-hopping of essay his young adulthood to the emerging importance of an international conservationist. Among other titles, Player receives the distinction of an activist and educator through many unique attempts to gain support for protected game reserves in South Africa throughout the mid to late. 20th century , African trypanosomiasis , Conservation movement 1899 Words | 6 Pages. Zulu Tribe Final Paper Joseph C. Duron ANT101: Introduction to Cultural Anthropology Instructor: Katie Custer 4/8/13 Way before the . Zulu tribe became a thriving nation of their time, they were partly nomadic separated family groups.

These groups were very self-sufficient based on their knowledge of herding cattle and essays on the economy, horticulture. The Zulu might be the essay on ramadan largest ethnic group in South Africa today because of their chiefdom separations and the military conquests they occurred. In this paper I. Agriculture , History of to the editor assignment South Africa , KwaZulu-Natal 1317 Words | 4 Pages. What is the essay on ramadan Mfecane, and how is it relevant to contemporary South African society? recent interpretations. Shaka is a very central figure in Zulu history. Shaka made a popular “comeback” in . South Africa during the 1980s with an essay SABC-TV series Shaka Zulu . Essay On Ramadan Festival! View extracts of this series, and decide how best it would be placed in italian unification the different theories of the Mfecane, explaining why. Between 1994 and 2013, Shaka has made a significant comeback into popular history and is viewed as a central icon of Zulu nationalism. How is this – both Shaka and on ramadan, Zulu nationalism, manifested (demonstrated/obviously. African National Congress , Jacob Zuma , KwaZulu-Natal 1199 Words | 3 Pages.

The Wonderfil Life of Zulu People. [pic] The Wonderful Life of the Zulu People Table of Contents Page Introduction 3 Chapter I “Women are extremely valuable . in assignment society” 5 Chapter II “Ancestors are the source of power” 8 Chapter III “Rite Of Passage” 10 Conclusion 12 [pic] Introduction The African continent is on ramadan festival home to death penalty argumentative many different religious traditions. Essay On Ramadan Festival! The ancient Egyptians were one of the first civilizations formed. Africa , African culture , Culture of Africa 1867 Words | 6 Pages. Africa, the Zulu kingdom would be formed, and in Western Africa, an Islamic caliphate, Sokoto Caliphate would be formed. Many of these . Essay Sructure! civilizations were being formed by a bunch of African peoples around the continent.

At first, in essay on ramadan Southern Africa, there were the Nguni people, just farmers and cattle herders that existed for a very long time. Soon, however, a drought would strike, hurting their agriculture. This caused the end of the Nguni people. A military genius and leader, Shaka Zulu would take. Africa , Egypt , Islam 1204 Words | 4 Pages. and the start of the nineteenth centuries. Based on the historiography covering this event, historians believed many elements caused the Mfecane. Originally, . everyone believed it was exclusively due to the rise and expansion of the Zulu nation under the rule of Shaka , but more recently, historians believe that although this played a major role in essays on the economy old northwest the cause of the Mfecane, it was by essay on ramadan festival no means the sole cause. Letter To The Assignment! There are now many additional theories on what else contributed to the Mfecane. The primary.

Africa , Causality , Julian Cobbing 881 Words | 3 Pages. Economic and essay festival, Political Systems of the Zulu Culture. Economic and Political Systems of the Zulu Culture Zulu Economy: Rural Zulu raise cattle and farm corn and . On Punk! vegetables for subsistence purposes. Festival! The men and herd boys are primarily responsible for italian essay, the cows, which are grazed in the open country, while the festival women do most, if not all, of the planting and harvesting. The women also are the owners of the family house and have considerable economic clout within the family. In the urban areas of South Africa, Zulu , and in fact all Africans, are limited. Africa , Military , Political system 1304 Words | 4 Pages. Shaka Zulu There are many different story’s of Shaka Zulu but I’m going to penalty essay tell you about his life . and how created the Zulu Empire. Essay Festival! Shaka was born in 1787. Death Penalty Argumentative! Shaka father name is senzangakhona.

His father was a minor chief of one of the Zulu speaking clans. His mother name is Nandi she was the on ramadan daughter of a very with enormous wings chief Mbhengi and the rival clan. Zulu family was from different clans so they considered it as a sin, so they separated. His mother went back to Elangeni and had Shaka . When he was born he was harassed. Dingiswayo , Family , KILL 472 Words | 2 Pages.

culture i am intrested in essay on ramadan is the zulu . This culture drew my attintion and i had to futher the research on essays on punk, it. The zulu are the . best known African people. Their military exploits led to the rise and fall of a great kindom that was feared for a long time over much of the African continent. Essay Festival! The zulu are the descendents of letter to the Nguni-speaking people. Essay Festival! The Zulu history can be tracked backed to the early fourteenth century. The early nineteenth century a young man namrd shaka welden most of the essay Nguni tribe. Africa , African Union , Mozambique 452 Words | 2 Pages. Essay Topic Iv: the Varying Views Towards the ‘Mfecane’ of the traders felt that they were coming under threat from the native peoples (such as the Nguni and the Zulu ). One such person was a Henry . Francis Fynn who led an expedition into the heart of essay Zululand in letter assignment 1824 in an effort to essay festival establish a trading post with the locals. I believe that had people like Fynn not arrived where and when they did, the thousands of deaths caused during the essay sructure Anglo- Zulu War could have been avoided. Essay! The textbook, In Search of History (Grade 10) by Nigel Worden, Pippa Visser and.

Dingiswayo , Johannesburg , KwaZulu-Natal 1071 Words | 4 Pages. education from London day- School and Ipswich Grammar School (Sir Henry Rider Haggard (1856-1925) 1). In 1875, Haggard went to Natal, Africa as a . To The Assignment! secretary to Sir Henry Bulwer (Haggard vi). Essay! During Haggard's stay in Africa, he learned much about the Zulu African people (Sir Henry Rider Haggard (1856-1925) 1). This influence is seen in many of Rider's books such as King Solomon's Mines, Marie, and Child of Storm (Haggard vi). In 1880 he returned to England and married Mariana Louisa Margitson (Haggard. Allan Quatermain , Frederick Russell Burnham , H. On Punk Rock! Rider Haggard 2528 Words | 7 Pages. correspondence of on ramadan festival Lily and her two mentors, Dr Mabel Palmer, the assignment English Fabian feminist and director of the on ramadan Non-European section of the essays old northwest University of Natal, . to on ramadan festival whom Lily resourcefully appeals for help, and Sibusisiwe Makhanya, the powerful, independent Zulu activist.

To Makhanya, Mabel in her turn appeals, wanting extra help with the essay intrepid little thing from a woman of her own race, (as Mabel writes erroneously in 1950). The bright writing style of Lily's letters - full of vivacious phrasing and. Bantustan , KwaZulu-Natal , Pietermaritzburg 886 Words | 3 Pages. this reserve exceptionally beautiful. wildlife species encountered regularly includes sable, tsessebe, giraffe, zebra, nyala, eland kudu, leopard and others. . Essay Festival! | | | Mgungundlovu | Kwazulu Natal, Ulundi | Mgungundlovu established as capital by italian unification Zulu King Dingane. Visitor facilities include a site museum, shop and toilets. | | | Ndebele Cultural Village | Gauteng, Pretoria | The village is relatively un-commercialised and on ramadan, you will have the cavour italian unification essay opportunity to immerse yourself and essay festival, experience. Drakensberg , Durban , KwaZulu-Natal 1100 Words | 5 Pages. of south-central Africa which reach as far as Lake Tanzania. With Wings Prompt! Astonishingly some of the selective use or the actual invention of evidence has produced the . myth of an internally-induced process known as the black-on-black destruction centring on Shaka Zulu . A re-evaluating from the ‘battles’ of Dithakong and Mbolompo suggests very different ideas and enables us to decipher the on ramadan motives of subsequent historiographical amnesias and rock, knowledge.

After about 1810 the essay on ramadan black peoples of southern Africa were. Africa , Durban , Lesotho 1608 Words | 4 Pages. it they did not know who they were or what they stood for. For example, in the Zulu nation virginity testing was banned and this led to a . movement to have the ban removed. In an article for the New York Times, Sharon LaFraniere writes, “In Pietermaritzburg and in rock Durban, hundreds of bare-breasted women and essay on ramadan festival, girls in traditional Zulu short skirts and letter to the editor, beaded necklaces marched in opposition to on ramadan the ban.” (LaFraniere) The Zulu women here are fighting the ban places on an ancient tradition where women were.

African people , Caribbean , Colonialism 1436 Words | 6 Pages. Zulu Culture Cynthia Jones ANT 101 Intro to Cultural Anthropology Instructor Shaun Sullivan July 23 2012 The Zulu . tribe of KwaZulu-Natal became historically important in death penalty outline the early 19th century by the founder Shaka of the Zulu nation. Essay On Ramadan! I will be discussing the history of who many consider the first king along with the variations of the beliefs and values of Zulu people. The kinship systems along with the rituals and healing processes that have been around for centuries will be detailed. Durban , KwaZulu-Natal , Shaka 2838 Words | 8 Pages. language planning in south africa.

African languages, granting all nine, along with English and essay outline, Afrikaans, equal status (that is, official language status) and proclaiming that education and essay festival, . governmental documentation would be available in all. Those nine indigenous languages include Zulu , Xhosa, Pedi, Tswana, South Sotho, Tsonga, Swati, Venda and Ndebele. Cavour Italian Unification Essay! These were chosen because the majority of South Africans, probably more than 98%, use one of these languages as their home language or first language. Currently, English is the most. Africa , African Union , Language 819 Words | 3 Pages. Ndebele people are dispersed widely across Zimbabwe and South African’s Transvaal Province and is descendents of the same tribe as the Zulu and . Xhosa people. The history of the Ndebele people can be traced back to Mafana, their first chief. Manfana’s successor, Mhlanga, had a son named Musi who, in the early 1600’s, decided to move away from his cousins, later became the essay on ramadan Zulu nation, and to penalty argumentative essay settle near the hills of Gauteng where the capital of Pretoria is located.

After the death of Chief Musi, his two. Ndebele , Northern Ndebele language , Pretoria 1172 Words | 4 Pages. slowly pulled through to regain control of their land. Before the British came, the Swazi, as well as other tribes, were under submission to essay on ramadan the powerful . Zulu’s. The Zulu tribe was a large tribe that did not want to be ruled by italian unification essay British colonizers who came for both slaves and land. Though one of the biggest tribes in South Africa, the Zulu has been broken up and essay, pushed around by other groups throughout history. The British wanted to conquer as much land as they could, and South Africa was one of the.

British Empire , Durban , KwaZulu-Natal 693 Words | 2 Pages. Africans could own property. | | | Birth of a Freedom Fighter | Discussion of abuses of government, segregation, indignities. ANC | | creates a . charter, African Claims. Walter's house is a mecca for | | activists. Meets Anton Lembede (a Zulu from Natal), who lectures | | against argumentative the black inferiority complex and for Africanism, advocates | | the melting away of ethnic differences, sees Afrikaner nationalism | | as a prototype for African (black) nationalism, the on ramadan only antidote. Cape Town , Inkatha Freedom Party , Mangosuthu Buthelezi 758 Words | 3 Pages. The Zulu Culture The Zulu Culture Outline I. Introduction A. Old Man With Enormous Wings Essay Prompt! Location B. Year of establishment II. Ancestors A. . Chief B. Religion C. Cultures primary mode of subsistence III. Three aspects of culture A. Beliefs and Values B. Gender relations C. Sickness and Healing The Zulu Culture The African continent is home to essay on ramadan festival many different religious traditions. Letter To The Assignment! Records show the Egyptians have been around since 3100 B.C.E.

The Egyptians era had a long influenced on African cultures. Africa , Continent , Egypt 256 Words | 2 Pages. Cultural activity Sunday, September 8, 2013 8:51 PM Traditional Zulu Wedding (Umabo) Being invited to a wedding, could it be traditional . Festival! or western, it is always an death argumentative outline honor. A Zulu traditional wedding (umabo) usually takes place after the white weeding. It believed that you are not fully married if umabo has not been done according to the Zulu tradition. In a Zulu culture there are many rituals that are done before one is fully married and umabo is the final stage . The first step is on ramadan lobola. Culture , English-language films , Family 362 Words | 2 Pages.

Zulu Culture Danielle Johnson ANT101: Introduction to Cultural Anthropology (CSB1203B) Professor: Michael Waller February 06, 2012 . On Punk Rock! Zulu Cultural The Zulu tribal group has dwelled on the east coast of South Africa. Zulu has developed an ancient history that is dated back several centuries. They were very highly developed and sophisticated tribe that in time of ancient history Zulu people are remembered by their complex of social organization, economic organization, and festival, beliefs and. Inkatha Freedom Party , KwaZulu-Natal , Shaka 506 Words | 2 Pages. P age |1 Janine Wiggill( Student No:30147794) Unit 1: Language as a process Assignment 02 Observe Interview / Exploring language diversity where you . live Task 1: Observe your community I live on a farm in the Kwa- Zulu Natal Midlands. I spent three mornings on a building site observing three builders from the cavour italian local community at work. (please refer to Image 1 below) IMAGE 1 “SPARAK , HAMILTON AND SIMPHIWE ON A BUILDING SITE IN LIDGETTON, KZN MIDLANDS Prior to spending time observing the men. Bantu languages , KwaZulu-Natal , Languages of South Africa 1551 Words | 5 Pages. ? Zulu Essay When thinking about the Anglo Zulu wars that occurred in on ramadan festival the late 1970’s the battle of Rorke’s Drift stands out . the on the economy most. The battle had an outcome that no one could have ever imagined, one hundred and festival, fifty British troops defended their mission station against three thousand Zulus.

The battle began after the a very with essay prompt Zulus defeated the British at essay on ramadan Battle of Isandlwana, on January 22 1879 and penalty argumentative outline, continued until the essay 23rd of January. As the British are told of the oncoming Zulu attack they prepare. Anglo-Zulu War , Australia , Battle of Isandlwana 843 Words | 3 Pages. A Qualitative Assessment on How Cultural Villages Influence Tourism Development in South Africa. a real case of essays Dr. Scott Rains who visited to Duma Zulu Cultural Village in essay on ramadan 2009. Dr. Scott Rains is a famous traveller who conducted surveys . and essay sructure, worked as a social activist. He is also a famous journalist who published a lot related to travel industry.

Therefore, Information gathered from Dr. Essay On Ramadan! Scott Rains is argumentative essay highly reliable. It can be seen from the festival article that Scott was encouraged to interact with the locals and he enjoyed the essays economy of the old northwest traditional Zulu dance very much. He found himself part of the locals. Cultural geography , Cultural tourism , Culture 2093 Words | 7 Pages.

the Zulu Kenyetta McClelland ANT 101: Introduction to Cultural Anthropology (DSF1246A) Instructor: Geoff Wood 12/15/2012 Lifestyle of . the essay festival Zulu The Amazulu people from the Natal Province of South Africa originated around the 14th or 15th century with a population of about 3 million and spoke IsiZulu from (Nguni) chiefdom. Neighboring chiefdoms were the italian essay Sotho, Tswana, and the closest to the Zulu were the San in essay on ramadan festival which the Zulu incorporated their lifestyle patterns from them. Economy Old Northwest! Rural Zulu main. Dingiswayo , Hip hop , Hip hop music 3323 Words | 10 Pages. The Zulu Culture (Draft) Michell Mcgilvery Anthropology 101 Professor: Wright July 24, 2012 Introduction In my cultural research I . will share information on the Zulu Tribe which one of South Africa's largest ethnic group population is estimated about 10-11 million people ,majority of the people live in KwaZulu-Natal Natal Province which is also referred as Zululand, other Tribes or groups live in Zimbabwe, Zambia and essay on ramadan festival, Mozambique. Cavour Essay! The Zulu reside in the rural part of South Africa. Colony of Natal , Inkatha Freedom Party , KwaZulu-Natal 277 Words | 2 Pages. group of people, the essay Zulu population. As a wonderful South African population, the Zulu people pride themselves over their . origins, language, and religions.

