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c dc md resume 1013 Rosemere Ave. Silver Spring, MD 20904-3008. Essay Writing? Phone number available upon email request. Please see paulnahay.com for the latest version of this resume. enter Transcript ID of 665060 , Access Code of creative in north, 12345678. Java Platform: Oracle Certified Professional, Java SE 8 Programmer . Passed the Java Standard Edition 8 Programmer Certified Professional Exam on Jan.
Created ASP.NET Web Forms and SQL Server database tables, wrote stored procedures in essay answers, Transact-SQL (T-SQL), queried data using declarative data-bound controls, and manually extracted and manipulated data via custom LINQ queries. October to December 2009: Online Course Developer (contract) for parts fair research, UMBC Training Centers, Baltimore, Maryland. Essay Questions Answers? Created online course Sun Certified Java Programmer (SCJP) Preparation , using Blackboard, which UMBC Training Centers will offer to their corporate and government clients in 2010. Developed custom Java 1.6 SE program examples, quizzes, and lecture/demonstrations, to prepare students for creative writing in north, the Sun Microsystems certification exams. September to October 2009: Microsoft .NET Windows Application Development Consultant/Trainer (contract) , for writing, Information Network Technology Group, Inc., Baltimore, Maryland. Taught Microsoft's course 2609A, Introduction to C# Programming wth Microsoft .NET , for students from various divisions of Johns Hopkins University. Taught the C# language, and developed custom C# programs for my clients. August 2009: Microsoft .NET Windows Application Development Consultant/Trainer (contract) , for Information Network Technology Group, Inc., Baltimore, Maryland. Taught Microsoft's course 2555A, Developing Microsoft .NET Applications for fair paper, Windows (Visual C# .NET) , for students from the U.S.
March to April 2009: ASP.NET/C# Development Consultant/Trainer (contract) , for U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Information Technology Branch, Arlington, Virginia. Taught the C# language and ASP.NET, and developed custom ASP.NET/C# prototype web form applications and web services for them. March 2009: PHP Development Consultant/Trainer (contract) , for Advertising.com (an America Online company), at essay, their offices in Baltimore, Maryland. Taught PHP Web development to their developers, and developed custom PHP prototype applications for them. January 2009: Adjunct Assistant Professor (contract) , for essays, University of Maryland University College (UMUC). Answers? Taught Visual Basic (.NET) for their Computer Studies program in the Computer Information Systems and Technology Department , in the School of Undergraduate Studies. The course was CMST 306: Introduction to Visual Basic Programming , a regular 3-credit undergraduate college course. Thesis Cmu? October 2008: Oracle 10g Consultant/Trainer (contract) , for the Department of Homeland Security, U.S. Customs and Border Protection, contracted through New Horizons. Questions? Taught Oracle 10q , including SQL*Plus , iSQL*Plus , and the SQL language.
June 2008: ANSI C Development Consultant/Trainer (contract) , for thesis cmu, the U.S. Army and U.S. Air Force, contracted through UMBC Training Centers. Taught ANSI C Programming , and essay writing answers, developed custom ANSI C programs for my clients. May to June 2008: Java, Microsoft Silverlight, PHP, and Perl Development Consultant/Trainer (contract) , for America Online, at their corporate headquarters in Dulles, VA. Taught the Java, PHP, and Perl programming languages, as well as the mfa programs, Microsoft Silverlight Web programming environment, and developed custom Java, PHP, Perl, and writing questions, Microsoft Silverlight applications for homework, my clients. April 2008: ANSI C Development Consultant/Trainer (contract) , for the U.S. Writing Questions Answers? Army, contracted through UMBC Training Centers.
Taught ANSI C Programming , and creative, developed custom ANSI C programs for my clients. January to April 2008: Java, J2EE (Java Servlets/JavaServer Pages), PHP, and Perl Development Consultant/Trainer (contract) , for America Online, at writing, their corporate headquarters in Dulles, VA, and their Silicon Valley offices in Mountain View, CA. Taught the Java, PHP, and Perl programming languages, as well the Java Servlet/JSP aspects of J2EE, and developed custom Java, J2EE, PHP, and Perl applications for writing in north, my clients. January 2008: C# Development Consultant/Trainer (contract) , for writing answers, Kelly and creative carolina, Associates Insurance Group, contracted through UMBC Training Centers. Taught the writing questions, C# language and Object-Oriented Programming principles, and developed custom C# programs for my clients.
December 2007: ANSI C/C++ Development Consultant/Trainer (contract) , for the U.S. Army and U.S. Air Force, contracted through UMBC Training Centers. Taught ANSI C/C++ Programming , and developed custom ANSI C/C++ programs for i didn't do my essay, my clients. August to November 2007: Java Development Consultant (contract) , for Constella Group, a division of SRA International.
Developed the GUI front end to their PRIME Desktop Software , a Java 5 (to support Macintosh computers) Swing GUI application which integrated licensed versions of both ICEsoft's ICEbrowser and Ephox's EditLive!, with a J2EE back end (using Eclipse 3.3.0), and essay writing questions, deployed using Java Web Start. This was a sub-contract for the National Cancer Institute of the thesis cmu, National Institutes of Health. September to October 2007: OOAD/C# Development Consultant/Trainer (contract) , for essay questions, Kelly and Associates Insurance Group, contracted through UMBC Training Centers. Taught Object-Oriented Analysis and Design Using UML , and developed custom C# programs for my clients. May to August 2007: Java, PHP, and Perl Development Consultant/Trainer (contract) , for America Online, at their corporate headquarters in Dulles, VA. Taught the Java, PHP, and Perl programming languages, and developed custom Java, PHP, Perl applications for my clients. April to thesis cmu June 2007: .NET Framework/C# Development Consultant/Trainer (contract) , for Kelly and Associates Insurance Group, contracted through UMBC Training Centers. Taught the .NET Framework and C# , and developed custom C# programs for my clients. April 2007: Java Web Services Development Consultant/Trainer (contract) , for essay writing questions answers, Southern Maryland Electric Cooperative.
Taught Java Web Services Development , and creative mfa programs, developed custom Java Web Services programs for my clients. March 2007: Oracle Database 10g, SQL, and Perl Development Consultant/Trainer (contract) , for America Online, at their corporate headquarters in Dulles, VA. Taught Intro to SQL Programming Using Oracle 10g and Perl Development , and developed custom Oracle 10g/SQL and Perl applications for my clients. February to essay questions answers March 2007: C# Development Consultant/Trainer (contract) , for Kelly and Associates Insurance Group, contracted through UMBC Training Centers. Taught C# Programming , and developed custom C# programs for my clients.
February 2007: Java Development Consultant/Trainer (contract) , for America Online, at creative writing in north carolina, their corporate headquarters in Dulles, VA. Taught the writing questions, Java programming language, and developed custom Java applications for my clients. January to February 2007: Technical Editor (contract) , for Object Innovations. Homework Essay? Edited their 418: Web Services Using C# and ASP.NET and 428: Web Services Using Visual Basic and writing questions, ASP.NET corporate courseware titles. December 2006: C# Development Consultant (contract) , for InterNICHE, London, England. Wrote Web Page Translation Assistant , a C# application that manages Web pages to be translated into different languages. October to bacon December 2006: C#/ASP.NET/ASP.NET Web Services Development Consultant/Trainer (contract) , for Advertising.com, contracted through UMBC Training Centers. Taught C# Programming , The .NET Framework Using C# , and Web Services Using C# and ASP.NET , and developed custom C#, ASP.NET, and ASP.NET Web Services programs for my clients. January to October 2006: Java, J2EE, PHP, Perl, XML/XSLT Development Consultant/Trainer (contract) , for America Online, at their corporate headquarters in Dulles, VA. Taught the Java, PHP, and Perl programming languages, as well as J2EE and questions, XML/XSLT development, and developed custom Java, J2EE, PHP, Perl, and XML/XSLT applications for my clients. January to francis bacon sparknotes August 2006: Chief Technical Officer and Co-Founder , Broadway Performance Systems.
In August through November 2007, I did corporate consulting for essay, Constella Group/SRA International, on their PRIME Desktop Software , a Java Swing GUI application with a Java EE 5/J2EE back end, which was a sub-contract for the National Institutes of parts science research, Health. In addition, I have done Java and J2EE consulting training for essay answers, many corporate and Federal Government clients, including for the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (popularly known as the Federal Reserve), since 2000. C#/Visual Basic (.NET)/ASP.NET : I have programmed in C#, Visual Basic (.NET), and together in grace, ASP.NET since 2002. I wrote the Web Page Tranlation Assistant for InterNICHE in C# in writing answers, December 2006. I have written hundreds of C#, Visual Basic (.NET), and francis, ASP.NET programs (including those employing Web Services) in the course of teaching corporate clients, including the Maryland Motor Vehicle Administration, Kelly Associates Insurance Group, Advertising.com, and the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System xxx(popularly known as the questions answers, Federal Reserve). Francis? In November 2009, I was contracted to create an writing questions answers ASP.NET Web application in C# for the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Nuclear Energy, the University Research Reactors Tool, which displays data about nuclear reactors associated with U.S. In Grace Essay? universities. C/C++ : I have programmed in C/C++ since 1988. My Swan program, marketed from 1997 to 2001, was written in Microsoft Visual C++ 6.0, using MFC (the Microsoft Foundation Class Library).
In July 2002, I did consulting work for the Bureau of Transportation Statistics, U.S. Essay Writing? Department of Transportation, Washington, D.C., creating custom C++ programs (using MFC) which served as templates upon which their own programmers expanded. In addition, I have written hundreds of C/C++ programs, both Windows GUI and creative, console, in the course of teaching/mentoring corporate and government clients in answers, C/C++. These clients include: 2003: Aeroflex BBraun Medical, Inc. U.S. Essays And Reflections? Social Security Administration 2002: IIT Research Institute, Annapolis, MD 2001: Unisys, Tredyffrin, PA America Online, Inc., Dulles, VA Foreign Agricultural Service, USDA Agfa Corp. Writing Questions Answers? 2000: McDonald Bradley, Inc.
Kajax Engineering, Inc., Arlington, VA Spirent Communications/Telecom Analysis Systems, Eatontown, NJ GE Capital Mortgage Services, Cherry Hill, NJ 1999: Ford Motor Co., Dearborn, MI Lear Corp. Daimler/Chrysler Network Services Group, Indianapolis, IN American Management Systems Infosoft 1998: PMSC KTEC Electronics CACI USCG-TISCOM Hewlett Packard Advanced Concepts PPI Las Vegas Sytel Systems and Telecommunications, Bethesda, MD 1997: Blue Cross/Blue Shield of Western NY CitiBank Prudential (Yonkers, NY) Teleglobe Insurance System Nortel Computing Devices Canada Nav Canada L-3 Communications ESRI Gates Rubber Co. First Data Corp. Galileo International Equitable Life Medco Containment Services Pershing, Bear Stearns and Co. Columbia University 1996: University of California at San Diego University Relations ADP Urban Science Xerox Corp. Eastman Kodak Co. Parts Of A Science? Harris-R.F. Communications Logical Operations Ford Motor Company EDS Siemens Energy and essay questions, Automation Chubb Computer Services Medco Containment Services Northrop Grumman of creative writing mfa programs in north, Bethpage, NY PHP : Since July 2004, I have been the writing questions answers, primary contract PHP development trainer at America Online headquarters, Dulles, VA, for their well-known AOL University subdivision. I have taught both off the thesis cmu, shelf courses, as well as a custom course I designed for a dedicated team of AOL PHP developers. I taught the PHP language itself, as well as its integration with MySQL.
SQL/MySQL/Oracle 10g : Since July 2004, I have created many SQL programs, implemented in PHP/MySQL and (since March 2007) Oracle 10g, for demonstration to developers at thesis cmu, America Online Headquarters (Dulles, VA), and U.S. Customs and Border Protection, Department of Homeland Security (Washington, DC), in the course of my teaching PHP and Oracle10g to them. Questions? Owner and parts fair paper, Founder (August 2006 to present) Broadway Performance Systems. I am the essay writing, sole inventor, architect, and developer of Keyboard Wizard , written in Java 5/Java 6. This software is a Java version of my earlier Swan software, both of carolina, which do sophisticated MIDI processing of MIDI keyboard data, such as is necessary in professional musical theatre productions. Keyboard Wizard had its public premiere on Saturday, April 14, 2007, at the Dorothy Chandler Pavilion, Los Angeles, California (former home of the essay, Academy Awards ceremonies) where it was used to enhance the orchestra accompanying the Spotlight Awards, hosted by actor John Lithgow (hear it filling in harp and thesis cmu, bassoon on The Light in essay questions answers, the Piazza). Together Essay? The production was broadcast over KCET-TV (PBS) in Los Angeles on Dec. 29, 2007. Keyboard Wizard next enhanced a private benefit performance at the Beverly Hilton Hotel, Beverly Hills, CA, on May 12, 2007, backing former The Fifth Dimension singers Marilyn McCoo and Billy Davis, Jr., as well as singers Michael Feinstein, Kathy Lee Gifford, and Miss America 2007 Lauren Nelson, in an evening hosted by Everybody Loves Raymond actors Brad Garrett and Ray Romano. (More images.) On July 29 and August 26, 2007, Keyboard Wizard enhanced light classical concerts by the Capistrano Valley Symphony, San Juan Capistrano, California. Chief Technical Officer and Co-Founder (January 2006 to August 2006)
Broadway Performance Systems. Essay? (Note: Site is i didn't homework essay currently down due to pending litigation regarding the theft of the business and essay writing questions, Paul Nahay's original technologies by Paul Nahay's former partners.) I was the primary inventor, architect, and developer of the Rubaton software system, written in together, Java and C++ (using Java Native Interface). Oversaw and led a team of ten full-time developers, including having weekly virtual development meetings with them. The system is intended for professional and amateur musical theatre productions, and provided a virtual orchestra controlled in real-time by a human musician, and integrated control of the MIDI keyboards, the house sound mixing console, the lighting board, and a virtual stage manager. President and Co-Founder (June 1997 to December 2005) Swan Orchestral Systems. Answers? Formerly at www.swansos.com. Marketed Cygnet software, the successor to Swan . Francis? Cygnet is essay writing answers written in Java, using the Java Sound API, and is intended for musical theater production use. Cygnet allows a MIDI ( Musical Instrument Digital Interface ) sequence to essays francis bacon sparknotes follow a conductor and other live players, rather than the conductor and live players having to writing answers follow it, thereby permitting real-time enhancement of live performance.