Today one shall discover and a very old man with enormous wings essay prompt, be able to easily identify, understand, and optimally relate to the wonderful Zulu traditions in culture, language, religion, education, social values and organization, economics, government, and globalization. The Zulu people have a rather large population with a widespread demographic. The Zulu people are the largest. Africa , Bantu languages , KwaZulu-Natal 3887 Words | 10 Pages. Nigel Worden, Jean Bottaro, Pippa Visser and Fiona Mallett* Table of Contents Subsection I: Causes | pp. 3-5 | Subsection II: The Zulu . Kingdom The Natal Colony | pp. 5-7 | Subsection III: Anglo- Zulu Wars | pp. 7-8 | Subsection IV: The Fall of The Kingdoms The Rise of on ramadan Nationalism | pp.

9-11 | Subsection I: Causes The first cause of the Anglo- Zulu war was British greed – they wanted to control a potentially important and profitable region of death essay South Africa and the Zulus were in essay on ramadan the way. Anglo-Zulu War , British Empire , History of South Africa 3735 Words | 11 Pages. Commodification and the Zulu Culture. Commodification and the Zulu Culture Commodification is often seen as the process by which raw materials are extracted, packaged and a very old man with, . eventually turned into a product of festival value that can be sold. Now days because of the on punk rock growth of globalization and commodity fetishism; commodification has become the transformations of a variety of things (things that may have had no previous value) including different goods, services and ideas into something of value that may even be sold.

In other words commodification. Culture , KwaZulu , KwaZulu-Natal 752 Words | 2 Pages. Brithney Alabi Boer S James Madison High School. James Madison High School October . Global Dear Diary, Their leader Shaka had planted all his ideas and teachings into the Zulu people and because of him, they had this fearless persona about them to. All they were known for was wreaking havoc and essay on ramadan, growing their already growing empires with trained a killer, which was going to be a problem. Essay Sructure! I resented. British Empire , Combat , Empire 619 Words | 2 Pages. The Linguistic Situation of South Africa. South Africa is festival like a melting pot of languages. In total, South Africa has eleven major languages coming from both Africa and Europe. The major languages . used are Afrikaans, English, Ndebele, Pedi, Sesotho, Swazi, Tsonga, Tswana, Venda, Xhosa and Zulu . In order to understand how each of these languages arrived in italian unification South Africa, we must first look at the history of people living in the country.

The first identified language spoken in the South Africa was Khoisan. This language was spoken by the. Bantu languages , Languages of South Africa , Sotho language 800 Words | 3 Pages.

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missing book report Plugged In exists to shine a light on the world of popular entertainment while giving you and your family the essential tools you need to understand, navigate and impact the culture in which we live. Through reviews, articles and on ramadan discussions, we want to spark intellectual thought, spiritual growth and a desire to follow the command of Colossians 2:8: See to it that no one takes you captive through hollow and assignment deceptive philosophy, which depends on human tradition and the basic principles of this world rather than on Christ. Family uses Plugged In as a ‘significant compass’ I am at a loss for on ramadan words to adequately express how much it means to essay sructure my husband and me to know that there is an organization like Focus that is rooting for us. Just today I was reading Psalm 37 and thinking about how your ministry provides ways to 'dwell in festival the land and enjoy safe pasture.' We have two teenagers and an 8-year-old in our household. Plugged In has become a significant compass for our family. All three of our kids are dedicated to their walk with Christ but they still encounter challenges. Thanks for all of your research and persistence in helping us navigate through stormy waters. Plugged In helps college student stand-up for his belief. Thanks for the great job you do in economy of the posting movie and television reviews online.

I’m a college freshman and I recently had a confrontational disagreement with my English professor regarding an R-rated film. It is her favorite movie and she wanted to show it in class. On Ramadan Festival! I went to your Web site to research the film’s content. Although I had not seen the movie myself, I was able to make an educated argument against it based on the concerns you outlined. Old Man Enormous Wings Essay! The prof said that she was impressed by essay on ramadan my stand and decided to essay sructure poll the whole class and give us a choice.

We overwhelmingly voted to watch a G-rated movie instead! I’ve learned that I can trust your site and I will be using it a lot in on ramadan the future.” Plugged In brings ‘Sanity and death argumentative Order’ to Non-believer. “Even though I don’t consider myself a Christian, I find your Plugged In Web site useful and thought-provoking. No one reviews movies like you do. Instead of on ramadan festival being judgmental, you put entertainment ‘on trial.’ After presenting the evidence, you allow the jury of your readers to decide for themselves what they should do. In my opinion, you bring sanity and order to the wild world of modern day entertainment. Keep up the good work!” Mom thinks Plugged In is the ‘BEST Christian media review site’ Our family doesn't go to the movies until we go online and check out your assessment of a given film. I think this is the BEST Christian media review website that I've found, and I recommend it to my family and friends.

Keep up the good work! Our hope is economy old northwest that whether you're a parent, youth leader or teen, the information and tools at Plugged In will help you and your family make appropriate media decisions. We are privileged to do the work we do, and are continually thankful for the generosity and support from you, our loyal readers, listeners and friends. The Missing Chums — The Hardy Boys Series. The Missing Chums by Franklin W. Dixon is a Focus on the Family book published in association with Tyndale House Publishers. It is the fourth book in The Hardy Boys series. When fights break out in Shantytown, the police chief thinks an undercover operation could solve the problem. The chief asks Frank and Joe Hardy, sons of internationally-known detective Fenton Hardy, to investigate. Frank, 18, and Joe, 17, live in Bayport with their parents and have helped their father on cases before. Frank and on ramadan festival Joe decide to explore the essays, waterfront on their boat, the Sleuth , with their friends, Chet and Biff. Once on the bay, another boat, the essay festival, Black Cat , almost hits them.

As the brothers swerve to avoid a collision, the steering mechanism jams. Their friend, Tony, comes alongside in his boat, the Napoli , and death argumentative tows the essay on ramadan, Sleuth back to old man prompt the docks. After reporting the incident to the Coast Guard, Frank and Joe pick up costumes at essay festival a shop downtown for a party that night. At the shop, they overhear part of a heated conversation between the owner and essay sructure two other men, Fritz Stark and Nick Glaser. On the essay festival, way to the party, Frank and Joe see four masked men in pea jackets flee the cavour italian unification, bank in a car and escape by boat from the waterfront. The police arrive, and the Coast Guard is notified of the getaway boat. Frank and Joe volunteer to help search the bay, but discover that the essay, Hardy boathouse was broken into and the Sleuth is gone. At the station, Frank and Joe tell the chief about their missing boat, and the chief tells them that the getaway car was stolen in a city up the penalty argumentative essay, coast called Northport. Frank and Joe stop at essay on ramadan festival home before the party, and their father tells them he has been hired to solve the bank robbery case. Essays On The Of The! At the party, Chet is wearing the same costume as Frank.

In the middle of the night, the Hardy family learns that Chet and Biff are missing, but no one can find clues to their whereabouts. The next morning, there still aren't any leads for essay finding the Sleuth , Chet or Biff, but the police have identified the owner of the to the editor, stolen car. Riding their motorcycles along the festival, coastline to look for the Sleuth so they can boat to Northport and investigate, Frank and editor assignment Joe spot their boat on the beach. The boys ask the Coast Guard for help. As they near the boat, they see a piece of Chet's costume mask floating in the water. The Coast Guard tows the Sleuth back to the docks, and they leave it for repairs. Frank and Joe give the police the costume mask clue before investigating the waterfront for essay on ramadan festival their undercover Shantytown case.

At the waterfront in Shantytown, a man named Hank Sutton starts to pick a fight with Frank, and another man named Alf Lundborg intervenes. Frank and essay sructure Joe see the driver of the Black Cat , Ben Stark, talking to Hank. As Frank and essay Joe eat dinner with Alf and his friends, one of the men starts to put a piece of trash in the fire. When Frank realizes it looks like a piece of Chet's costume, he pulls it out. Sure enough, it is a piece of the costume. The Hardy boys return to the police station with the clue, and the chief sends officers to Shantytown. At home, Frank and Joe learn their father is working on essays rock a case involving a national bank robbery gang. He thinks the Bayport job is the work of that gang. The Hardy family receives a postcard from Chet and Biff postmarked in Northport, but Frank and Joe aren't convinced it is from them.

Frank and Joe decide to take the Sleuth to Northport to investigate. Festival! In the Sleuth's boathouse, they find broken glass and save it for old northwest later reconstruction. Next, they locate the Northport store selling the postcards, and essay on ramadan festival the clerk provides a description of a man who recently bought some. The description matches the passenger they saw in the Black Cat , a man known as Pops. The brothers track down the owner of the Black Cat , the Northport dock manager. He rented the with, boat to essay festival three men (Ben, Fritz and Pops) a few days before. At home, the boys put together the glass pieces and discover it's a pop bottle.

Later on, they learn that Pops likes that brand. After Hank reported a missing radio and the police discovered it in Alf's backpack, the chief takes Alf into custody. The boys vouch for Alf, telling the editor assignment, chief they think the radio is a plant, and the chief releases Alf. Talking to essay the police, Frank and Joe wonder if a group of thieves is operating out of the waterfront, whether Hank is one of the thieves and if the trouble in Shantytown comes from the thieves' infighting. Chet and Biff are still missing, and their families also have received postcards. They tell the police chief about the bottle clue and their trip to Northport. The next day, the a very with wings essay, boys follow up on the radio clue. The store that carries the radios was short a crate in the last shipment. On Ramadan! Back at unification Shantytown, Frank and essay Joe notice a pop bottle in the trash that matches the one they found in their boathouse.

When the boys discover Hank injured on the cot in his shack, they give him first aid and call an ambulance. The brothers then follow up on the bottle clue. No one in town sells that brand of pop; one clerk has seen it in Northport. As Frank and Joe hang out with Tony, Jerry and other friends, the group decides to go to Hermit Island to look for Biff and Chet, but an old man scares them off. Essays Rock! The police tell them that the owner of Hermit Island died quite some time ago, and essay on ramadan festival the island is state property. The Hardy boys begin to wonder if Chet and Biff were mistakenly kidnapped, so they hatch a plan to get the crooks to lead them to their friends. The brothers return to the costume shop. To The Editor Assignment! They don't see the shop owner, but Ben and two dockhands, Moran and Duke, are talking in the back. The three men kidnap the boys and take them to a shack in Shantytown.

Duke is left to on ramadan guard the boys, but they manage to overpower him, tie him up and escape. As Frank and Joe step outside of the shack, police officers arrive. Inside the shack, they find the bank robbers' masks. Italian Unification Essay! The Hardy boys' father and other officers were tailing Ben and Moran, and essay along with Duke, they take them into custody. At home, the Northport dock manager calls the boys to say he found an envelope addressed to Fritz from the radio distributor, the same one that made the radio Hank reported stolen. Frank, Joe, Jerry and Tony decide to go to Hermit Island again, taking both the Sleuth and the Napoli , in case they find Biff and Chet. On the island, they discover a cave and to the assignment hear a radio, but then Tony sprains his ankle in a landslide.

As the boys walk back to their boats to get help, they find five pea jackets on the trail. Reaching the cove where they hid their boats, Frank and on ramadan Tony leave on the Sleuth to find the Coast Guard. Essays On The! Joe and Jerry follow in the Napoli . When the Napoli runs aground, Joe and Jerry see another boat coming with two men (Fritz and festival Nick) in it. Joe and Jerry try to conceal the Napoli , but Fritz and Nick discover them and take the boys to a cave to join the kidnapped costume shop owner. Ben, Fritz, Nick, Pops, Hank, Moran and Duke are both a gang of thieves and cavour italian unification a bank robbery team.

They stole the radio shipments and robbed the essay festival, bank in Bayport. Unification! The trouble in Shantytown is due to the gang's arguments over shares of essay money. Meanwhile, Frank and Tony arrive at the Coast Guard station and to the editor call the police chief. On Ramadan Festival! Tony is taken to a doctor, while Frank, Coast Guard officers and the police go to Hermit Island. Frank locates Joe, Jerry and the costume shop owner in the cave.

The Coast Guard officers and police join the group in the cave, and they all start down a hidden passageway to look for Chet and Biff. On the way, they overpower Nick. Fritz and Pops are holding Chet and Biff hostage, but the group overpowers them, too, and rescues the boys. Biff shows the italian essay, group the stolen crates of radios stored in the cave, and Chet shows them where the bank money is buried. In the end, Frank and Joe's father congratulates the boys and their friends for essay solving the case. The bank's vault custodian initially thinks Frank and Joe are two of the bank robbers when they arrive at italian unification essay the docks after the on ramadan, real bank robbers have already escaped. When the police chief arrives, he immediately identifies Frank and Joe and vouches for them. The chief doesn't yell at anyone for making a mistake; he simply asks Frank and Joe to explain. Frank and Joe's Aunt Gertrude is welcomed to the Hardy home. Essays! When Frank and Joe surprise Aunt Gertrude with their costume masks and scare her, the boys' mother expresses understanding of Aunt Gertrude's reaction to the masks' realism. Frank and Joe's father is kind to his sister after she hears an announcement on the radio about him taking on essay on ramadan festival the bank robbery case.

He gently reassures her that he will be all right when she expresses her concern. While Frank and Joe's parents and their Aunt Gertrude are concerned about the on punk rock, boys, they also take a keen interest in the boys' case and don't get in the way of their solving it. The police respect the Hardy family. They are willing to festival follow up on leads and clues the Hardys give them. When Frank and letter to the editor assignment Joe propose a plan to their father to let themselves be kidnapped, their father cautions them to be careful, but he and the police are willing to essay on ramadan festival go along with the plan. When Frank and Joe's father suggests tweaking the plan as it unfolds, the police agree. Alf comes to Frank's defense physically and verbally when Hank tries to attack him. Alf then invites the boys to join him and essay sructure his friends for dinner. Frank tells Alf his and Joe's last name, but asks him not to on ramadan let anyone else know. Letter Editor! When Hank plants the radio in Alf's backpack, Frank and Joe learn that Alf does have a petty theft record. There is violence, but graphic details are limited.

The vault custodian shoots at the bank robbers' getaway car and misses. The policemen carry guns. The bank robbers carry guns and fire them, but no one is injured. Someone on a schooner fires a weapon into the air. Pops and Fritz get into fights and arguments. Nick steals the car for the getaway. Pops breaks into the Hardy family boathouse and steals the Sleuth . Moran and Duke kidnap Chet and Biff, and the crooks tie up the boys. In Shantytown, Hank tries to essay festival hit Frank with a blackjack, and Alf uses a boxing move to knock the weapon out of Hank's hand. Pops points a gun at the Hardys and their friends. Ben, Moran and Duke tie up Frank and Joe, gag them, blindfold them, throw them to the ground, force them into a very prompt a car and take them to Shantytown.

The boys escape by tipping Duke off his chair, engaging in a fistfight, knocking him unconscious and essay festival then tying him up. After Hank is beaten by Pops, his injuries are described (cuts and bruises on his head and face; dried blood on his face and cot blanket). Fritz and cavour italian unification Nick crash into Tony's boat and capture Joe and Jerry. There is fighting during the capture; the boys are tied up; Fritz hits Joe while he is tied up and Nick holds them hostage with his gun. Fritz and Nick blindfold the shop owner, kidnap him and bring him to the island. A gunshot is fired during the essay on ramadan, final standoff, but no one is hurt. Frank and Joe tackle the crooks.

Get free discussion questions for this book and others, at You can request a review of a title you can't find at italian unification Book reviews cover the essay on ramadan, content, themes and worldviews of fiction books, not their literary merit, and equip parents to decide whether a book is letter assignment appropriate for essay on ramadan festival their children. The inclusion of death penalty argumentative essay outline a book's review does not constitute an endorsement by Focus on the Family. Franklin W. Dixon.

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8-Day App Business Plan: The Ultimate Guide to Creating Monetizing Your First Mobile App. On Ramadan. Total Reading Time: 31 minutes (or download PDF template at end of post). I have always believed that one of the most creative and exciting ways to be a solopreneur is by building an app business. When it comes to penalty argumentative, creating a Freedom Lifestyle, there are few better ways to create passive income and more freedom in your life. Essay Festival. Developing an arsenal of money-making apps takes time and work, but these apps can end up paying you for years. I first met Chad Mureta over penalty argumentative outline, two years ago, while I was still working at on ramadan festival Google. Chad had just recently published his book, App Empire: Make Money, Have a Life, and Let Technology Work for You. Since then, Chad and I have become very good friends. He#8217;s an incredible human being and I#8217;m grateful to have met him. Chad#8217;s story is essay sructure wild and essay on ramadan inspiring.

In January 2009, he was driving home when he hit a deer, causing his car to flip four times. The accident crushed and nearly severed his left arm. He had two surgeries and almost $100,000 in hospital bills. Old Man Wings. It was in the hospital bed that Chad decided to create his first app. The idea and inspiration came from on ramadan festival a magazine about on the, apps a friend gave him.

What happened next? Chad went on to become an app millionaire, has created dozens of on ramadan festival apps, and built multiple app companies. He has no technical skills, but he does have a brilliant strategy for building a scalable app business. Chad used this strategy to build an empire of apps and passive income. Below, he will share his 8 day business plan template with you. Enjoy! If used properly, the virtual world can be a potent tool to on the economy old northwest, simplify and improve every aspect of your life.

As this virtual world evolves, apps are changing the way we communicate and relay information, allowing us to connect with people from Cape Town in South Africa to Montreal in festival Canada to Shanghai in China. Everywhere! The same way the internet opened up the international marketplace for a very old man enormous wings, thousands of businesses, mobile apps have done the same but to the next level because they are always in our pocket traveling with us wherever we go . On Ramadan Festival. We have apps that can control cars, allow us to essay sructure, play the piano, teach languages, and even recognize songs and name the essay on ramadan artists. Essays On Punk. Apps are vital assets that streamline information, enhancing our lives while educating and entertaining us. But it’s important to remember: with apps, it’s all about convenience, convenience, convenience. You have to understand this about the app business: At the essay core, it’s about how consumers are using this technology to connect with the world. The more you are aware of this, the more money you can make with apps.

You have to think like the customer if you’re going to build your own app empire. In this 8-day guide, you will gain essential insights into starting an app business, which will serve as the foundation of your success. Note : this is the MOST important thing I can teach you. Cavour Italian Essay. I have students that, after becoming full-time appreneurs and making thousands with their app business, still say this is the most important lesson they learned from me. Essay On Ramadan. As with any business, your success will be directly related to your understanding of the cavour unification essay marketplace. The App Store is the marketplace of the essay on ramadan festival app business, so in order to understand the market, we have to study the App Store. This seems rather obvious, but you wouldn’t believe how many developers I meet that don’t understand this concept. They don’t watch the market, follow the most successful apps, or try to essay sructure, figure out why those apps are successful. Essay Festival. In order to on punk, become a great app supplier, you must first become an app addict. That means spending this whole first day researching the market while downloading and playing with tons of apps (give yourself an app budget of on ramadan $100 to start).

Give yourself a full 8-hour period to go APP CRAZY. Death Penalty Argumentative Essay Outline. This training period is an investment in your expertise, which will become the lifeblood of your success. The more hours you rack up playing around and studying successful apps, the better you’ll be able to understand their common traits and what users desire. Better yet, if you don’t have a business partner, get friends and family involved to help with your research. This will also allow you to essay on ramadan, gauge different demographics and on the of the old northwest how they respond to particular apps. So, how do you keep pace with the market?

The best way is to study Apple’s cheat sheet constantly. The App Store displays the top paid, top free, and top-grossing apps (the apps that make the most money, including free apps), almost in real-time. Essay On Ramadan. Apple provides the same lists in the individual app categories. App Store Top Charts. These charts are golden because they tell us volumes about the market.

The best part is this information is essays freely accessible to essay festival, anyone, at any moment (unlike the market info for basically every other industry). Review these charts frequently, and keep a notebook of potential trends you spot. The more you review the charts, the more you’ll start to notice little details, such as new apps that jumped the charts or emerging genres. Example : when I first started my app business, I was really into yoga so I wanted to create a yoga app. Unification Essay. I looked at the market and saw just a few yoga apps, but none that had been really successful or hit the on ramadan festival top charts (even in their category) so I didn’t go through with it. Fast forward a couple years later and outline fitness apps are booming. If I had still wanted to develop this app, I would have continuously tracked all yoga apps during these years to watch for these apps rising the charts, THEN I would strike with my own app because I know the demand is there. People are actively LOOKING for these apps.

If I had published these apps when I first thought of the idea, it would have sat on the store generating little to no revenue. My point: you want to essay, see similar apps to your idea doing well or gaining traction because that means there are active users. However, the reason you do market research EVERY DAY is because you want to get in before there’s an influx of the same apps. Italian Unification. Luckily, this is easy to do when you’re tracking and analyzing the market regularly because most developers aren’t doing this – but more on this below! Doing this repeatedly will also educate you on successful app design, marketing, various pricing models, and new app ideas. The research you’re doing is essay on ramadan festival simple, costs nothing, and it’s actually fun! Here are some questions to cavour essay, ask while you’re researching successful apps in the market: Why is this app successful? What is its rank and essay on ramadan has it been consistent? Why do people want this app? (Look at the reviews, google blog posts.) Has this app made the essays on the economy customer a raving fan? Does this app provoke an impulse buy?

Does this app meet any of on ramadan festival my needs? Did I become a raving fan after trying it? Will the essay sructure customer use it again? How are they marketing to essay, their customers? (Check out the death screen shots, icon design, and descriptions.) What is the competitive advantage of this app? What does this app cost? Are there in-app purchases?

Advertisements? Most developers will build an app and expect tons of people to festival, find and a very old man with enormous wings prompt download it right away. On Ramadan Festival. That rarely happens. You have to enormous essay prompt, figure out what people are interested in and the essay on ramadan kinds of apps they’re downloading first, then you build your app based on that insight. Do not build an of the old northwest, app on on ramadan festival an idea you THINK will be successful, build an essay sructure, app off an idea that can be backed by data and research. (Tweet this) Once you’ve put in essay the necessary research and feel you have a decent grasp on the market, it will be time to essay sructure, look back on the trends you discovered and explore some ideas for potential apps you can develop. Essay On Ramadan. Note : If after Day 1, you feel like you aren’t quite grasping the trends, don’t rush this period! Spend the amount of time you need on on the of the this step as it’s the foundation and most IMPORTANT part of your business. I repeat, THE most important part of developing apps. Essay On Ramadan Festival. App Annie Tracks your apps’ metrics and has extensive app store data to to the assignment, help you make smart business decisions. SensorTower Market Intelligence that apps can#8217;t live without. Extensive app store metrics.

Straply App Store Optimization tools and research Google Keywords For ideas and trends research. This does not reflect what people are searching for on the App Store, but can give you insight into trends. Games vs Utility Apps: Which is essay festival better? ( ) Video Tip: How to Pick Winning App Ideas ( Four Mistakes Entrepreneurs Make that Hurt Their App Business ( ) Day 2: Align Your Ideas with Successful Apps. How do you know if the market wants your app? Again, you’ll need to look at the Top Apps chart . Are apps like the one you want to create listed there?

If yes, you’ve got a potential winner. If not, keep looking. Assignment. It’s that simple. Don’t hate; Emulate! When you follow in the footsteps of successful apps, you will have a better chance of succeeding because these apps have proven demand and an existing user base. This takes the guesswork out of creating great app ideas. I can’t stress the importance of emulating existing apps enough. It’s easy for people to fall in love with their own idea, even if the market doesn’t show an appetite for essay, it. But this is one of the costliest errors you can make. Letter. Unfortunately, developers make this mistake all the time. They focus on generating original ideas and essay on ramadan spend a lot of time and effort creating those apps.

When it doesn’t work out, they go to to the editor assignment, the next untested idea, instead of essay on ramadan festival learning from the market. Essays Of The. Often times, they repeat this cycle until they run out of money and essay festival dismiss the app game. This doesn’t have to of the, be your experience. Keep in mind that most ideas aren’t original. Almost every app idea was inspired by an already existing concept. They emulated, and on ramadan festival ADDED innovation. Angry Birds was not the first game of it’s kind on essay sructure the app store. But they created a user experience that was unlike any other. So don’t mistake emulation for essay on ramadan festival, a lack of to the assignment innovation.

You need to take an existing, successful idea, and IMPROVE it to gain the market advantage. A personal example of essay how to successfully emulate competitors is my Emoji app. First, I took a close look at what the economy of the old northwest market offered and downloaded all the major emoticon apps. I liked what I saw, but noticed that there was a lack of variety and essay limited functionality. Competitive emoji app screenshots. A Very Old Man With Wings Essay. I wondered how I could improve upon these existing apps, given that the Emoji keyboard had a limited number of emoticons that couldn’t be increased. Essay On Ramadan Festival. I was also curious how profitable these apps could be if they were only being used once. I kept brainstorming until it hit me.

I couldn’t add more emoticons to the Emoji keyboard, but I could include unlimited emoticons within my app that people could send as images via text message or email. I created an app that not only to the assignment enabled the Emoji keyboard, but also contained an additional 450 emoticons within the essay on ramadan app itself, which could be shared via SMS, e-mail, Facebook, and so on. The app was used constantly since users had to return to the app to send an emoticon. The Emoji app was developed in two weeks. It followed the freemium model, meaning free with an in-app purchase option. The app hit the number one spot in the App Store’s productivity category and the number 12 spot in the top free overall category within six days, raking in nearly $500 per outline, day.

Bingo. On Day 2, compile your top emulation ideas, and ask yourself these six questions: Why are people purchasing this? Can I do something to emulate this idea and festival take it to another level? What other ideas would this app’s demographic like? How many other similar apps are in the market? (Visit to find out.) How successful and consistent have they been? How does their marketing and pricing model work? Same as Day 1 plus blogs and mobile news sites. Day 3: Design Your App#8217;s Experience. You’ve studied the market, you see an essay sructure, opportunity, and festival you have an idea that could be profitable. Great!

Now it’s time to on the economy of the, turn those thoughts into something tangible. To convey your idea properly, you can simply draw it on a piece of paper. Essay. Maybe it will look like a 3-year old’s artwork, but it will still convey what you’re trying to do. Some people like putting this together in enormous essay prompt digital form, using Photoshop or Balsamiq . Whatever you’re most comfortable with, and essay festival whatever will give the essays on punk rock programmers the details they need, is the essay way to go. Another cool tool my students have used for on the old northwest, those who want to draw on essay on ramadan paper, but then move those drawings digital, you can check out: Pop protopying . For your viewing pleasure, here are the rudimentary drawings (a.k.a. wireframes) for my first app, Finger Print Security Pro. Cavour Italian. As you can see, it doesn’t have to be pretty! Wireframes/drawings for Finger Print Security Pro. Wireframes/drawings for Finger Print Security App. Essay On Ramadan. And here’s how the app’s final design turned out#8230; Final Design for Finger Print Security Pro. To make the essays design process easier, I look at festival certain apps in the App Store and reference them to show my programmers what I’m looking for. For example, I’ll say, “Download the XYZ app.

I want the ABC functionality to cavour italian unification essay, work like theirs. Take a look at essay the screenshots from this other app, and economy change this.” I take certain components of on ramadan festival apps that I’d like to cavour essay, emulate, and give them to the programmer so that we are as clear as possible. Screenshot: Find apps with designs you want your developer to essay festival, use. On Punk. The clearer you are, the fewer misunderstandings and problems you will have once it’s time to hand off your drawings to essay festival, a programmer. The idea is to convey what the app will look like, where everything will be placed, and what happens if certain buttons are selected. This helps the programmer know what you want and will be a useful blueprint when designing your app. Do not be vague or ambiguous.

Be extremely detailed, even if something seems obvious, things can get lost in letter assignment translation. On Ramadan. You should know what every part of your app will do. If you don’t, you need to develop your idea more thoroughly. You have to consider your design to a very with enormous wings prompt, be final before you can begin the coding phase. Inevitably, you will have ideas for essay festival, additional features once you start testing the initial versions of your app. But if you decide to make major changes after a substantial amount of work has been done, it can frustrate your programmer. It’s like telling the builder who just installed your fireplace that you want it on cavour italian essay the other side of the living room. The news will not go over well. Most people don’t realize this is what they are demanding of their programmer when they ask for big changes. Essay On Ramadan. That’s why it’s important for you to old man enormous wings essay, take your time and carefully plan every aspect of the essay festival app before you submit it for coding.

Also keep in mind that new features can be included in future updates, and updates are crucial to a very with enormous essay prompt, sustainable success, so don’t worry if you can’t get everything in essay on ramadan festival right away. Getting your app on the store if often more important than perfection because you can start collecting data, which will significantly improve your strategy. Essays On Punk. If you look at the top charts , you will notice one thing: QUALITY GRAPHICS. On Ramadan Festival. This is extremely, extremely important for your app’s interface (user interface or what the customer will see) and UX (user experience how the penalty argumentative essay customer interacts with your app). When designing your app’s UI, I always tell people to think like Apple . What does this mean? It means creating sleek (i.e. modern), simple, intuitive designs.

What does intuitive mean? When a customer first opens your app, they shouldn’t need a lot of explanation on how to on ramadan festival, use it. It should be intuitive in that they could start using it right away. Think simple and essay sleek (look at the top apps for reference). Festival. Also, it’s important not to clutter your app.

Apps are meant to be simple and easy to use, it’s different than a website, which means apps will need streamlined features. A good rule of practice is to write down all the features you want to have, and then focus on building out 3 of those features really well. To The Editor. You’ll get more users by having an app that does 3 things extremely well, than a overcrowded app trying to essay, do 10 things. Remember: design like Apple. (If you look at the app’s Apple features, you’ll see the of the type of apps they look for.) Balsamiq A wireframing and on ramadan festival mock up tool with a high focus on usability. Quickly come up with mock ups and cavour unification easily share them with your developers. POP Turns hand-drawn wireframes to essay, interactive prototypes. Sketch the app on paper; take pictures and add hotspots to essay, link them together; simulate on iPhone. Essay Festival. Keynotopia Let#8217;s users design quick and easy interfaces and a very wings prompt interactive mockups for web, mobile and essay on ramadan festival desktop apps without touching a line of code. Skitch Get your point across with fewer words using annotation, shapes and cavour unification sketches, so that your ideas become reality faster. Dropbox Organize your ideas, save your mockups, store your files. Jing Share images and essay short videos of your computer screen.

AppDesignVault Buy templates or get ideas. Day 4 6: Hire a Great iOS Programmer. Coding your own app, especially if you’re teaching yourself at on the of the the same time, will take too long. The likelihood of you getting stuck and giving up is very high. On Ramadan. It will also be unsustainable over the long run when you want to create several apps at the same time and consistently update your existing apps. After all, the goal is to of the, get your time back and escape the long hours of the rat race. Therefore, programmers will be the foundation of on ramadan your business. They will allow you to create apps quickly and scale your efforts. Hiring your first programmer can be a lengthy process as if you’re not feeling comfortable with your options, you shouldn’t just choose whoever.

This will be your right-hand man and the one who makes it all come to life. You need to be able to death, trust your programmer. post the on ramadan job filter applicants interview qualified candidates (on Skype face-to-face, no exceptions!) have them sign your NDA, explain your idea give them a micro-test. … all before coding begins! If this process takes more time than expected, it is time well spent. However, don’t give yourself excuses. Make sure if you are taking more time, that you’re using it wisely and not procrastinating out of fear or uncertainty of success.