Designed and developed Swan , original MIDI software for do my essay, advanced musical keyboard performance systems, for use by professional musical theater pit orchestras. Software written in C++, using the Microsoft Foundation Class (MFC) library and Microsoft Visual C++ 6. Writing? Designed and implemented a unique, revolutionary system for tracking real-time performance of MIDI keyboards, allowing a single keyboardist to play and control an entire orchestration by francis, themselves, without MIDI sequencing. Essay Writing? Other Software Development Consulting. Thesis Cmu? 8121 Georgia Avenue, Suite 301. Silver Spring, MD 20910-4947. February 2002: Wrote a custom application in Perl that does specialized sorting and writing answers, organizing of database records, to conform to U.S. Postal Service requirements for essays francis, The Fund for essay answers, Animals' bulk mailings. Bureau of Transportation Statistics. U.S. Dept. of thesis cmu, Transportation. Essay Questions? 7th D Streets, S.W.
November 1995 to creative writing mfa programs January 1996: Created a set of three instructional videos (about 45 minutes each). Researched and wrote the script for the videos, created and prepared screen shots of code samples, and essay questions, appeared on-screen as the host and presenter. The videos were professionally produced and distributed: Preparing for C++ (C programming) C++ for C Programmers (Catalog listing at San Francisco State University: Paul Nahay of HTR, Inc. presents this more advanced study the C++ object oriented programming language, designed for and reflections, experienced C programmers. It discusses the goals of object-oriented analysis and design along with basic OO structures including polymorphism, embedding, inheritance and writing, object classes. Produced for the Computer Channel; study guide available.) C++ for High-Performance Computing. Thesis Cmu? Other Commercial Software Development. Published November 1990 to 1992 and sold worldwide by Passport Designs, Inc., (formerly of Half Moon Bay, CA). Answers? ScoreInput provides real-time MIDI (Musical Instrument Digital Interface) input into Passport's SCORE music typesetting system, thereby increasing data input speed.
ScoreInput is a DOS program, written in Borland Turbo Pascal 6.0 (using objects), in which I created an original user interface, wrote the routines to read and write MIDI data to the MPU-401 port, and devised unique musical quantization routines. Essays And Reflections? Throughout ScoreInput 's commercial life, I continued to improve and essay writing answers, upgrade the program, incorporating suggestions from of a science research users of the writing questions, program. Although not currently being updated, ScoreInput continues to be used around the do my homework, world by SCORE users. Adjunct Assistant Professor (Spring Semester 2009, appointment period January 26 to March 15, 2009) School of Undergraduate Studies, University of Maryland University College, College Park, Maryland Successfully completed the Faculty WebTycho Training Course (CTLA 201), February 2 to March 10, 2009, offered by essay writing questions, UMUC's Center for essays francis, Teaching and Learning, Office of writing answers, Faculty Affairs , certifying eligibility to teach UMUC's online academic courses. Lecturer in francis, Music Theory (full-time regular, appointment period September 1, 1984 to August 31, 1986) Department of Music, Stanford University, Stanford, California Lecturer in General Honors (part-time adjunct, 1983 1987) General Honors Program, University of Maryland at College Park, College Park, Maryland Instructor (part-time adjunct, 1986-1987) Doctor of Musical Arts in Composition (awarded June 12, 1983) Master of Music in Composition (awarded December 22, 1980) Worked extensively in the Electronic Music Studio.
Entered the doctoral program in Music Composition, and took classes Spring 1981. University of Maryland at College Park. Honor societies: Phi Kappa Phi (Music) Sigma Circle of Omicron Delta Kappa (Leadership)
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ESSAY QUESTIONS--Types & How to Answer - Academics
3 The Application Program Interface. This section describes the C API for Lua, that is, the set of C functions available to the host program to essay questions answers communicate with Lua. All API functions and essays francis bacon, related types and constants are declared in the header file lua.h . Even when we use the term function, any facility in the API may be provided as a macro instead. All such macros use each of their arguments exactly once (except for the first argument, which is always a Lua state), and so do not generate any hidden side-effects. As in essay answers, most C libraries, the and reflections, Lua API functions do not check their arguments for validity or consistency. Essay Answers! However, you can change this behavior by compiling Lua with a proper definition for the macro luai_apicheck , in file luaconf.h . Lua uses a virtual stack to pass values to and from C. Each element in this stack represents a Lua value ( nil , number, string, etc.).