Some people find this step intimidating, but it’s an extremely valuable learning experience. Making great hires will help you avoid unnecessary delays, costs, and frustration in the future. You’ll always be looking to essays on the, add new talent to festival, your team, so learning how to quickly and effectively assess programmers is an a very old man wings prompt, important skill to develop. Let’s get started. On Ramadan. The first part of this step is to post your job to cavour italian, a hiring site.

These websites allow programmers to bid on jobs that you post. As you can imagine, the on ramadan competition creates a bidding frenzy that gives you a good chance of getting quality work at a low price. Essays. Here are a few of my favorite outsourcing sites: Elance or oDesk Huge list of essay programmers. Cavour Unification. Its work diary feature tracks the hours your programmer is working for you and takes screenshots of their desktop at certain time intervals. Freelancer This site has the most programmers listed. They claim that twice as many programmers will respond to your ad, and I found this to be mostly true. Festival. Guru Big list of programmers. iOS or Android developer forums Use these forums to create relationships with other appreneurs. Often times, they’ll suggest great teams or programmers they recommend working with.

You can also ask for advice on hiring your programmer from those who are going through it with you. Essays On The Old Northwest. Below is a template of a job posting, followed by an explanation for each of its components: An exact template for app developer job posting. Enter the skill requirements —What programming languages do they know? For iPhone apps, the skills I list are: iPhone, Objective C, Cocoa, and C Programming. Some advanced game apps require Unity 3D knowledge, this is quite pricey, so if it’s your first app, I strongly suggest not going this route just yet. Give a basic description of essay your project —Keep it simple and skill-specific.

Tell the applicants that you will discuss details during the selection process. Do NOT reveal the specifics of your idea or marketing plan. Use general descriptions, and request info on how many revisions (a.k.a. Essays Economy Of The. iterations) their quote includes. Post your ad only for a two days —This way programmers have a sense of urgency to on ramadan festival, quickly bid on your job. Filter applicants —I always filter applicants using these criteria: They have a rating of four or five stars.

They have at least 100 hours of work logged. Essays On Punk Rock. Their English is essay on ramadan good. Argumentative Essay. Compose individual messages to all suitable applicants, inviting them to a Skype call for further screening. Most of these programmers will overseas, which can present issues with communication and festival time zone differences. Cavour Essay. Therefore, a Skype interview is an absolute must before you can continue. Disqualify anyone who is not willing to jump on a Skype call. Note : There is essay on ramadan a difference between programmers and graphic designers.

Sometimes one person can do both, other times it’s best to hire a graphics programmer to death essay, work with your programmer. Graphics are SO important for apps, that you want quality. If your programmer has a recommendation of someone they’ve worked with before even better! They always know how to work well together, but you still to interview that person as well. The Interview: Essential Questions to festival, Ask Programmers. Don’t give away any of your specific ideas during this initial conversation. Just talk about general genres, like “a camera app,” or “messaging app,” etc. Whenever the topic comes up, say you’ll be more than happy to discuss everything after they sign the NDA (if you search for old man with enormous wings essay prompt, #8220;NDA template#8221; you#8217;ll find one, just tweak it to meet your needs).

Here are the questions you should ask each applicant before committing to anything: How long have you been developing apps? How many apps have you worked on? Can I see them? Do you have a website? What is it? Do you have references I can talk to? THIS IS IMPORTANT. On Ramadan. Many developers will list app’s they’ve worked on#8230;but actually haven’t. You have to followup with who they say they’ve worked for letter, in order to ENSURE they’ve actually developed these apps.

What’s your schedule like? How soon can you start? What time zone do you work in? What are your hours? What’s frustrating for you when working with clients? Are you working with a team? What are their skills? Can you create graphics, or do you have somebody who can?

Can I see examples of the essay graphics work? What happens if you become sick during a project? What if you hit a technical hurdle during the rock project? Do you have other team members or a network of programmers who can help you? How do you ensure that you don’t compete with your clients?

Can you provide flat-fee quotes? What’s your payment schedule? How do you prefer payment? Can you create milestones tied to payments? Do you publish your own apps on on ramadan the App Store? How do you submit an outline, app to the App Store? (Can they verbally walk you through the process, or do they make you feel brain challenged?) Finally, mention that you like to on ramadan festival, start things off with a few simple tests (creating/delivering your app’s icon and a “Hello, World!” app) before coding begins. You need to tell them this upfront so they aren’t surprised after they have provided their quote. Most programmers are happy to rock, get these tests done without a charge, but some will want a small fee. In either. During the interview, pay attention to essay on ramadan, how well they are able to explain themselves.

Are they articulate? Do they use too much techno babble? Do they speak your native language fluently? Do they seem confident with their answers? How is economy old northwest their tone and demeanor? If you have any issues or worries, you may want to move on essay to somebody else. Cavour Italian. But if you can communicate with them easily and your gut is telling you “Yes,” you’ll want to proceed to on ramadan festival, the next step. In either case, thank them for their time and mention that you will follow up with an NDA agreement if you decide to death argumentative essay, move forward.

Be prepared to spend a little extra time on developing your new system and relationship. It#8217;s when appreneurs try to go too fast that they get in trouble or overlook something that was a red flag . Essay On Ramadan Festival. Here are 8 steps to essay sructure, ensure you#8217;re getting the most out of your new developer: 1. Never pay money upfront. Essay Festival. It#8217;s just too risky. Rock. Don#8217;t pay for on ramadan festival, what you don#8217;t have. 2. Create milestones and only pay on cavour unification essay deliverables. On Ramadan. Prior to hiring, have your milestones outlined and agreed upon by your developer in writing.

Make your expectations clear about what you expect to receive for to the editor, each milestone. Festival. 3. Ask if they offer a cheaper rate. Many developers and a very enormous essay prompt designers will offer a discount rate on your first project with them. Then once you rehire them for your next project, it goes back up to their regular rate. 4. Pay with flat rates. It reduces risk and helps your milestones be met in a timely manner. They have no reason to delay or inflate time spent on a feature if they#8217;re not getting paid for those hours.

Don#8217;t make the first milestone half-way through your app#8217;s completion. Make the first assignment a small project. Did they communicate well? Were you happy with their work? Did anything feel off? If you have a bad feeling about someone, move on to someone else right then . It rarely works out or gets better. 6. Daily communication. When first starting with someone new, you should be receiving a daily report and talking every day, even if it#8217;s just to say, #8220;everything is going smoothly.#8221; Also, keep in mind than prior to festival, hiring you should outline what you expect in terms of communication so they know what you expect daily. 7. Be so clear and detailed, it feels tedious and painful.

You#8217;ve never worked together. Think of development like those #8220;team building#8221; exercises where one person is blindfolded while the other person tells them what to draw. You have to be super detailed about extremely obvious things because you never know what could be misconstrued, no matter how painfully obvious it is. Essays Rock. 8. Offer incentives or bonuses. I like to offer bonuses to hit a deadline faster or when they overall did an incredible job. I think it builds rapport when you show them you appreciate and reward great work. They#8217;ll be more incentivized to continue working for you.

Most of these rules should be followed even if it#8217;s not a new developer, but they become the most critical when starting a new relationship. It can be difficult to find a great developer or designer, but they#8217;re out there! Sometimes it just takes a little longer to find and takes more interviews than you hoped. The point is to not give up when there#8217;s a road bump. Essay On Ramadan. That#8217;s what makes an entrepreneur successful. They understand that when things don#8217;t go their way, it#8217;s not a failure it#8217;s a learning experience. Evernote Remember and act upon essays of the, ideas, projects and experiences across all the computers, phones and tablets you use. Skype Make internet calls for free and cheap online calls to phones and mobiles with Skype . 99Designs Designers compete in your mobile app design contest. They submit designs, and you give them feedback. Day 7: Sign NDA Establish Milestones. You must protect your ideas, source code, and any other intellectual property.

These are the essay assets that will build your business, so you need to have each potential programmer sign an NDA before you hire them. Essay Sructure. Yes, it’s rare to have an festival, idea stolen, but it does happen. As you’re going through this process, you will be getting feedback on your programmers’ responsiveness. For instance, if it’s taking too long for them to sign the essays on the old northwest NDA, it might indicate how slowly the development process will move. Buyer beware!

Once the NDA has been signed by both parties, you can share your idea and designs with your programmer. At this stage, it’s critical to ensure they have the skills to essay on ramadan festival, complete your app. You do not have any wiggle room here, especially on your first app. Either they know how to make it or they don’t. Italian Unification Essay. You want to hear things like, “I know exactly how to do that” or “I’ve done similar apps, so it will not be a problem.” You don’t want to festival, hear things like, “I should be able to do that, but I have to research a few things” or “I’m not sure but I can probably figure it out.” If you hear those words, switch to an app idea they are confident about or run for the hills. Old Northwest. After you’ve found the best programmer for the job, you can commit to hiring them. On day 7, establish milestones and timelines during the on ramadan quoting process (break up the app into to the several parts), and decide on festival a schedule and processes for check-ins that you’re both comfortable with (ask them directly how they like to be managed). Day 7 is when you’ll be setting up the operations on how your project will run, so be thorough.

Test icon and or Hello World App. Cavour Unification. Basically, you want to measure their capabilities in some way. This can be anything from developing a basic icon, sending a simplified demo of one of your app#8217;s features, or a #8220;Hello Word#8221; app build. Festival. 0-25% paid upfront. 25-50% this is paid once 1/2 of the letter assignment app is completed and approved by you.

50-75% this is paid once 3/4 of the app is completed and approved by you. 75-100% this is paid once the app is completed, approved and the final build and essay deliverables are delivered. Make sure to have a certain number of iterations (i.e. Essays On Punk. changes after project is over) approved upfront- IE: It could be 3-5 changes, icon changes, etc. Be clear with these to essay festival, prevent confusion down the road. Do flat fees as much as possible. This way, if the developing team (or developers) does not bid the project properly you won’t get hurt for it. After each milestone your developer must send you the code so you have your work and essays on the old northwest are constantly updated or so your work is essay on ramadan festival safe. Regardless of bugs, you should be receiving code as you go along. If they will not provide you with this, do NOT make that milestone’s payment.

Let them know this will be a requirement ahead of time. You will need to death penalty argumentative essay outline, periodically review their work, from start to finish. I strongly suggest having a check-in session every day, or every other day, to ensure things are going as planned. Most applications go through multiple iterations during design and development, and I won’t release partial payments until I’m fully satisfied with each milestone. Basecamp ? The #1 project management application. Teamwork Online project management software. Easily manage your projects and festival team online.

Arman#8217;s note: I strongly recommend Slack for team communication, collaboration, and even project management. Use this link to get $100 in free credits toward a paid account (there is with also a free version). Hackpad Create and essay Organize. Take collaborative notes, share data and files, and use comments to argumentative essay outline, share your thoughts in real-time or asynchronously. Essay. Rather than jumping haphazardly into a full-fledged project, I prefer to gradually ramp up my programmer’s workload by starting with a couple smaller tasks. You need to assess their graphics capabilities, implementation speed, and overall work dynamic (e.g. Editor Assignment. communication, time zone, etc.).

If you’re underwhelmed with their skills early on, you need to essay on ramadan, get out penalty quickly. Remember: Hire slow, fire fast. It will pay off over essay on ramadan, the long run. Here’s my three-step process during the coding phase: 1. To The Editor Assignment. Icon —Ask the programmer or designer to create and deliver the icon of your app. Festival. You will probably have several ideas for icons, so pass them on and ask for a finished iTunes Artwork version of the icon. Then once you’ve decided on an icon, design the icon sizes around Apple’s Guidelines for each product. Icon app sizes can be found here: Icon Size Chart.

2. Hello, World! —Ask the cavour italian unification programmer for a “Hello, World!” app. It’s a simple app that opens up and shows a page that displays “Hello, World!”, and essay on ramadan festival it will take them 10 minutes to create. The idea here is not to test their programming skills, but to determine how they will deliver apps to you for testing. This app should include the cavour italian icon they created, so you can see how it will look on essay on ramadan festival your phone. 3. App Delivery —When the cavour unification programmers are ready to essay festival, show you a test version of your app, they have to create something called an “ad hoc” (a version of your app that can be delivered to and run on your iPhone, without the use of the App Store). This ad hoc version of of the your app needs to be installed on on ramadan festival your phone before you can test it. The initial installation was a bit cumbersome in the past, but a new service called TestFlight has simplified the process. I ask all programmers to use this service even if they have not used it before. They will be able to figure it out, and you’ll be able to install your test apps with a few touches on your phone. To The Editor. Now that you’ve begun coding, it’s important to look for ways to increase productivity, lower costs, and essay on ramadan systematize your business. Here are 3 ways I systematize my business from the beginning: What in your business can be automated?

What can be done by other people? Really think about that. It#8217;s easy to find yourself doing something because you#8217;re the fastest and best at it, but if you can create templates or POSs to with enormous wings essay, send to others, or even better automated actions, while you work on the really important things, then you#8217;re not only optimizing your business you#8217;re preparing your business for growth. Festival. Some examples: Receiving a lot of email? Most emails are about the same types of topics. Create an autoresponder or template. Are you uploading all your own apps to iTunes? Turn this into a template or video and give to a PA or TA. Even important systems like, how to choose good keywords, can be handed off to someone else to essays economy old northwest, get your app in the store faster, then just makemupdates for essay festival, testing. Building a new app?

Reuse successful screenshot templates, icons, and enormous wings essay copy. You already know it converts well just adjust it to on ramadan festival, fit the essays on the economy of the current app and submit. Your production times will drastically increase. There are tons of high-quality resources already made that you can use for your apps instead of building from scratch. You can use stock photos/graphics , stock music and sounds, and essay festival most importantly you can buy and reuse code to significantly lower production costs. Cavour Essay. Whether you#8217;re reskinning an essay on ramadan, app or building a custom app, you can use these stock options to save costs and essays rock work faster. Essay On Ramadan Festival. There are a lot of on punk talented people on essay festival freelance websites that you can use on a per project basis to get things done quickly. And for really cheap too! Half the battle is with yourself and realizing that you don#8217;t have to control every little detail. Empower your team or your hires to make decisions themselves. Once you realize that imperfections are OK and death penalty argumentative outline don#8217;t always affect the bottom line, you#8217;ll find yourself producing things much faster and more efficiently.

Give yourself a pat on essay the back — you’ve made serious progress! But don’t get too caught up with yourself, because a big mistake many appreneurs make is publishing their app to the store and thinking they’re done. Cavour Italian. Once your app is on essay on ramadan festival the store, now it’s GO TIME. This is when you’ll use ninja marketing and monetization strategies to generate revenue and bring in a very enormous prompt customers from all over the world. Testico You can to put the icon you#8217;ve created on festival your iPhone or iPad home screen, and essays rock generate automatic previews of on ramadan standard icon sizes on the standard iPhone screen. Stock Websites: Video, sound effects, music, after effects, photos and essays economy old northwest illustrations Audio Graphics www. istockphoto .com / Graphics. Wow, that#8217;s it folks!

Your complete 8 day app business plan. Since I know you may need/want to refer to essay festival, the business plan template again in the future, I have a special PDF template of the entire post that I#8217;d like to give you for free. You can get this right now by entering your email below and download on the next page. Enjoy! Do you know anyone who would like to on the economy of the, create an app or start an app business, but doesn#8217;t know where to start? Send them this complete guide. They#8217;ll love you for it! 3 Fast Ways to Grow Your Lean Startup with Eric Ries. Essay On Ramadan Festival. The Key to Identifying Your Vocation and Career Path. How to Stop Competing and on the economy of the Get Your Dream Job Today. Arman, have you launched any apps yet with this plan?

Personally? No. On Ramadan. Apps are Chad#8217;s domain :). He has a massive App Empire community that use this strategy, and he still uses it himself today. He also gives more details on this in his book: Thanks.

Yes, I#8217;ve been following Chad for a while now. Essays On The Economy Of The. He inspired me to launch 6 of my own apps. Wow, great stuff Zain! What#8217;s been your biggest learning/lesson so far? The importance of app marketing and releasing a refined product! The importance of essay releasing a quality product. Great note .. Outline. couldn#8217;t find the NDA Template; did I just miss it? Can you please post a link to essay festival, that in the response?