Whenever Lua calls C, the called function gets a new stack, which is independent of previous stacks and creative writing, of stacks of C functions that are still active. This stack initially contains any arguments to the C function and it is where the writing answers, C function pushes its results to be returned to the caller (see lua_CFunction ). For convenience, most query operations in the API do not follow a strict stack discipline. Instead, they can refer to any element in the stack by using an index : A positive index represents an absolute stack position (starting at growing 1); a negative index represents an offset relative to the top of the stack. More specifically, if the stack has n elements, then index 1 represents the first element (that is, the element that was pushed onto the stack first) and questions, index n represents the i didn't homework essay, last element; index -1 also represents the writing, last element (that is, the francis, element at essay writing questions answers the top) and index -n represents the first element. We say that an sparknotes index is valid if it lies between 1 and the stack top (that is, if 1 ≤ abs(index) ≤ top ). When you interact with Lua API, you are responsible for essay writing ensuring consistency. In particular, you are responsible for controlling stack overflow . You can use the function lua_checkstack to grow the stack size. Whenever Lua calls C, it ensures that at sparknotes least LUA_MINSTACK stack positions are available. LUA_MINSTACK is defined as 20, so that usually you do not have to essay writing worry about essays francis bacon stack space unless your code has loops pushing elements onto the stack. Most query functions accept as indices any value inside the essay writing, available stack space, that is, indices up to the maximum stack size you have set through lua_checkstack . Such indices are called acceptable indices . Creative In North Carolina! More formally, we define an essay writing acceptable index as follows:
Note that 0 is never an acceptable index. Unless otherwise noted, any function that accepts valid indices can also be called with pseudo-indices , which represent some Lua values that are accessible to C code but which are not in the stack. Pseudo-indices are used to access the thread environment, the function environment, the registry, and the upvalues of a C function (see §3.4). The thread environment (where global variables live) is and reflections always at pseudo-index LUA_GLOBALSINDEX . The environment of the essay writing questions, running C function is always at pseudo-index LUA_ENVIRONINDEX . To access and change the value of i didn't do my essay, global variables, you can use regular table operations over an environment table. For instance, to access the value of a global variable, do. When a C function is created, it is possible to associate some values with it, thus creating a C closure ; these values are called upvalues and are accessible to the function whenever it is called (see lua_pushcclosure ). Whenever a C function is called, its upvalues are located at specific pseudo-indices. These pseudo-indices are produced by the macro lua_upvalueindex . The first value associated with a function is at position lua_upvalueindex(1) , and so on.
Any access to lua_upvalueindex( n ) , where n is writing greater than the growing together essay, number of upvalues of the current function (but not greater than 256), produces an acceptable (but invalid) index. Lua provides a registry , a pre-defined table that can be used by any C code to writing answers store whatever Lua value it needs to store. This table is always located at pseudo-index LUA_REGISTRYINDEX . Any C library can store data into this table, but it should take care to choose keys different from those used by essays bacon sparknotes, other libraries, to avoid collisions. Answers! Typically, you should use as key a string containing your library name or a light userdata with the address of a C object in your code. The integer keys in the registry are used by the reference mechanism, implemented by homework, the auxiliary library, and therefore should not be used for other purposes.
Internally, Lua uses the C longjmp facility to questions handle errors. (You can also choose to use exceptions if you use C++; see file luaconf.h .) When Lua faces any error (such as memory allocation errors, type errors, syntax errors, and runtime errors) it raises an error; that is, it does a long jump. Essays! A protected environment uses setjmp to set a recover point; any error jumps to the most recent active recover point. Most functions in the API can throw an error, for instance due to a memory allocation error. The documentation for each function indicates whether it can throw errors. Inside a C function you can throw an error by calling lua_error . Here we list all functions and types from the writing answers, C API in alphabetical order. Each function has an indicator like this: [-o, +p, x ] The first field, o , is how many elements the function pops from the stack.
The second field, p , is how many elements the function pushes onto and reflections the stack. (Any function always pushes its results after popping its arguments.) A field in the form x|y means the function can push (or pop) x or y elements, depending on the situation; an interrogation mark ' ? ' means that we cannot know how many elements the function pops/pushes by looking only at its arguments (e.g., they may depend on what is on the stack). The third field, x , tells whether the essay writing answers, function may throw errors: ' - ' means the function never throws any error; ' m ' means the function may throw an error only creative writing mfa programs in north, due to answers not enough memory; ' e ' means the function may throw other kinds of errors; ' v ' means the function may throw an error on purpose. The type of the memory-allocation function used by Lua states. The allocator function must provide a functionality similar to sparknotes realloc , but not exactly the essay answers, same. Its arguments are ud , an in north opaque pointer passed to lua_newstate ; ptr , a pointer to the block being allocated/reallocated/freed; osize , the original size of the block; nsize , the new size of the block. ptr is NULL if and only if osize is zero.
When nsize is zero, the allocator must return NULL ; if osize is not zero, it should free the block pointed to by ptr . When nsize is not zero, the writing questions answers, allocator returns NULL if and only if it cannot fill the science paper, request. When nsize is not zero and osize is zero, the allocator should behave like malloc . When nsize and osize are not zero, the writing, allocator behaves like realloc . Lua assumes that the allocator never fails when osize = nsize . Here is a simple implementation for the allocator function. It is creative writing mfa programs used in essay answers, the auxiliary library by luaL_newstate . This code assumes that free(NULL) has no effect and that realloc(NULL, size) is equivalent to malloc(size) . ANSI C ensures both behaviors. Sets a new panic function and returns the old one. If an error happens outside any protected environment, Lua calls a panic function and in grace essay, then calls exit(EXIT_FAILURE) , thus exiting the essay writing questions answers, host application. Your panic function can avoid this exit by never returning (e.g., doing a long jump). The panic function can access the together in grace, error message at essay writing questions the top of the of a fair research paper, stack. Calls a function. To call a function you must use the following protocol: first, the questions answers, function to be called is pushed onto the stack; then, the thesis cmu, arguments to the function are pushed in direct order; that is, the first argument is pushed first. Essay Writing! Finally you call lua_call ; nargs is the number of arguments that you pushed onto the stack. All arguments and the function value are popped from the stack when the function is called.
The function results are pushed onto the stack when the function returns. The number of results is adjusted to nresults , unless nresults is LUA_MULTRET . Essays Francis Bacon! In this case, all results from the function are pushed. Lua takes care that the returned values fit into the stack space. The function results are pushed onto the stack in essay writing questions, direct order (the first result is pushed first), so that after the call the last result is on the top of the stack. Any error inside the called function is thesis cmu propagated upwards (with a longjmp ). The following example shows how the host program can do the equivalent to this Lua code: Here it is in C: Note that the code above is balanced: at its end, the stack is back to its original configuration.
This is considered good programming practice. Type for C functions. In order to communicate properly with Lua, a C function must use the following protocol, which defines the way parameters and results are passed: a C function receives its arguments from essay Lua in its stack in francis sparknotes, direct order (the first argument is pushed first). So, when the function starts, lua_gettop(L) returns the number of arguments received by the function. The first argument (if any) is at questions answers index 1 and its last argument is at index lua_gettop(L) . To return values to Lua, a C function just pushes them onto do my essay the stack, in writing answers, direct order (the first result is pushed first), and returns the number of results. Any other value in the stack below the results will be properly discarded by Lua. Like a Lua function, a C function called by Lua can also return many results. As an example, the following function receives a variable number of together in grace essay, numerical arguments and returns their average and sum: Ensures that there are at writing questions answers least extra free stack slots in the stack. It returns false if it cannot grow the stack to that size.
This function never shrinks the stack; if the stack is already larger than the new size, it is left unchanged. Destroys all objects in essays, the given Lua state (calling the corresponding garbage-collection metamethods, if any) and frees all dynamic memory used by this state. On several platforms, you may not need to call this function, because all resources are naturally released when the host program ends. On the other hand, long-running programs, such as a daemon or a web server, might need to release states as soon as they are not needed, to writing avoid growing too large. Concatenates the n values at the top of the stack, pops them, and leaves the homework, result at the top. If n is writing answers 1, the result is the single value on the stack (that is, the function does nothing); if n is 0, the result is the essays bacon sparknotes, empty string. Essay Questions Answers! Concatenation is performed following the usual semantics of Lua (see §2.5.4).
Calls the essay, C function func in protected mode. Essay Questions! func starts with only creative in north, one element in its stack, a light userdata containing ud . In case of errors, lua_cpcall returns the same error codes as lua_pcall , plus the error object on writing the top of the stack; otherwise, it returns zero, and does not change the stack. All values returned by func are discarded. Creates a new empty table and thesis cmu, pushes it onto the stack. The new table has space pre-allocated for narr array elements and nrec non-array elements. This pre-allocation is useful when you know exactly how many elements the table will have. Essay! Otherwise you can use the function lua_newtable . Dumps a function as a binary chunk. Receives a Lua function on the top of the stack and growing, produces a binary chunk that, if loaded again, results in a function equivalent to the one dumped.
As it produces parts of the chunk, lua_dump calls function writer (see lua_Writer ) with the given data to write them. The value returned is the error code returned by the last call to essay writing answers the writer; 0 means no errors. This function does not pop the Lua function from the together in grace, stack. Returns 1 if the essay writing questions, two values in i didn't do my essay, acceptable indices index1 and index2 are equal, following the essay, semantics of the Lua == operator (that is, may call metamethods). Otherwise returns 0. Also returns 0 if any of the indices is non valid. Generates a Lua error. The error message (which can actually be a Lua value of any type) must be on the stack top. This function does a long jump, and therefore never returns. (see luaL_error ).
Controls the garbage collector. This function performs several tasks, according to the value of the parameter what : LUA_GCSTOP : stops the of a paper, garbage collector. LUA_GCRESTART : restarts the garbage collector. LUA_GCCOLLECT : performs a full garbage-collection cycle. LUA_GCCOUNT : returns the current amount of memory (in Kbytes) in use by writing answers, Lua. LUA_GCCOUNTB : returns the remainder of essays, dividing the essay writing, current amount of bytes of memory in use by Lua by 1024. LUA_GCSTEP : performs an incremental step of garbage collection. The step size is controlled by data (larger values mean more steps) in a non-specified way. If you want to francis bacon control the step size you must experimentally tune the value of data . The function returns 1 if the answers, step finished a garbage-collection cycle. LUA_GCSETPAUSE : sets data as the i didn't essay, new value for essay writing answers the pause of the collector (see §2.10).
The function returns the previous value of the together, pause. LUA_GCSETSTEPMUL : sets data as the new value for writing the step multiplier of the collector (see §2.10). Essays And Reflections! The function returns the questions answers, previous value of the step multiplier. Returns the memory-allocation function of essays and reflections, a given state. Writing Questions Answers! If ud is not NULL , Lua stores in *ud the opaque pointer passed to lua_newstate . Pushes onto the stack the environment table of the value at i didn't homework essay the given index.
Pushes onto the stack the value t[k] , where t is the value at the given valid index. As in Lua, this function may trigger a metamethod for writing questions answers the index event (see §2.8). Pushes onto the stack the value of the thesis cmu, global name . Essay Writing Questions Answers! It is defined as a macro: Pushes onto the stack the metatable of the value at the given acceptable index. If the creative mfa programs carolina, index is not valid, or if the value does not have a metatable, the function returns 0 and essay writing questions, pushes nothing on the stack.
Pushes onto of a science fair paper the stack the value t[k] , where t is the value at the given valid index and k is the value at the top of the stack. This function pops the key from the essay, stack (putting the resulting value in its place). Francis! As in Lua, this function may trigger a metamethod for the index event (see §2.8). Returns the index of the top element in the stack. Because indices start at 1, this result is essay writing questions answers equal to thesis cmu the number of elements in the stack (and so 0 means an empty stack). Moves the top element into the given valid index, shifting up the elements above this index to open space. Essay Writing Questions Answers! Cannot be called with a pseudo-index, because a pseudo-index is not an actual stack position. The type used by the Lua API to represent integral values. By default it is a ptrdiff_t , which is usually the essays, largest signed integral type the machine handles comfortably. Returns 1 if the essay writing questions answers, value at the given acceptable index has type boolean, and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is a C function, and 0 otherwise.
Returns 1 if the value at in grace essay the given acceptable index is a function (either C or Lua), and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is essay answers a light userdata, and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is nil , and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the of a fair paper, given acceptable index is not valid (that is, it refers to an element outside the current stack), and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the given acceptable index is not valid (that is, it refers to questions answers an element outside the current stack) or if the value at this index is nil , and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is a number or a string convertible to a number, and creative mfa programs carolina, 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is writing a string or a number (which is always convertible to a string), and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is a table, and 0 otherwise.
Returns 1 if the together, value at the given acceptable index is essay a thread, and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the thesis cmu, value at the given acceptable index is a userdata (either full or light), and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at acceptable index index1 is smaller than the value at acceptable index index2 , following the semantics of the Lua operator (that is, may call metamethods). Otherwise returns 0. Also returns 0 if any of the indices is non valid. Loads a Lua chunk. Answers! If there are no errors, lua_load pushes the compiled chunk as a Lua function on top of the stack. Otherwise, it pushes an error message.
The return values of lua_load are: 0: no errors; LUA_ERRSYNTAX : syntax error during pre-compilation; LUA_ERRMEM : memory allocation error. This function only growing essay, loads a chunk; it does not run it. lua_load automatically detects whether the writing answers, chunk is text or binary, and loads it accordingly (see program luac ). The lua_load function uses a user-supplied reader function to read the chunk (see lua_Reader ). Thesis Cmu! The data argument is an opaque value passed to the reader function. The chunkname argument gives a name to writing the chunk, which is used for error messages and in do my homework essay, debug information (see §3.8).
Creates a new, independent state. Returns NULL if cannot create the essay questions, state (due to lack of memory). The argument f is the allocator function; Lua does all memory allocation for this state through this function. The second argument, ud , is an opaque pointer that Lua simply passes to creative writing in north the allocator in every call. Creates a new empty table and essay writing answers, pushes it onto the stack.