Thanks for catching that. We don#8217;t have that, but they#8217;re all pretty standard. If you search for one you can tweak it to meet your specific needs and you#8217;ll be good to go. It#8217;s more about putting them through the process of signing than the actual NDA itself. I#8217;m super late to old man wings essay prompt, this conversation but I really loved what you wrote. It#8217;s super helpful. I have an essay festival, idea for an app but I#8217;m curious what the cavour italian unification essay standard time is to expect for creating a quality product from research to deployment. I want to realistically set my expectations. Can you offer any ballpark estimates on how long the process should be based on your experience? Love it, glad to hear that Chris!

I wish I could answer that from on ramadan festival my own experience, but I can#8217;t. Chad is the real app expert here and a very old man with enormous wings essay prompt it#8217;s his post, so I would check out: for more resources and info. From my observations though, if you set yourself a tight deadline it can be pretty quick. Other people spend a lot of festival time stuck in that #8220;development#8221; stage trying to get it all perfect. Don#8217;t do that. Good luck! :) Planning a mobile app development project can be tricky, there#8217;s lots to think about (especially marketing and post launch optimisation and support). It#8217;s easy to underestimate the cost of essay sructure app projects and focus your effort doing the wrong things.

We#8217;ve developed hundreds of apps for customers all over the world and developed a simple test to check your planning activities are on essay festival point. It#8217;s a quick checklist (takes two minutes) and will help crystallise your thinking around mobile, you can check it out here: How to Upgrade to the Newest iPhone for essays, Free. Every Time. This Is What the on ramadan Latest Science Says About Empathy. When Is The Right Time to Quit Your Job and Finally Become a Solopreneur. How and What to italian essay, Pack for Your Next Travel Adventure. 7 Minutes to Launching Your Blog or Website on WordPress. Case Studies (9) Contempo Philosophy (15) Digital Marketing (10) Experiments (10) Mindset (50) Productivity (21) Science Psychology (15) Self-Directed Living (62) Solopreneurship (56) Tools (17) Topics (1) Travel (12) How to Achieve True Freedom: Declare Your Freedom Lifestyle and Become a Solopreneur.

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The Festival of Ramadan - GCSE Religious Studies (Philosophy

essayons french My Favorite things about Angelfire. Easy/Mind Relaxing Fast/Challengeing Fun/Pleasent. My Favorite Web Sites. The US Army Corp of Engineers; U.S. ARMY ENGINEER HISTORY AND TRADITIONS. THE HISTORY OF THE CORPS OF ENGINEERS: On 16 June, 1775, the Continental Congress resolved, That there be one Chief Engineer at the Grand Army. And that of two assistants be employed under him. This marked the beginning of the Corps of Engineers.

The following year a number of individuals were given appointments as engineers or assistant engineers in the Continental Army. Three years later, the Congress authorized the essay on ramadan festival, recruitment of three companies of engineers, generally referred to as miners and sappers. The organization of these companies and the officers having engineer responsibilities into italian essay a Corps of Engineers, came on 11 March 1779. During the Revolution, these miners and sappers worked on field fortifications and roads. At the Battle of Yorktown, they joined in the assault of Redoubt No 10 in essay on ramadan, their secondary capacity as infantrymen. At the close of the Revolution, the Corps was mustered out of service. Because of a recognized need for a regular military establishment, Congress took a number of steps in the early 1790s to reconstitute the American Army. One of these was the cavour italian unification, establishment of the Corps of Artillerists and Engineers in 1794. In the crisis with France four years later, an on ramadan additional regiment of artillerists and engineers was formed. However, it was soon recognized that the duties and functions of the artillery and engineers, while connected, were distinct. In 1800, a movement began to separate the two branches.

On 16 March 1802, Congress authorized the President to establish a separate Corps of Engineers. The law also stated, The said corps when so organized shall be stationed at West Point, in the State of New York, and shall constitute a military academy.. By this action, the Congress recognized that military engineering was a science, and editor assignment, therefore required formal education and on ramadan festival, training. The Corps consisted primarily of officers and cadets. However in 1803, the a very old man enormous prompt, commanding officer of the Corps was authorized to enlist 18 men and on ramadan, 1 artificer to aid in making experiments at West Point, and for other purposes. This constituted the first enlisted personnel in the Corps after its separation from the artillery several months before. During the War of 1812, a company of bombardiers, sappers, and miners served on the Northwest Frontiers. For the letter to the editor assignment, next 40 years, the Corps' responsibilities centered around the essay on ramadan, construction of death essay coastal fortifications and exploration of the American West. In 1838, Congress authorized the creation of a separate Corps of Topographical Engineers.

Individual topographical engineers had been serving under the Chief of Engineers since 1816, and the topographical engineering mission dated from the essay on ramadan festival, appointment of Mr. Robert Erskine to death essay, be geographer and essay on ramadan, surveyor of the roads. Much of the essay, effort on the nation's internal development, such as roads and waterways, was done by festival the Topogs. During the Mexican War, Corps of Engineers and Topographical Engineer officers performed valuable service to the nation. Captain Robert E. Lee, Corps of essays of the Engineers, received several brevets for heroism and essay, gallantry as General Winfield Scott's staff engineer. Significantly, Congress authorized the a very old man with enormous, creation of a company of on ramadan miners, sappers, and pontoneers for the Regular Army.

These enlisted men were to be called engineer soldiers. On The Of The? Prior to this, the term engineer had generally been confined to officers. Following the Mexican War, the engineers returned to their civil works, fortification, and exploration projects. In the 1850s, engineers surveyed several routes for essay on ramadan the proposed transcontinental railroad. In the first days of the American Civil War, Congress added three additional companies of engineers and one of topographical engineers. Essay Sructure? Formed into a battalion of engineers, they worked on field fortifications, conducted terrain reconnaissance, and built numerous fixed and floating bridges.

In 1864, the battalion built a float bridge over the James River which exceeded 2,000 feet in length. This constituted a record which stood until 1945. The efforts of the regular battalion of engineers were supported by on ramadan festival numerous volunteer engineer regiments such as the 15th and 50th New York Volunteer Engineer Regiments. Following the war, the cavour italian unification, Corps returned to its peacetime missions. All of the work of the Topographical Engineers went to the Corps when the topogs merged with the Corps in 1863. Waterways, coastal fortifications and lighthouses were the most important peacetime responsibilities. The structure of the Corps remained relatively constant until 1901, when the companies were enlarged and reorganized into three battalions of regular engineers. The Corps' experience with waterways was of great value when the Panama Canal Commission appointed engineer officers to direct the construction of the canal. In the years immediately preceding our entry into World War I, the Army and the Corps underwent expansion and reorganization. The Army adopted the divisional system which constituted the combined arms structure used today.

Key to this was the creation of divisional engineer regiments which numbered almost 1500 officers and men. When the country entered the war, additional engineer regiments appeared. Many of these worked on specific missions, such as railway construction, forestry, and harbor development. The Corps' record of accomplishment during the Great War established the general pattern of engineer operations during World War II. General Service and Combat Regiments built every conceivable structure or facility in the various theaters of operation. Combat regiments and battalions supported the maneuver forces with roads, bridges, and mine warfare. At home, the Corps supervised the essay festival, $15.2 billion defense construction program. Included was the $2 billion Manhattan Project which ushered in the era of atomic warfare. Letter Editor? The end of the war against on ramadan festival, the Axis powers ushered in the Cold War between the free world and the communist states. Penalty Essay? The Corps responded with an intensive program of festival military construction which consisted of distant early warning sites, military bases overseas, and missile installations. The Cold War turned hot in Korea between 1950 and 1954 and in Southeast Asia a decade later.

For both of these conflicts, engineers not only fought alongside maneuver arms but also constructed countless support facilities. In the seesaw battles in Korea, combat engineers demolished, rebuilt, and destroyed the same bridges as the tide of war moved across the Korean landscape. Vietnam posed an even greater problem due to the nature of that insurgent conflict and the lack of assignment support facilities for on ramadan festival troops in the field. Old Man Wings Essay Prompt? Fire bases, airfields, heliports, harbor facilities, and major highways were among the tasks of on ramadan builders and fighters. All of this occurred while the civil works side of the Corps continued with navigation, flood control, hydroelectric, and essay sructure, military construction projects in the United States. Festival? The end of the Cold War did not bring the dividends of peace that so many Americans desired. Contingency operations in Granada, Panama, and Kuwait brought combat engineers into action. Humanitarian efforts such as Provide Comfort and Restore Hope constituted yet another mission for essay sructure the Corps. Rebuilding Kuwait, providing for relief of displaced refugees, and supporting United Nations efforts in Somalia called for both combat and construction skills. Disaster assistance for victims of hurricanes, floods, and earthquakes continues to be a peacetime challenge of the Corps.

For more than 200 years, miners, sappers, pontoneers, topogs-engineers, have contributed to the development of essay festival this nation and of developing nations. Unification? In war, engineers have been fighters and builders of those things needed to sustain the battle. If the past is simply a prologue of the future, engineers must continue to hone their ability to build, and if necessary, fight as Infantry personnel!! CHIEFS OF ENGINEERS: COL RICHARD GRIDLEY.. 17 JUN 1775 - 05 AUG 1776 COL RUFUS PUTNAM.

05 AUG 1776 - 01 DEC 1776 MG L.L. DUPORTAIL. 22 JUL 1777 - 10 OCT 1783 LTC STEPHEN ROCHEFONTAINE.26 FEB 1795 - 07 MAY 1798 LTC HENRY BURBECK. 07 MAY 1798 - 01 APR 1802 COL JONATHAN WILLIAMS. 01 APR 1802 - 31 JUL 1812 COL J.G. SWIFT.

31 JUL 1812 - 12 NOV 1818 COL W.K. Essay Festival? ARMISTEAD. 12 NOV 1818 - 01 JUN 1821 COL ALEXANDER MACOMB..01 JUN 1821 - 24 MAY 1828 COL CHARLES GRATIOT. 24 MAY 1828 - 06 DEC 1838 BG J.G. TOTTEN. 07 DEC 1838 - 22 APR 1864 BG RICHARD DELAFIELD..22 APR 1864 - 08 AUG 1866 BG A.A. HUMPHREYS.

08 AUG 1866 - 30 JUN 1879 BG H.G. WRIGHT. 30 JUN 1879 - 06 MAR 1884 BG JOHN NEWTON. 06 MAR 1884 - 27 AUG 1886 BG J.C. DUANE. Essays Rock? 11 OCT 1886 - 30 JUN 1888 BG T.L. CASEY. 06 JUL 1888 - 10 MAY 1895 BG W.P. CRAIGHILL. On Ramadan? 10 MAY 1895 - 01 FEB 1897 BG J.M. WILSON.

01 FEB 1897 - 30 APR 1901 BG HENRY M. ROBERT. 30 APR 1901 - 02 MAY 1901 BG JOHN W. BARLOW. Old Man With Enormous Prompt? 02 MAY 1901 - 03 MAY 1901 BG GEO L. GILLISPIE. 03 MAY 1901 - 22 JAN 1904 BG ALEXANDER MARKENZIE.23 JAN 1904 - 25 MAY 1908 BG WILLIAM L. Essay Festival? MARSHALL.02 JUL 1908 - 11 JUN 1910 BG WILLIAM H. BIXBY. 12 JUN 1910 - 11 AUG 1913 BG WILLIAM T. Essays? ROSSELL.12 AUG 1913 - 11 OCT 1913 BG DAN C. KINGMAN. 12 OCT 1913 - 06 MAR 1916 MG WILLIAM M. Essay On Ramadan? BLACK.

07 MAR 1916 - 31 OCT 1919 MG LANSING H. BEACH. 10 FEB 1920 - 18 JUN 1924 MG HARRY TAYLOR. 19 JUN 1924 - 26 JUN 1926 MG EDGAR JADWIN. Penalty Essay? 27 JUN 1926 - 07 AUG 1929 MG LYTLE BROWN. Essay? 01 OCT 1929 - 01 OCT 1933 MG EDWARD M. MARKHAM..01 OCT 1933 - 18 OCT 1937 MG JULIAN L. SCHLEY. 18 OCT 1937 - 01 OCT 1941 LTG EUGENE REYBOLD. 01 OCT 1941 - 04 OCT 1945 LTG RAYMOND A. WHEELER.04 OCT 1945 - 28 FEB 1949 LTG LEWIS A. Essays On Punk? PICK. 01 MAR 1949 - 26 JAN 1953 LTG SAMUEL D. Essay On Ramadan Festival? STURGIS JR.17 MAR 1953 - 30 SEP 1956 LTG EMERSON C. ITCHNER. 01 OCT 1956 - 27 MAR 1961 LTG WALTER K. On Punk? WILSON JR.19 MAY 1961 - 01 JUL 1965* LTG WILLIAM F. CASSIDY. 01 JUL 1965 - 31 JUL 1969 LTG FREDERICK J. CLARKE.01 AUG 1969 - 31 JUL 1973 LTG WILLIAM C. GRIBBLE JR.01 AUG 1973 - 30 JUN 1976 LTG JOHN W. Essay On Ramadan Festival? MORRIS.

01 JUL 1976 - 30 SEP 1980 LTG JOSEPH K. BRATTON. 01 OCT 1980 - 14 SEP 1984 LTG ELVIN R. A Very Old Man Enormous Essay Prompt? HEIBERG III.14 SEP 1984 - 31 MAY 1988 LTG HENRY J. HATCH. 17 JUN 1988 - 04 JUN 1992 LTG ARTHUR E. WILLIAMS.24 AUG 1992 - 30 JUN 1996 LTG JOE N. BALLARD. Essay On Ramadan Festival? 01 OCT 1996 - Present. ENGINEER SCHOOL COMMANDANTS at letter to the editor, Willetts Point, NY, (Fort Totten): MAJ JAMES C. DUANE.

1865 - 68 MAJ H. L. ABBOT. 1868 - 86 MAJ C. B. COMSTOCK. 1886 - 87 MAJ W. Essay On Ramadan Festival? R. Cavour Italian Essay? KING. 1887 - 95 MAJ W. T. ROSSELL. 1895 - 95 MAJ J. G. Essay On Ramadan? D. KNIGHT..1895 - 01. At Washington Barracks, DC. MAJ W. Old Man With Enormous Essay? M. BLACK. 1901 - 03 MAJ EDWARD BURR. 1903 - 06 MAJ E. E. WINSLOW..1906 - 07 MAJ W. Festival? C. LANGFITT.1907 - 10 MAJ W. J. BARDEN.

1910 - 13 MAJ JOSEPH E. KUHN.1913 - 14 MAJ WILLIAM. P. WOOTEN.1914 - 16 MAJ G. Essay Sructure? R. LUKESH. 1916 - 16 MG M. M. PATRICK. On Ramadan? 1916 - 17 COL W. W. HARTS. 1917 - 17 BG HENREY JERVEY. Letter To The Editor Assignment? 1917 - 17 COL F. V. ABBOT. 1917 - 18 COL RICHARD PARK. 1918 - 18 BG CHARLES W. KUTZ.1918 - 18 COL JAY J. Festival? MORROW..1919 - 19. At Camp Humphreys, VA; redesignated Fort Belvoir, 1935. MG C. A. F. FLAGLER..1919 - 20 BG W. D. CONNOR.

1920 - 20 COL MERIWEATHER L. WALKER..1920 - 21 MG MASON M. PATRICK..1921 - 21 COL J. A. WOODRUFF.1921 - 24 COL H. BURGESS. Essays On The Of The Old Northwest? 1924 - 24 COL SHERWOOD A. CHENEY.1924 - 25 COL EDWARD M. MARKHAM..1925 - 29 COL EDWARD H. SCHULZ. 1929 - 33 COL GEORGE R. Essay? SPAULDING.1933 - 35 COL LAURENCE V. FRAZIER.1935 - 36 COL JULIAN L. A Very Old Man With Wings? SCHLEY. 1936 - 36 COL J. A. O'CONNOR. 1937 - 38 COL THOMAS M. On Ramadan? ROBINS.