It is equivalent to lua_createtable(L, 0, 0) . Creates a new thread, pushes it on the stack, and returns a pointer to a lua_State that represents this new thread. The new state returned by this function shares with the original state all global objects (such as tables), but has an independent execution stack. There is no explicit function to close or to destroy a thread. Threads are subject to garbage collection, like any Lua object. This function allocates a new block of memory with the given size, pushes onto the stack a new full userdata with the block address, and returns this address. Userdata represent C values in i didn't do my, Lua. A full userdata represents a block of memory.
It is an writing object (like a table): you must create it, it can have its own metatable, and you can detect when it is being collected. A full userdata is only equal to itself (under raw equality). When Lua collects a full userdata with a gc metamethod, Lua calls the metamethod and marks the userdata as finalized. When this userdata is collected again then Lua frees its corresponding memory. Pops a key from the stack, and pushes a key-value pair from the table at i didn't do my essay the given index (the next pair after the essay writing questions answers, given key). Thesis Cmu! If there are no more elements in the table, then lua_next returns 0 (and pushes nothing). A typical traversal looks like this: While traversing a table, do not call lua_tolstring directly on a key, unless you know that the key is actually a string.
Recall that lua_tolstring changes the value at the given index; this confuses the next call to lua_next . The type of numbers in essay writing, Lua. Essays And Reflections! By default, it is double, but that can be changed in luaconf.h . Through the configuration file you can change Lua to writing questions operate with another type for numbers (e.g., float or long). Returns the length of the thesis cmu, value at the given acceptable index: for strings, this is the questions, string length; for tables, this is the result of the length operator (' # '); for bacon userdata, this is the size of the block of memory allocated for the userdata; for writing answers other values, it is 0. Calls a function in protected mode. Both nargs and nresults have the same meaning as in lua_call . If there are no errors during the call, lua_pcall behaves exactly like lua_call . However, if there is any error, lua_pcall catches it, pushes a single value on the stack (the error message), and thesis cmu, returns an error code. Questions Answers! Like lua_call , lua_pcall always removes the function and its arguments from the stack. If errfunc is 0, then the error message returned on the stack is i didn't homework essay exactly the original error message.
Otherwise, errfunc is the stack index of an error handler function . (In the current implementation, this index cannot be a pseudo-index.) In case of runtime errors, this function will be called with the error message and questions answers, its return value will be the message returned on the stack by lua_pcall . Typically, the error handler function is used to add more debug information to the error message, such as a stack traceback. Such information cannot be gathered after the return of lua_pcall , since by then the stack has unwound. The lua_pcall function returns 0 in i didn't do my homework, case of success or one of the following error codes (defined in lua.h ): LUA_ERRRUN : a runtime error. LUA_ERRMEM : memory allocation error. For such errors, Lua does not call the error handler function. Essay Writing! LUA_ERRERR : error while running the error handler function. Pops n elements from the stack. Pushes a boolean value with value b onto the stack.
Pushes a new C closure onto and reflections the stack. When a C function is created, it is possible to associate some values with it, thus creating a C closure (see §3.4); these values are then accessible to the function whenever it is called. Essay Writing Answers! To associate values with a C function, first these values should be pushed onto the stack (when there are multiple values, the first value is pushed first). Then lua_pushcclosure is called to thesis cmu create and push the C function onto the stack, with the essay writing, argument n telling how many values should be associated with the function. Fair Paper! lua_pushcclosure also pops these values from the stack. The maximum value for n is 255. Pushes a C function onto the stack.
This function receives a pointer to writing answers a C function and pushes onto of a science fair research paper the stack a Lua value of type function that, when called, invokes the corresponding C function. Any function to be registered in Lua must follow the essay questions, correct protocol to receive its parameters and of a science research, return its results (see lua_CFunction ). lua_pushcfunction is defined as a macro: Pushes onto the stack a formatted string and returns a pointer to this string. Essay! It is similar to of a science paper the C function sprintf , but has some important differences: You do not have to allocate space for the result: the result is a Lua string and Lua takes care of memory allocation (and deallocation, through garbage collection). Questions! The conversion specifiers are quite restricted. There are no flags, widths, or precisions.
The conversion specifiers can only together essay, be ' %% ' (inserts a ' % ' in the string), ' %s ' (inserts a zero-terminated string, with no size restrictions), ' %f ' (inserts a lua_Number ), ' %p ' (inserts a pointer as a hexadecimal numeral), ' %d ' (inserts an int ), and ' %c ' (inserts an int as a character). Pushes a number with value n onto the stack. Pushes a light userdata onto the stack. Userdata represent C values in Lua. Essay Questions Answers! A light userdata represents a pointer. It is a value (like a number): you do not create it, it has no individual metatable, and it is not collected (as it was never created).
A light userdata is equal to any light userdata with the same C address. This macro is together in grace equivalent to lua_pushlstring , but can be used only when s is a literal string. In these cases, it automatically provides the string length. Pushes the string pointed to by s with size len onto the stack. Lua makes (or reuses) an internal copy of the given string, so the memory at s can be freed or reused immediately after the questions answers, function returns. The string can contain embedded zeros. Pushes a nil value onto the stack. Pushes a number with value n onto the stack. Pushes the zero-terminated string pointed to by s onto essays and reflections the stack.
Lua makes (or reuses) an internal copy of the given string, so the memory at s can be freed or reused immediately after the writing questions answers, function returns. The string cannot contain embedded zeros; it is assumed to end at the first zero. Pushes the thread represented by L onto the stack. Returns 1 if this thread is the main thread of its state. Pushes a copy of the element at the given valid index onto the stack. Equivalent to thesis cmu lua_pushfstring , except that it receives a va_list instead of a variable number of arguments. Returns 1 if the two values in acceptable indices index1 and index2 are primitively equal (that is, without calling metamethods). Otherwise returns 0. Also returns 0 if any of the indices are non valid. Similar to lua_gettable , but does a raw access (i.e., without metamethods).
Pushes onto the stack the value t[n] , where t is the value at the given valid index. The access is essay raw; that is, it does not invoke metamethods. Similar to lua_settable , but does a raw assignment (i.e., without metamethods). Does the equivalent of t[n] = v , where t is the value at the given valid index and v is the value at the top of the thesis cmu, stack. This function pops the value from the stack. The assignment is raw; that is, it does not invoke metamethods. The reader function used by lua_load . Answers! Every time it needs another piece of the chunk, lua_load calls the reader, passing along its data parameter. The reader must return a pointer to a block of essays francis, memory with a new piece of the chunk and writing questions answers, set size to the block size. The block must exist until the reader function is called again. To signal the end of the chunk, the i didn't homework, reader must return NULL or set size to zero. The reader function may return pieces of any size greater than zero.
Sets the C function f as the new value of global name . It is defined as a macro: Removes the writing answers, element at the given valid index, shifting down the elements above this index to fill the gap. Cannot be called with a pseudo-index, because a pseudo-index is parts of a science not an essay actual stack position. Moves the top element into the given position (and pops it), without shifting any element (therefore replacing the value at the given position). Starts and resumes a coroutine in a given thread.
To start a coroutine, you first create a new thread (see lua_newthread ); then you push onto thesis cmu its stack the main function plus any arguments; then you call lua_resume , with narg being the number of arguments. Essay Writing Answers! This call returns when the coroutine suspends or finishes its execution. When it returns, the stack contains all values passed to lua_yield , or all values returned by the body function. lua_resume returns LUA_YIELD if the coroutine yields, 0 if the coroutine finishes its execution without errors, or an error code in case of essays and reflections, errors (see lua_pcall ). In case of errors, the stack is not unwound, so you can use the debug API over it. Essay Questions! The error message is on the top of the stack. To restart a coroutine, you put on parts paper its stack only the values to be passed as results from yield , and then call lua_resume . Changes the allocator function of a given state to writing answers f with user data ud . Pops a table from the stack and sets it as the parts science fair paper, new environment for essay writing questions answers the value at thesis cmu the given index. If the essay writing, value at the given index is neither a function nor a thread nor a userdata, lua_setfenv returns 0. Otherwise it returns 1. Does the equivalent to t[k] = v , where t is the value at the given valid index and v is the value at the top of the stack. This function pops the value from the stack. As in Lua, this function may trigger a metamethod for the newindex event (see §2.8). Pops a value from the together essay, stack and sets it as the new value of answers, global name . It is defined as a macro:
Pops a table from the stack and sets it as the do my, new metatable for the value at the given acceptable index. Does the equivalent to t[k] = v , where t is the value at the given valid index, v is the value at the top of the stack, and k is the essay writing questions, value just below the top. This function pops both the key and the value from the stack. As in Lua, this function may trigger a metamethod for the newindex event (see §2.8). Accepts any acceptable index, or 0, and sets the stack top to this index. If the new top is larger than the old one, then the new elements are filled with nil . If index is 0, then all stack elements are removed. Opaque structure that keeps the essay, whole state of a Lua interpreter. Writing Questions! The Lua library is fully reentrant: it has no global variables. All information about a state is kept in this structure.
A pointer to this state must be passed as the first argument to thesis cmu every function in the library, except to essay lua_newstate , which creates a Lua state from scratch. Returns the status of the thread L . The status can be 0 for of a science research a normal thread, an error code if the thread finished its execution with an error, or LUA_YIELD if the essay writing questions, thread is and reflections suspended. Converts the Lua value at the given acceptable index to answers a C boolean value (0 or 1). Like all tests in Lua, lua_toboolean returns 1 for any Lua value different from creative mfa programs in north false and nil ; otherwise it returns 0. It also returns 0 when called with a non-valid index. (If you want to accept only actual boolean values, use lua_isboolean to test the value's type.) Converts a value at answers the given acceptable index to a C function. That value must be a C function; otherwise, returns NULL . Converts the essays bacon, Lua value at the given acceptable index to the signed integral type lua_Integer . The Lua value must be a number or a string convertible to a number (see §2.2.1); otherwise, lua_tointeger returns 0. If the number is not an integer, it is truncated in essay answers, some non-specified way. Converts the Lua value at in grace essay the given acceptable index to a C string. If len is not NULL , it also sets *len with the string length.
The Lua value must be a string or a number; otherwise, the function returns NULL . Writing Questions! If the value is a number, then lua_tolstring also changes the thesis cmu, actual value in essay, the stack to a string . (This change confuses lua_next when lua_tolstring is applied to keys during a table traversal.) lua_tolstring returns a fully aligned pointer to a string inside the Lua state. This string always has a zero (' 0 ') after its last character (as in C), but can contain other zeros in its body. Parts Of A Fair Research! Because Lua has garbage collection, there is essay writing questions no guarantee that the pointer returned by lua_tolstring will be valid after the corresponding value is removed from the stack. Converts the Lua value at the given acceptable index to the C type lua_Number (see lua_Number ). The Lua value must be a number or a string convertible to parts of a science research paper a number (see §2.2.1); otherwise, lua_tonumber returns 0. Converts the value at the given acceptable index to a generic C pointer ( void* ). Essay Writing! The value can be a userdata, a table, a thread, or a function; otherwise, lua_topointer returns NULL . Different objects will give different pointers. There is i didn't do my no way to convert the pointer back to its original value. Typically this function is used only for debug information.
Equivalent to lua_tolstring with len equal to NULL . Converts the value at the given acceptable index to a Lua thread (represented as lua_State* ). This value must be a thread; otherwise, the function returns NULL . If the value at the given acceptable index is a full userdata, returns its block address. If the value is a light userdata, returns its pointer. Otherwise, returns NULL . Returns the type of the value in the given acceptable index, or LUA_TNONE for a non-valid index (that is, an index to essay an empty stack position). The types returned by lua_type are coded by the following constants defined in lua.h : LUA_TNIL , LUA_TNUMBER , LUA_TBOOLEAN , LUA_TSTRING , LUA_TTABLE , LUA_TFUNCTION , LUA_TUSERDATA , LUA_TTHREAD , and LUA_TLIGHTUSERDATA . Returns the name of the type encoded by the value tp , which must be one the values returned by lua_type . The type of the writer function used by lua_dump . Every time it produces another piece of chunk, lua_dump calls the writer, passing along the buffer to be written ( p ), its size ( sz ), and the data parameter supplied to lua_dump . The writer returns an together error code: 0 means no errors; any other value means an error and stops lua_dump from calling the writer again. Exchange values between different threads of the same global state. This function pops n values from the essay writing questions answers, stack from , and pushes them onto the stack to together in grace . Yields a coroutine. This function should only be called as the return expression of a C function, as follows:
When a C function calls lua_yield in that way, the running coroutine suspends its execution, and the call to lua_resume that started this coroutine returns. The parameter nresults is the number of essay writing answers, values from the stack that are passed as results to lua_resume . Lua has no built-in debugging facilities. Instead, it offers a special interface by i didn't homework essay, means of functions and hooks . This interface allows the construction of different kinds of debuggers, profilers, and other tools that need inside information from the interpreter. A structure used to carry different pieces of information about an active function. lua_getstack fills only the private part of this structure, for later use. To fill the other fields of lua_Debug with useful information, call lua_getinfo . The fields of lua_Debug have the following meaning: source : If the function was defined in essay writing, a string, then source is that string. If the function was defined in a file, then source starts with a ' @ ' followed by the file name. Thesis Cmu! short_src : a printable version of source , to be used in error messages. Essay Writing! linedefined : the line number where the definition of the function starts. lastlinedefined : the line number where the definition of the function ends. what : the francis bacon sparknotes, string Lua if the function is a Lua function, C if it is a C function, main if it is the essay questions, main part of a chunk, and thesis cmu, tail if it was a function that did a tail call. In the latter case, Lua has no other information about the function. Essay Writing Answers! currentline : the current line where the given function is executing. When no line information is available, currentline is set to -1. name : a reasonable name for in north the given function. Because functions in essay answers, Lua are first-class values, they do not have a fixed name: some functions can be the and reflections, value of multiple global variables, while others can be stored only in essay writing, a table field. The lua_getinfo function checks how the function was called to find a suitable name. Creative Mfa Programs! If it cannot find a name, then name is set to NULL . namewhat : explains the name field.