1938 - 39 COL J. A. O'CONNOR. Death Penalty Essay? 1939 - 40 BG ROSCOE C. CRAWFORD.1940 - 43 COL XENEPHON H. Essay On Ramadan? PRICE.1943 - 44 BG GORDON R. YOUNG. 1944 - 44 BG DWIGHT F. Essay Outline? JOHNS. 1944 - 45 BG PATRICK HENRY TIMOTHY. 1945 - 46 COL WILLIS E. TEALE..1946 - 47 MG WILLIAM M. HOGE. 1947 - 48 MG DOUGLAS L. WEART..1948 - 51 MG STANLEY L. SCOTT..1951 - 54 MG A. W. PENCE. 1954 - 54 MG LOUIS W. PRENTISS.1954 - 56 MG DAVID H. TULLEY. 1956 - 58 MG GERALD E. GALLOWAY.1958 - 60 MG WALTER K. WILSON..1960 - 61 MG STEPHEN R. HAMMER.1961 - 62 MG LAURENCE L. LINCOLN.1963 - 65* MG FREDERICK J. CLARKE.1965 - 66 MG ROBERT F. SEEDLOCK.1966 - 67 MG ARTHUR W. OBERBECK.1968 - 68 MG GEORGE H. Festival? WALKER..1968 - 69 MG WILLIAM C. GRIBBLE JR.1969 - 70 MG ROBERT R. Of The Old Northwest? PLOGER..1970 - 73 MG HAROLD R. Essay? PARFITT.1973 - 75 MG JAMES A. JOHNSON..1975 - 77 MG JAMES L. KELLEY.. 1977 - 80 MG MAXWELL W. NOAH..

1980 - 82 MG JAMES N. Essay Sructure? ELLIS. 1982 - 84 MG ROBERT S. KEM. 1984 - 87 MG WILLIAM H. RENO. 1987 - 88. At Fort Leonard Wood, MO.

MG DANIEL R. SCHROEDER.1988 - 91 MG DANIEL W. CHRISTMAN.1991 - 93 MG JOE N. BALLARD. 1993 - 95 MG CLAIR F. GILL. 1995 - 97 MG ROBERT B. FLOWERS.1997 - Present. THE HISTORY OF THE ENGINEER SCHOOL: The Corps of Engineers, the Engineer School traces its roots to essay festival, the American Revolution. General Headquarters Orders, Valley Force, dated 9 June 1778 read 3 Captains and 9 Lieutenants are wanted to officer the Company of Sappers. As the rock, Corps will be a SCHOOL OF ENGINEERING, it opens a prospect to such gentlemen as enter it. On Ramadan Festival? Shortly after the publishing of the order, the school moved to the river fortifications at West Point. With the end of the war and the mustering out of the Army, the school closed. However, the Regiment of Artillerists and Engineers was constituted a military school and was reopened at essay sructure, the same location in 1794.

For four years it constituted a school of application for new engineers and artillerists. Closing in 1798, due to a fire which destroyed many facilities, the essay on ramadan festival, engineers was without a school for three years. In 1801, the War Department revived the school, and Major Jonathan Williams became its superintendent. Less than a year later, Congress authorized the Corps of Engineers and constituted it at West Point as a military academy. For the next 64 years, the Military Academy was under the supervision of the Corps. Although the curriculum was heavily laced with engineering subjects, the Academy commissioned officers into all branches of the service.

Following the Civil War, supervision of the Academy passed to the War Department. Essays On The Of The Old Northwest? When the Engineer Battalion took station at Willets Point in 1866, Engineer leaders saw the opportunity to essay on ramadan festival, develop a school oriented exclusively to engineers. From 1868 to 1885, an informal School of Application existed. On The Economy Of The Old Northwest? Part of this effort involved the essay festival, creation of the argumentative, Essayons Club. This was an informal group which met during the winter months and presented professional engineer papers.

In 1885, the School of Application received formal recognition by the War Department. Essay Festival? In 1890, the name was changed to United States Engineer School. In 1901, the School moved from Willets Point (later renamed Fort Totten) to italian unification essay, Washington Barracks in Washington D.C. and was renamed the Engineer School of Application. Ironically, this name lasted only a few years. In 1904, the name was changed back to on ramadan, the Engineer School. The Engineer School remained at essays rock, Washington Barracks for the next 19 years, although it closed from time to essay on ramadan festival, time because of a shortage of officers, or national emergencies.

In 1909, certain courses associated with the field army moved to Ft. Leavenworth, and the Army Field Engineer School opened in enormous essay, 1910. That school, a part of the Army Service Schools, closed in 1916. The First World War forced a closing of the Engineer School as the instructors and students were needed to officer the expanding engineer force. The school resumed its instruction in 1920, but at a different location. Washington Barracks was transferred to the General Staff College and the Engineer School moved to Camp A.A.

Humphreys, south of Mount Vernon, in Virginia. This was a WWI camp built on essay, land acquired by the War Department in 1912. The original name for the tract was Belvoir. For 68 years, Ft. Belvoir was the home of the Engineer School. It produced thousands of officers, NCOs and enlisted engineers who saw action in World War II, Korea, and letter to the, Vietnam.

Thousands more passed through the Engineer School during the peacetime years. In 1988, the Engineer School and Center moved to Ft Leonard Wood, Missouri. Here the traditions of essay on ramadan engineering schooling, begun in the snows of Valley Forge, continue.. THE DE FLEURY MEDAL As the Corps of Engineers implemented the rock, US Army Regimental System, the senior engineer leadership sought a method for the Corps of Engineers to honor those individuals who have provided significant contributions to Army Engineering. The Army Regimental System was developed to emphasize the history, custom, and tradition of the Corps; so MG Daniel R. Schroeder, then Commanding General of essay Fort Leonard Wood and Engineer School Commandant, wanted an award that would tie in with the beginnings of the nation and the Army Corps of Engineers. In 1777, a French Engineer volunteered to serve with the American Army in its fight for independence from on punk rock Britain. Francois Louis Tesseidre de Fleury was born in St.

Hippolyte, France in 1749; was trained as an engineer; and served in the French Army during the Corsican Campaign. Essay On Ramadan? The Continental Congress appointed de Fleury a captain of engineers, and he quickly proved himself. Wounded at the battles of Fort Mifflin and Brandywine (where his horse was shot out from under him), he soon became Lt. Col. de Fleury. But it was in the desperate battle at Stony Point, New York in 1779, that de Fleury's courage, under fire, won him the accolades of Congress. In June of 1779, two small American forts were being established on the Hudson River at Stony Point and Verplanck's Point, about 30 miles from letter editor assignment Manhattan Island. Essay On Ramadan Festival? A large British force easily captured both sites. The enemy began building a strong defensive perimeter around Stony Point. The Point was actually a peninsula jutting nearly half a mile into the Hudson, tipped with rocky crags which shot up 150 feet above the river.

On the landward side was swamp which flooded at rock, high tide, sinking a causeway running to the shore under two feet of on ramadan festival water and making the Point an essay island. Festival? The formidable defense included several batteries partially connected by trenches, log and earth redoubts around the main fort, and economy old northwest, a double abatis. On Ramadan Festival? It was called Little Gibraltar. GEN George Washington was disturbed by the capture of the two forts. British occupation gave them control of a vital segment of the essay sructure, river and on ramadan festival, rerouted American communications, supplies, and death penalty, troops moving between New England and the other colonies. Worse, GEN Washington was convinced the enemy was preparing to strike West Point, less than 15 miles upriver. American reinforcements were quickly moved into position north of Stony Point, but Washington thought there was no hope of recapture. Festival? A recently formed light infantry corps led by the daring Brigadier General Mad Anthony Wayne, consisted of hand picked combat veterans.

The group was made up of four regiments of about 340 men each. A Very Old Man With Essay? COL Christian Old Denmark Febiger headed the on ramadan, 1st Regiment with de Fleury as second in command. On July 15th, the corps, except for a small diversionary force, unloaded weapons and with enormous wings essay prompt, turned in their ammunition. Secrecy was so tight the troops did not know they were going to attempt to recapture Stony Point. For such a risky assault, surprise was vital; and the attack was to take place in total darkness. Fixed bayonets and essay festival, hand­to­hand combat were the orders of the day.

Wayne's column had no sooner sloshed into the waist­deep water before a British picket sent up an alarm. During the fierce fighting, Wayne and Febiger both suffered stunning head wounds. The Continentals scrambled up the rocky slope with de Fleury in the lead. First over the wall, de Fleury was followed by a wave of American bayonets. Rushing to the flag pole, de Fleury cut the British colors from their staff. Death? In addition to the recapture of Stony Point, the defeat of the British fired the American's determination and lifted their morale. It showed the enemy that the colonies had an able fighting force. It was that on 1 October 1779, de Fleury stood before the Continental Congress to be praised for his valor at Stony Point by the men who had penned the Declaration of Independence and would later sign the Constitution. For his intrepid behavior, the Continental Congress awarded a medal struck in his honor. The Engineer Regiment adopted the de Fleury Medal as an award because of the values demonstrated by the man for whom it was struck ­ values of special meaning to Engineer Soldiers. It's understood that the de Fleury Medal was the first Congressional Medal struck, if not the first medal authorized.

On the obverse of the medal is the Latin inscription meaning: A MEMORIAL AND REWARD FOR COURAGE AND BOLDNESS. In the center appears the essay on ramadan festival, image of death outline a helmeted soldier standing amidst the ruins of a fort, holding in essay, his right hand an unsheathed sword, and in to the, his left the staff of the enemy's flag, which he tramples underfoot. On the reverse, again in Latin: FORTIFICATIONS, MARSHES, ENEMIES OVERCOME. In the center the fortress at Stony Point is on ramadan, depicted with both turrets and wings prompt, a flag flying. At the base of the hill are two shore batteries, one of which is firing at one of on ramadan six vessels on the Hudson River­ Beneath the fort is the legend: STONY POINT CARRIED BY STORM, JULY 15, 1779. Presentation of the de Fleury Medal, to those individuals meeting established criteria, was begun in 1989. Soldiers and civilians, active and retired, from enlisted soldiers to essay sructure, Generals to essay festival, the Chief of Staff of the French Army proudly wear the de Fleury Medal. The de Fleury award program is on punk, administered by the Army Engineer Association for essay on ramadan the US Army Corps of Engineers. The medal dies are controlled by the United States Mint which is responsible for striking the medals. THE ENGINEER BUTTON:

The Corps of Engineers' oldest and most time honored insignia is the exclusive Essayons Button. It has not changed in basic design since the war of 1812. It is still the a very old man with wings, required button for the Army Engineers' uniform. Evidence which could establish the actual facts concerning the designing and adoption of the Essayons Button probably burned at West Point in 1838, when the building containing the library and earliest official Corps of on ramadan Military Academy records caught fire. Unification? However, while early Army regulations mentioned the button of Engineers. with only the device and motto heretofore established, apparently no authoritative detailed description of the button appeared until 1840. The Army prescribed new uniforms on on ramadan, February 18, 1840, in to the, General Orders 7, AGO, which officially described the button as follows: An eagle holding in his beak a scroll with the word, 'Essayons,' a bastion with embrasures in the distance, surrounded by water, and rising sun; the figures to be of dead gold upon a bright field. In 1902, when the essay festival, Army adopted regulation buttons, it allowed only the Corps of Engineers to retain its own distinctive Essayons Button in recognition of the distinguished traditions that it symbolized. THE ENGINEER CASTLE. The appropriateness of the old man with, turreted castle as a symbol of the Army Corps of Engineers is festival, readily apparent. The medieval castle is inseparably connected with fortifications and architecture. In heraldry, the castle and the tower are often used on to the editor, coats of arms or given as charges in the shield of individuals who overcome walled fortifications, were the essay, first to mount their walls ore successfully defended them.

In this country the term castle has been applied to the strongest of essays rock our early fortifications such as Castle Pickney in Charleston, South Carolina, and Castle Williams and Clinton in New York Harbor. The Castle is a highly stylized form without decoration or embellishment. The Army officially adopted the castle to appear on the Corps of Engineers Epaulets and belt plate, in 1840. Soon afterwards the cadets at West Point, all of whom were part of the Corps of Engineers until the Military Academy left the charge of the Chief of Engineers and came under the charge of the Army at Large in 1866, also wore the castle on their cap beginning in 1841. Subsequently the castle appeared on the shoulder knot; on the saddle cloth, as a collar device, and on the buttons. Though its design has changed many times since its inception, the castle has remained the distinctive symbol of the on ramadan, Corps of Engineers. THE SEAL OF THE CORPS OF ENGINEERS The Seal of the Army Corps of Engineers is often referred to letter to the, as the coat of arms.

It was adopted shortly after the festival, Civil War to commemorate the consolidation of the Corps of Topographic Engineers and the regular Corps of Engineers. In 1831 the Topographical Corps was removed from the original corps which had been in existence since 1802. In 1866 the Topogs as they were called, re-joined the Corps of Engineers and General A. A. On The? Humphries adopted the present seal. The significance of the design is plain. The large shield is divided into three horizontal sections, of which the top is solid blue; the bottom is divided into 13 vertical stripes, in red and on ramadan festival, white. The center section shows the italian unification, original shields of the on ramadan festival, two separate corps, the left side representing the traditional Engineers through the design on their button. On the right is the red, white, and blue shield with capitol T and E of the old man wings prompt, Topographic Engineers. The Eagle with arrows and olive branch dominates the design with the motto ESSAYONS in the scroll beneath. The Oak and Laurel branches symbolize strength and victory.

The seal was officially adopted by the Corps on 6 April, 1897. THE U.S. ARMY CORPS OF ENGINEERS BRANCH SONG ESSAYONS Essayons, sound out the battle cry Essayons, we'll win or we'll die Essayons, there's nothing we won't try We're the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Pin the castle on my collar I've done my training for the team You can call me an engineer soldier The warrior spirit has been my dream We are builders, we are fighters We are destroyers just as well There've been doubters who met with the sappers 1 - We know our sappers will never fail OR 2 - And then we blew them all straight to hell Our brothers fighting on on ramadan festival, the battlefield Look to us to point the way We get there first and then we take the risks To build the roads and the air strips And bridge the mighty river streams We don't care who gets the glory We're sure of essays on the economy one thing, this we know Somewhere out essay on ramadan there an engineer soldier Designed the plan for the whole darn show Essayons whether in death penalty argumentative essay, war or peace We will bear our red and our white Essayons we serve America And the U.S. Army Corps of essay on ramadan festival engineers Essayons!

Essayons! ENGINEER REGIMENTAL PUNCH BOWL CEREMONY The history of the Engineer is the history of the United States of America. From her colonial beginnings Engineers mapped, built, and fought their way across this great nation from shore to shore, eventually extending the might of America around the globe. This Engineer Punch is a rare and unique combination of old man prompt spirits, each symbolizing the heritage, the achievement, and the glory of the essay on ramadan festival, Engineers. representing the enlisted soldiers will establish the a very old man with enormous wings essay prompt, base of our punch, just as the Engineers have formed as the base of many branches of our Army. In order to truly understand the significance of the on ramadan, Engineers we must examine carefully the letter editor assignment, first charge, our FOUNDATION, The red color, reminiscent of the shared heritage of Engineers and Artillerists attests to the time when mid-evil Enginators designed, built, and operated the engines of war.

From those early Engineers sprang the Artillery, later the Armored forces, even Aviation, and the Chemical corps trace their origins to the early Engineers. representing the history of civilian support for the Corps, will continue the heritage of our forefathers. On Ramadan Festival? Engineers of our revolution met at occasions such as we are doing here tonight, and on essays on punk, 11 March, 1779, by essay festival resolution of Congress, The Corps of Engineers was formed. In commemoration of the death penalty, Engineers who first trained in the snows of Valley Forge, organized into a corps, and won our independence at on ramadan, Yorktown, we add the second charge, COGNAC, honoring the French who contributed to on the old northwest, our first victory and from whom we adopted much of our unique heritage. representing the youthful zeal of the Engineers, will remind us of the essay, invulnerability and unification essay, hope inherent in the Engineer spirit. Truth, innocence, vigilance, and essay, devotion are the principles which guide Engineers in the performance of their duty. This un-blemished magnificence found in third charge, WHITE WINE, is also the color of the white piping found on the Engineer colors. This white, original color for Infantry, represents of the secondary mission of the Engineer, that is to fight alongside the Le-Enfantry, in French, the children of battle representing the Engineer senior leadership, will help us reflect on those who have given their last full measure of devotion, our fallen comrades.

In honor of the selfless sacrifice of the men and argumentative essay, women, who for essay festival more than three centuries, have served this land, and have vowed to carry on this tradition. Our final charge is CHAMPAGNE, the rock, noblest produce of the essay festival, vine, symbolizing the eternal mission of the death penalty, Engineer and reminiscent of the essay festival, effervescent spirit, the enthusiasm, and essays old northwest, the indomitable courage with which Engineers have demonstrated their ability. Today the mission of the Corps is as varied as the contents of this punch: Topographic Engineering, Combat Engineering, Facilities Engineering, and Civil Works, . Mobility, Counter-Mobility, Survivability, and the underlying requirement to get the job done and get it done right. This is the essay on ramadan festival, Army Corps of Engineers. Accomplishing the mission, from the fortification of Breeds Hill to the Engineering of our environment, Engineers, now as always, clear the cavour, way. Essay On Ramadan Festival? If you look around you, from the establishment of the Corps in the 18th century to the exploration of the universe well into the 21st, you will see the tangible evidence of the Engineers and forever hear the letter to the editor assignment, Engineer motto ringing in your ears; ESSAYONS!!

ENGINEER PUNCH RECIPE: Foundation: Cherry brandy or Cordial 1/2 bottle Fruit Punch 1 1/4 quart Sparkling Water 1 1/4 quart Cognac 1/2 bottle White wine 2 bottles Champagne 2 bottles. SAMPLE CORPS DAY OF HONOR SPEECH Tonight, we celebrate the Corps Day of Honor. Essay On Ramadan Festival? A day set aside to commemorate the history and traditions of the United States Army Engineers. We can look back in our history at over two centuries of Engineer heritage and honor. In the spring of 1636, a group of men and women got together in Massachusetts to organize for their common defense, to protect their farms, their villages, their very lives. They created the Massachusetts Colonial Militia. Today the Mass Colonial Militia comes down to to the, us through history through the essay festival, lineage and rock, the traditions of the essay festival, 101st Battalion of the Massachusetts National Guard. The oldest unit in the Army, an Engineer Unit. Celebrating this history of American Military Engineering, we must celebrate the continual tradition of essay sructure selfless sacrifice. Traditions established in the beginnings of the Corps.

Traditions epitomized by those individuals like young Terry Turo Kawamura, who became a combat engineer in 1968. His first duty assignment was Southeast Asia. In 1969 young Terry Kawamura was in a fire base surrounded by Viet Cong under enemy attack. He was awakened in his hut when an explosion blew the roof off. Essay On Ramadan Festival? He survived unscathed, but six of his fellow engineers lay unconscious on the floor around him. He grabbed his rifle, made it to the door ready to engage the enemy in a very enormous prompt, action, then he noticed the enemy had thrown in essay, a second satchel charge that went through the essays, gaping roof and landed on essay on ramadan festival, the floor among his buddies. He was safe, Terry was safe, but he turned back and dove on top of the satchel charge and rock, drawing it under his chest it exploded and killed Terry Kawamura. But through that act of selfless sacrifice young Terry saved the lives of every man in that hut. Another example of this tradition of selfless sacrifice among Engineers soldiers is found again in the story of SGT George Libby, who in essay on ramadan festival, North Korea in 1950, began the treacherous withdrawal to the Pusan perimeter. SGT Libby in the tradition of that selfless sacrifice, gathered men around him, wounded, the lost, and placed them in an artillery prime mover. Death Penalty Essay Outline? Aware that there was only one man capable of driving that unique vehicle, the only vehicle available to him, he felt it was his mission to guard that driver, so he used his body as a shield standing on on ramadan festival, the running board outside the essay sructure, drivers door, as they drove crashing through road block after road block set up by the North Koreans and the Chinese.

Stopping along the way to pick up more retreating and essay festival, wounded soldiers, SGT Libby although wounded numerous times, would pick them up and drag them into the Artillery prime mover. Finally after crashing through seven road blocks, the on punk rock, vehicle full of the wounded men that SGT Libby so longed to protect, arrived at the Pusan perimeter. Upon arriving SGT Libby died, he gave the last measure of devotion. Certainly, ESSAYONS, Let us Try*, certainly ingenuity, tenacity, physical raw determination, are as much a part of that heritage as the glory that we celebrate today. *NOTE:The Word ESSAYONS is a French word meaning- Let Us Try THE ENGINEER TOAST Here's a health to the Army. And here's a health to our Corps; Here's to the Flag flying up on essay, the hill, And the bird flying over our door: Stand by with your glasses all brimming, Here's health, and here's how, and here's luck.

And here's to the Castles of Silver we wear. And the Eagle that looks like a Duck. Author: Sherwood A. Cheney Brigadier General, U.S. Army 1898. AN ENGINEER HYMN Men of italian unification honor, stop your dreaming, Can't you see their bayonets gleaming, See their warrior pennants streaming, To this battle field. Men of honor, stand ye steady, It can not be ever said ye, For this battle were not ready. Sappers will not yield. Hear the cannon pounding, pounding.

From the hills resounding, sounding. Sound the horn, and festival, forward toward, The mighty force surrounding. Men of honor, stand ye steady, Ye shall ever be at ready, To the frightful foe afore Ye. Sappers will not yield. Men of honor, start replying, On courage and strength relying, To the fray ahead be flying. Sappers will not yield.

Men of honor, those before ye, Fought and died as Engineers for the, Nation that we hold so dearly. Sappers will not yield. A Very Enormous Wings Essay? Hear the cannon pounding, pounding. From the hills resounding, sounding. Sound the horn, and forward toward, The mighty force surrounding. Men of essay festival honor, on to glory, This will ever be your story, Keep these stirring words before ye. Sappers will not yield. Sung to the tune of Men of Harlech, mistakenly called the Welsh National Anthem.

By Marziale, this march commemorates the Welsh defense of Harlech Castle against the British in 1468. This tune is traditionally the essays on punk, regimental song of the Queens 24 Regiment of Foot, known as the essay, Welsh Border Guard. A POEM FOR THE ENGINEERS The Sons of Martha 1907 Rudyard Kipling The Sons of Mary seldom bother, for a very wings they have inherited that good part; But the Sons of Martha favor their mother of the careful soul and the troubled heart. And because she lost her temper once, and because she was rude to the lord her guest, Her sons must wait upon Mary's Sons, world without end, reprieve, or rest. It is their care in on ramadan, all the ages to editor, take the buffet and cushion the shock. Essay On Ramadan? It is their care that the gear engages; it is their care that the switches lock.

It is unification, their care that the wheels run truly, it is their care to embark and entrain, Tally, transport, and deliver duly the Sons of festival Mary by land and cavour italian unification essay, main. They say to mountains Be ye removed. They say to the lesser floods, Be dry. Under their rods are the essay festival, rocks reproved - They are not afraid of that which is high Then do the hill-tops shake to the summit - Then is the essay sructure, bed of the on ramadan, deep laid bare, That the Sons of Mary may overcome it, pleasantly sleeping and unaware. On The Economy Of The? They finger death at their gloves' end where they piece and repiece the living wires. On Ramadan Festival? He rears against the gates they tend: They feed him, hungry behind their fires. Early at dawn, ere men see clear, They stumble into his terrible stall, And hale him forth like a haltered steer, and goad and turn him till evenfall. To these from birth is belief forbidden; from these till death is relief afar. They are concerned with matters hidden - under the earthline their altars are- The secret fountains to on punk rock, follow up, waters withdrawn to restore to the mouth, And gather the floods as in a cup, and pour them again at a city's drouth.

They do not preach that their God will rouse them a little before the nuts work loose. They do not teach that His pity allows them to drop their job when they damn-well choose. As in the thronged and the lighted ways, so in festival, the dark and the desert they stand. Wary and watchful all their days that their brethren's days may be long in the land. Raise ye the stone or cleave the essay sructure, wood to make a path fair or flat-Lo, it is black already with blood some Son of Martha spilled for that! Not a ladder from earth to heaven, not as witness to any creed, But simple service simply given to his own kind in on ramadan festival, their common need. And the Sons of Mary smile and are blessed - they know the angels are on their side. They know in them is the grace confessed, and for them are the mercies multiplied.

They sit at the feet - they hear the word - they see how truly the promise runs. They have cast their burden upon essays rock, the Lord, and essay festival, - the Lord he lays it on Martha's Sons! THE ENGINEER MUSEUM'S CHRONOLOGICAL GALLERY Introduction The U.S. Army Engineer Museum presents a chronological history of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. Today, the essay sructure, oldest unit in the United States Army is the 101st Engineer Battalion of the Massachusetts National Guard established in 1636. Although the history of American military engineering goes back more than three hundred and fifty years, the heritage of military engineering reaches back to the earliest beginnings of organized armies.

On the battlefields of ancient Mesopotamia, India, Egypt, Persia, Greece, and Rome, skilled Military Engineers laid the groundwork for the role of festival their modern descendants. During Europe's middle ages, the French coined the term genie to represent the Engineers. Over the years, genie evolved into the old English word enginator meaning one who operates the engines of war, such as siege towers, battering rams, catapults and the like. With the support of professional French Military Engineers, our young Army Corps of Engineers was created during America's War for Independence. Today, that French heritage is still seen within our Engineer Corps. The language of the Engineer - abatis, gabions, fascines and pontons -- has its roots in 18th century France. Even the essays on the economy old northwest, motto of the American Engineers, ESSAYONS is French for Let us try. Revolution As America's War for Independence grew more contentious, it became apparent that there was an obvious need for trained Engineers. Only a few days after the Army itself was organized, the Continental Congress, on June 16, 1775, resolved that there should be a Chief Engineer for the Army in a separate department and two assistants under him. Still, the lack of adequate field Engineers forced George Washington to festival, write in 1777: . The want of accurate maps has been a grave disadvantage to me. I have in vain endeavored to procure them, and have been obliged to make shift with such sketches as I could trace out of my own observations and that of gentlemen around me.

I think if gentlemen of known character and probity could be employed in making maps (from actual surveys) it would be of the greatest advantage. Finally, on March 11, 1779, Congress resolved that the Engineers in the service of the United States shall be formed into a Corps and styled the Corps of Engineers. The Revolution began in earnest with our untrained Engineers throwing up hasty defenses on the forward slopes of Breeds Hill near Boston. The site was to become famous as the cavour italian, location of the Battle of Bunker Hill. Essay On Ramadan Festival? The culminating decisive battle in essays on the economy of the old northwest, our War for essay on ramadan Independence occurred in October 1781 as our tried and tested Engineers overcame the British defenses at Yorktown, Virginia. The Mission Expands Following the Revolutionary War, in 1783, the Army Corps of Engineers was mustered out of service. But on May 9, 1794, Congress authorized a new branch, to penalty essay, be known as the essay festival, Corps of Artillerists and Engineers. The Army Corps of argumentative outline Engineers, as it is known today, was created on March 16, 1802, when the President was authorized by Congress to organize and establish a Corps of Engineers . that the said Corps . shall be stationed at West Point in the State of New York and shall constitute a Military Academy. With the essay on ramadan, re-establishment of the Army Corps of Engineers in 1802, the mission of educating the officers of our Army became an added requirement.

The first superintendent of the United States Military Academy was Jonathan Williams, grandnephew of Benjamin Franklin. Under Williams, the growing Corps of Cadets and essays economy of the old northwest, the Corps of Engineers became a professional, disciplined and elite corps. The first enlisted men of the present-day Corps were authorized on February 28, 1803, but until 1846 the organization consisted primarily of commissioned officers. Company A Engineers was organized in 1846 for the Mexican War. The company operated as Sappers and Miners during the arduous march to on ramadan, Mexico City. In 1847, at the Battle of Contraries, the Engineers led the assault. (Company A, now A Company, 1st Engineer Battalion has been in continuous service since its foundation in 1846, the oldest such unit in the Corps of Engineers.) A total of 44 Engineer officers, including a young Robert E. Lee, served in essay sructure, the Mexican War. Essay Festival? Into the cavour italian unification essay, 1850s, Engineers continued to map, build, explore and develop our young nation. Essay On Ramadan Festival? Exploring the Frontier On July 5, 1838 Congress divided the Army Corps of Engineers when it authorized a separate Corps of Topographical Engineers. The foundation of this specialized Corps dated back to the Revolutionary War under General Robert Erskine, Geographer of the Army. This new organization exerted significant influence on wings prompt, the early development of the United States.

The Corps of Topographical Engineers virtually dominated the essay festival, era of official exploration that began about essay sructure, 1840 and continued throughout the 19th century. The versatile officers of the Corps of Topographical Engineers, known as Topogs, were among the first to accurately and essay on ramadan, systematically describe and record the diversity of the West. Their thorough reports encouraged settlers to move West by describing in detail what could be expected from what was previously a mysterious and undocumented region. The Topogs were expected to act as soldiers by offering protection against hostile attack. They also served as a department of unification essay public works by opening up the frontier to western settlement. The Corps of Topographical Engineers merged back into the Army Corps of Engineers on March 3, 1863. On Ramadan Festival? This reuniting of the Corps gave us our heritage as Engineers and Surveyors. The Civil War Just prior to the outbreak of the Civil War, the Army had two organizations of Engineers with a total authorized strength of 79 commissioned officers and a lone company of 100 enlisted Engineers. In early August 1861, three companies were added to the Army Corps of Engineers and one to the Corps of Topographical Engineers. The commissioned officer strength was raised to 103.

Thus, at the beginning of the Civil War, the total strength of the Army Engineers numbered some 750 men. During the war, Engineers performed many duties, such as Pontoneers, Miners, Sappers and Pioneers. During the first winter of the war, 1861-1862, engineer troops built, among other projects, a series of 77 separate forts or redoubts for the defenses of Washington, DC. Italian Unification Essay? In 1863, the two separate Engineer Corps were reunited and essay on ramadan, continued to clear obstacles and to construct roads, bridges, palisades, stockades, canals, blockhouses and unification, signal towers. They laid down hundreds of ponton bridges, built fixed bridges and essay festival, railroad trestles, repaired railroad lines and erected field fortifications in addition to their mission as Combat Engineers, Topographic Engineers and to the assignment, Facility Engineers. Building a Nation A major lesson stemming from the Civil War was the nation's need for an improved transportation system. New technologies, such as steamships and railroads, combined with a booming rejuvenated industrial economy to create the need to adequately administer and essay festival, control the growth of America's infrastructure. Since the 1850s, Army Engineers had been charting railroad routes across the frontier. Prior to that, canals, often constructed under the direction of on punk rock Army Engineers, linked the cities of the east coast. Now, western waterways were quickly becoming the lifelines of millions of midwesterners.

Waterways developments, to include locks, dams, levies and river maintenance, rapidly became a new focus for the Army Engineers of the late 19th century. Rivers were clogged with silt and Army Engineer dredges cleared the channels. Snags and floating trees were the bane of river boat pilots on America's rivers. With typical resourcefulness, Army Engineers tackled and on ramadan, removed these treacherous hazards to navigation. Army Engineers took on civil works missions beyond the essay sructure, realm of navigation. In 1874, the Army Corps of Engineers was first tasked to protect our nation's environmental heritage by safeguarding our premier National Park at essay festival, Yellowstone.

In 1884, Army Engineers completed the Washington Monument, a project for which ground had been broken some 20 years earlier. This crowning achievement typified the Engineers expanded role in developing the new federal capitol in essays on the economy, Washington, DC. Projecting America as a New World Power In the summer of 1898, America entered into a war with Spain. The Spanish-American War led us into a new position in world politics. The United States now wore the mantle of a world power. As we began the development of our new empire, we first had to enhance the infrastructure of the islands of Cuba, Puerto Rico and the Philippines. Our thrust into the eastern Pacific came as Japan achieved world power status with her victory over Russia in essay on ramadan festival, the Russo-Japanese War, which ended in 1904. Our vulnerable Pacific coast was threatened and an enhanced effort began to develop sea coast defense fortifications.

These new forts were not only essay sructure a reaction to changing international political developments, but they were also a result of rapidly improving technologies of war. New breach-loading, high-powered naval guns necessitated the essay on ramadan festival, reciprocal development of better defensive fortifications. As this arms race transitioned into the 20th century, we began one of our most ambitious engineering projects, the economy of the, Panama Canal. The canal was to essay festival, serve two functions: to essay sructure, improve merchant marine transportation between the Atlantic and the Pacific Oceans; and more importantly, to allow our new modern Navy to project American interests quickly in both hemispheres. The Great War Within months of the assassination of Archduke Ferdinand at on ramadan, Sarajevo in the Balkans, in cavour unification, 1914, the Great Powers of Europe were locked in a war of unprecedented proportions. Spanning more than four years, the Great War would see battles in France, Russia, Italy, the Middle East, and Africa. When German submarine warfare forced America into on ramadan the war in 1917, the essays on punk, United States was unprepared for the conflict. The country struggled to festival, mobilize its vast human and industrial resources before Germany could win the ground war against France and the British Commonwealth. The small trickle of essay sructure soldiers which began in the summer of 1917 ultimately became a flood of combat power which would be essential to the ultimate victory.

The Great War not only changed the map of Europe but alter the course of world history. The advent of new technology to essay festival, warfare and with wings essay, the size of the essay festival, American Army presented the Engineers with unprecedented challenges. Engineers not only supported the other combat arms -- often fighting as infantry -- but also built the camps, supply facilities, and transportation systems needed to sustain the fighting army. Flood Control and Disaster Relief For thousands of years, the great rivers of the American heartland flooded their valleys. The annual floods not only produced the fertile soils of the valleys but also created new land in the Mississippi River delta. However, by the early 20th Century, settlement and essays old northwest, economic development along the rivers were such that floods threatened lives and property.

Massive floods in 1912, 1913, 1927, and 1936 prompted Congress to pass several important flood control laws. In 1936, Congress passed the Flood Control Act. This law recognized flood control as a proper activity of the Federal Government in cooperation with the States, their political subdivisions, and localities thereof. Responsibility for federal flood control projects rested with the Corps of Engineers. Since that time, millions of dollars have been spent on levees, reservoirs, and diversion dams. Although floods still occur, the Corps efforts have saved countless lives and property which would have been lost if control structures had not been in place. Ultimately power generation, water storage, irrigation, and recreation have been incorporated into the massive waterways program supervised by the Corps. Essay Festival? WWII The Engineers' War There were few aspects of the United States' role in World War II that did not have some form of Engineer involvement. Letter Editor? From the creation of the essay on ramadan, Arsenal of Democracy -- which provided war materials to American and Allied forces -- to the conduct of battles and campaigns, the essays rock, Corps of essay festival Engineers played a role. Within the continental United States, the total value of construction related to the war effort exceeded $15 billion (1940s dollars).

Of this, more than $3 billion went to cavour unification, the construction of the war industries. Military facilities accounted for another $7.5 billion. On Ramadan Festival? On the home front, the Engineers were builders. Overseas, the Engineers were builders and fighters. Combat and general service Engineers built thousands of miles of roads and railways, hundreds of bridges and airfields, and countless square feet of storage and troop support facilities. Combat Engineers fought along side the maneuver arms, and in some instances, in advance of infantry and armored forces. They became experts in expedient roads and bridges as well as mine warfare. Often, they laid aside the tools of the Engineer and death argumentative essay, shouldered the essay on ramadan festival, weapons of combat soldier, fighting as Infantry.

The Korean Conflict The Korean Conflict was the first of America's undeclared wars. The invasion of South Korea by North Korea in 1950 prompted a response from the United Nations, and American forces fought under the U.N. flag for the first time. The rugged, mountain terrain of to the Korea and the lack of developed transportation and communications systems, created significant challenges to American forces and the Corps of Engineers. Most of the initial Engineer work involved demolition of bridges and important facilities in an attempt to delay the North Korean advance to the south. In the Pusan Perimeter, Combat Engineers not only worked on standard defensive and construction projects, but also manned the front lines when the enemy threatened to penetrate the perimeter. In both the essay festival, defense and offense, Combat Engineers engaged in mine warfare. Road and bridge building dominated the construction efforts of the Engineers.

Next came airstrips for combat aircraft providing close air support to U.N. forces. Death Outline? Some of the bridges and airfields were built beyond required combat standards because of the lasting benefit of the structures to the Korean people. In Korea, the Engineers encountered all of the essay on ramadan, challenges of those who had fought in Sicily, Italy, and China in World War II, plus the added problems associated with military operations short of war. The Cold War Almost 40 years, communist and democratic nations were locked in a Cold War. With the advent of italian essay intercontinental ballistic missiles, the essay on ramadan festival, age old arms race between competing powers took on a new dimension.

In a parallel effort, the Corps of Engineers supervised the construction of numerous facilities for America's space program. These included the Johnson Manned Spacecraft Center in Texas and the Kennedy Space Center in Florida. Certain regions of the world, which had little value in essay sructure, the past, became strategically significant. Exploration and on ramadan festival, operational tests in the Arctic and other cold regions were common in the 1950s. Assuming the leadership of regional alliances, such as the North Atlantic Treaty Organization -- NATO, -- the United States deployed forces around the death argumentative essay outline, world. The Corps of Engineers built airbases and other military installations around the globe. In addition, the Corps built facilities for its allies.

Whereas military construction in the 1920s and 1930s was for essay festival the defense of the United States and its possessions, Engineer construction during the Cold War supported the defense of the Free World. The Vietnam Conflict The Cold War turned hot in the mid-1960s, but not on the northern German plain as many analysts had predicted. Communist insurgency in Southeast Asia threatened nations struggling to develop economically, politically, and socially following a history of colonial rule. This was a continuation of the wars of national liberation which had threatened Greece and the Philippines in the late 1940s. For the Engineers, Vietnam was another limited conflict fought in a distant underdeveloped region. With the commitment of ground troops in old man, 1965, Engineers had the dual responsibilities of supporting combat operations and of constructing support facilities for the Army, its sister services, and allied nations.

Construction Engineer battalions and groups built command complexes, harbors and port facilities, logistical facilities, and improved or constructed hundreds of kilometers of roads. Divisional Engineers focused their attention on base camps, fire bases, tactical roads, and essay on ramadan, counter-mine operations. Engineer dozers equipped with a special plow/blade cleared thousands of acres of jungle. The land clearing effort eliminated sanctuaries for Viet Cong (VC) and North Vietnamese Army (NVA) forces, made ambushes along roads more difficult, and created cleared ground for agriculture for with prompt South Vietnamese farmers. Operations Short of War By the early 1980s, the threat of a major confrontation between the super powers had declined. However, American military forces were involved in essay on ramadan, a number of operations short of total conventional war. In 1983, American forces landed in a very wings essay, Grenada in OPERATION URGENT FURY. Six years later, the forces of OPERATION JUST CAUSE freed Panama from the essay on ramadan festival, yoke of its dictator and secured the vital Panama Canal. The largest military operation since Vietnam, OPERATION DESERT STORM came in response to the invasion of on the economy Kuwait by Iraq. In the on ramadan, Middle East and Africa, forces performed humanitarian missions in essays on the old northwest, Northern Iraq (PROVIDE COMFORT) and festival, Somalia (RESTORE HOPE). In each instance, Engineers constructed the transportation, communication, and logistical facilities to support those operations.

During combat operations, Engineers built fighting positions, breached extensive field fortifications, and destroyed captured enemy equipment. The Corps was also called on in times of natural disasters. Hurricanes, such as Hugo and letter to the, Andrew, brought Corps of Engineer civilian and military support to relieve suffering and provide temporary shelter. The same relief and essay on ramadan, construction skills have been applied to disasters caused by floods like those in 1993. Engineer Hall of essays Heroes The U.S. Army Engineer Museum presents the Engineer Hall of festival Heroes. The Hall of death penalty argumentative essay outline Heroes is designed to inspire and to reinforce the on ramadan, basic idea that every individual who has proudly and honorably served the Army Corps of Engineers is outline, indeed a hero. For more than 200 years men and women, civilians and essay on ramadan, soldiers, have served the Army Corps of Engineers. In peace, whether the designer of our nation's Capitol, a dredge boat pilot in 1875, a lock master in the 1950s or an environmental engineer today; whether an astronaut aboard the space shuttle or an engineer exploring the western frontier in the 1850s, Engineers have served. In war, whether it was the deserts of essays rock Saudi Arabia, the jungles of Vietnam, the mountains of essay festival Korea or the islands, forests and to the editor assignment, plains of two World Wars; whether it was on our own soil throughout the 18th and 19th centuries, or in numerous conflicts in between, Engineers have served.

The Army Corps of Engineers is made up of a diverse group of dedicated Americans, men and women, who, when called upon, have fought our wars. They are the visionaries who have built our nation. The history of the Engineers is nothing more than the history of essay on ramadan festival individual Americans and nothing less than the history of America. THE ENGINEER MUSEUM'S WWII HISTORIC SITE In 1991 Fort Leonard Wood was designated as a World War II Commemorative Community. At the cavour, U.S.

Army Engineer Museum we operate something unique in the Army, a true World War II community. In 1981, Fort Leonard Wood set aside a collection of 12 World War II temporary mobilization structures to be reserved as a part of the installation museum. This grouping of wooden buildings, nestled in a wooded 25 acre site, has undergone complete restoration, and today serves as the only preserved and essay on ramadan festival, interpreted WWII company area in the Army. Letter To The Editor? The WWII community consists of four barracks, two mess halls, three day rooms, two orderly rooms, and a regimental commanders quarters. Each building has been restored to the condition it would have been in essay on ramadan, 1943, the peak year of training for Fort Leonard Wood. One of italian unification essay each type of building is restored on the interior as well. Upon entering the barracks you will find the bunks made, the clothes hanging on the racks, the on ramadan festival, rifles stacked, and the foot lockers ready for inspection. In the mess hall, tables are lined up in the dining hall, while coal burning ranges, a food preparation table, and oak ice boxes fill the kitchen. The regimental commanders quarters, day room, and orderly room are similarly filled with original WWII artifacts and furnishings. In addition to the WWII interpretation, one barracks building is a very old man with essay, restored on the interior, to interpret basic training barracks in 1967.

This cold war interpretation dramatically illustrates the adaptive re-use of WWII temporary buildings to support the essay on ramadan, training boom of the essay sructure, Vietnam conflict. Other restored buildings in the complex house a variety of different exhibits supporting the history of Fort Leonard Wood. In one restored day room there is a display dealing with the life and career of MG Leonard Wood, the essay on ramadan festival, installation's namesake. In another restored barracks is an important interpretation of the German and essays economy old northwest, Italian prisoner of essay on ramadan festival war camp which operated at Fort Leonard Wood from 1943 - 1946. By preserving something as common as a collection of old man with prompt WWII barracks, Fort Leonard Wood has created a time capsule of the on ramadan, history of the training experience from cavour unification essay 1941 to the present. During WWII more than 10,600,000 men and women trained and served in buildings identical to these. Since the end of the war millions more have shared the common experience of life in these sparse wooden structures. The very communality of essay on ramadan these historic structures is a threat their continued existence.

Once a building owned by essays on punk rock the Army turns 50 years old, it is liable to be nominated for the National Register of essay on ramadan Historic Places. Essay Sructure? This threat of potential nomination by essay festival local groups has prompted installations across the country to demolish these buildings as quickly as possible. This was done with the assumption that there were so many, and they were so common, that they could never be considered scarce or of great historical significance. THE ENGINEER MUSEUM'S ENCYCLOPEDIC GALLERY Introduction The U.S. Army Engineer Museum was established at Fort Leonard Wood, MO in 1989, as a part of the U.S. Army Engineer School.

The Museum is separated into two different types of interpretation, the encyclopedic gallery and the chronological gallery. On Punk? In the festival, encyclopedic gallery we interpret pieces of the material culture of American engineers in an effort to enormous wings prompt, support the instruction at essay, both the Engineer School and Center. Letter? Topographic Engineering The topographic engineering gallery in essay festival, the U.S. Army Engineer Museum is designed to display the a very old man wings essay prompt, material culture of topographic engineers, surveyors, and cartographers from their colonial beginnings to the present. In the on ramadan festival, dioramas we have used Gouvernor K. Warrens Pacific Railroad survey of 1856 to interpret early field surveying.

In the first of the three separate cases we exhibit map making and drawing equipment. A Very Old Man Enormous Essay? In the festival, second case we display a collection of various surveying equipment. Death Penalty Argumentative Essay Outline? In the last case we show contemporary surveying equipment. On Ramadan Festival? Land Mine Warfare The Land mine warfare gallery in the U.S. Letter To The Assignment? Army Engineer Museum displays American mines, mine-detectors, and foreign material significant to the development of U.S. equipment. The two dioramas depict an engineer searching for mines in Vietnam in 1968, and essay on ramadan, a WWII German anti-tank mine, known as a Goliath, on the Normandy beachhead in June of 1944. Outline? You will also find a modern ANPRS-11 mine detector set up for you to use, simply pivot the detector over the mined terrain and listen for the different tones. On Ramadan Festival? Opposite the old man with wings prompt, mine detector is a model mine field, press the buttons to see various mine patterns from WWI to today. In the display cases are U.S. mine detectors, mine field probing and marking material, American and foreign mines. Tactical Bridging The Tactical Bridging gallery in essay on ramadan festival, the U.S.

Army Engineer Museum is designed to display models of floating, fixed, and mobile tactical bridges. You can walk onto an authentic double double Bailey bridge where you will find models of fixed bridges. Across from the fixed bridge display is a diorama containing models of several different types of floating bridges. In addition to these sections there are several models of bridges and related equipment, dating from the Civil War to essays rock, modern day. Essay? Demolitions and essay sructure, Explosives One entire wall of the festival, Demolitions and Explosives gallery contains objects relating to essays, the recent history of essay on ramadan festival this unique aspect of the essay sructure, Army engineers mission.

Dynamite, C-4, cratering charges, and Bangalore torpedoes are just a few of the many items to be found in this case. Across from this wall are two dioramas; the first contains a model railroad bridge rigged for demolition, press the button and see where different types of on ramadan festival charges should be placed. The second diorama depicts an oak tree similar to those lining streets around the world. This tree is a very prompt, ringed with explosives in preparation of creating an obstacle known as an abatis (pronounced ABATEE). Essay On Ramadan? Between these two dioramas is a 50 cap blasting machine, raise and then press the handle to with prompt, activate a short video presentation on military demolitions. Arms and Ammunitions Passing into the weapons gallery you will encounter a diorama depicting an engineer outpost in WWI. Inside the special weapons room, display cases along the walls on both sides contain weapons used by American Army engineers since the 18th century.

Beginning with muskets and ending with modern assault rifles, the arms and armaments gallery also displays, swords, rocket launchers, mortars, and hand grenades. Essay? In the center of the back wall you can try your hand at one of the Army's modern marksmanship training equipment. Fire a laser rifle at a series of essays rock optically sensitive targets, each hit scores with a flash and a flip. Thank you for visiting my webpage at Angelfire. Please return and visit again!

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