The value of namewhat can be global , local , method , field , upvalue , or (the empty string), according to how the questions answers, function was called. Thesis Cmu! (Lua uses the empty string when no other option seems to apply.) nups : the writing questions, number of upvalues of the function. Returns the current hook function. Returns the current hook count. Returns the i didn't do my homework essay, current hook mask. Returns information about a specific function or function invocation. To get information about a function invocation, the parameter ar must be a valid activation record that was filled by essay writing answers, a previous call to lua_getstack or given as argument to a hook (see lua_Hook ). To get information about a function you push it onto the stack and creative carolina, start the what string with the character ' '. (In that case, lua_getinfo pops the function in the top of the stack.) For instance, to know in which line a function f was defined, you can write the following code: Each character in the string what selects some fields of the structure ar to be filled or a value to be pushed on the stack: ' n ': fills in the field name and namewhat ; ' S ': fills in the fields source , short_src , linedefined , lastlinedefined , and essay, what ; ' l ': fills in the field currentline ; ' u ': fills in the field nups ; ' f ': pushes onto sparknotes the stack the essay, function that is running at the given level; ' L ': pushes onto of a science research the stack a table whose indices are the numbers of the lines that are valid on essay the function. (A valid line is a line with some associated code, that is, a line where you can put a break point. Non-valid lines include empty lines and francis, comments.) This function returns 0 on answers error (for instance, an invalid option in essay, what ).
Gets information about a local variable of a given activation record. The parameter ar must be a valid activation record that was filled by a previous call to lua_getstack or given as argument to a hook (see lua_Hook ). The index n selects which local variable to writing answers inspect (1 is the first parameter or active local variable, and so on, until the last active local variable). lua_getlocal pushes the variable's value onto do my homework the stack and returns its name. Variable names starting with ' ( ' (open parentheses) represent internal variables (loop control variables, temporaries, and writing questions, C function locals). Returns NULL (and pushes nothing) when the index is greater than the number of francis bacon sparknotes, active local variables. Get information about the interpreter runtime stack. This function fills parts of a lua_Debug structure with an identification of the activation record of the function executing at a given level. Level 0 is the current running function, whereas level n+1 is the function that has called level n . When there are no errors, lua_getstack returns 1; when called with a level greater than the stack depth, it returns 0.
Gets information about essay answers a closure's upvalue. (For Lua functions, upvalues are the external local variables that the function uses, and that are consequently included in its closure.) lua_getupvalue gets the index n of an upvalue, pushes the upvalue's value onto the stack, and returns its name. funcindex points to the closure in the stack. (Upvalues have no particular order, as they are active through the whole function. Homework Essay! So, they are numbered in an arbitrary order.) Returns NULL (and pushes nothing) when the index is greater than the number of upvalues. For C functions, this function uses the essay questions, empty string as a name for all upvalues. Type for debugging hook functions. Whenever a hook is essays called, its ar argument has its field event set to essay questions the specific event that triggered the hook. Lua identifies these events with the following constants: LUA_HOOKCALL , LUA_HOOKRET , LUA_HOOKTAILRET , LUA_HOOKLINE , and do my homework, LUA_HOOKCOUNT . Moreover, for questions line events, the field currentline is also set. To get the value of any other field in ar , the hook must call lua_getinfo . Of A Paper! For return events, event can be LUA_HOOKRET , the normal value, or LUA_HOOKTAILRET . In the latter case, Lua is simulating a return from a function that did a tail call; in this case, it is useless to essay writing call lua_getinfo . While Lua is essay running a hook, it disables other calls to hooks. Therefore, if a hook calls back Lua to execute a function or a chunk, this execution occurs without any calls to hooks. Sets the debugging hook function.
Argument f is the essay writing questions, hook function. mask specifies on which events the hook will be called: it is formed by a bitwise or of the constants LUA_MASKCALL , LUA_MASKRET , LUA_MASKLINE , and LUA_MASKCOUNT . The count argument is only meaningful when the mask includes LUA_MASKCOUNT . Growing! For each event, the writing answers, hook is called as explained below: The call hook: is i didn't called when the interpreter calls a function. The hook is called just after Lua enters the writing, new function, before the function gets its arguments. The return hook: is called when the interpreter returns from a function. The hook is i didn't do my essay called just before Lua leaves the writing questions, function. You have no access to the values to be returned by the function.
The line hook: is called when the interpreter is about to start the execution of a new line of code, or when it jumps back in the code (even to essays the same line). Essay Writing! (This event only happens while Lua is executing a Lua function.) The count hook: is called after the interpreter executes every count instructions. (This event only happens while Lua is homework essay executing a Lua function.) A hook is questions disabled by setting mask to writing mfa programs zero. Sets the value of a local variable of a given activation record. Parameters ar and answers, n are as in lua_getlocal (see lua_getlocal ). lua_setlocal assigns the value at the top of the stack to science fair the variable and returns its name. It also pops the value from the stack. Returns NULL (and pops nothing) when the questions, index is greater than the number of active local variables. Sets the sparknotes, value of a closure's upvalue. It assigns the value at the top of the stack to the upvalue and returns its name. It also pops the essay writing questions answers, value from the stack.
Parameters funcindex and n are as in essay, the lua_getupvalue (see lua_getupvalue ). Returns NULL (and pops nothing) when the essay questions answers, index is greater than the number of upvalues. The auxiliary library provides several convenient functions to interface C with Lua. Growing In Grace Essay! While the essay questions, basic API provides the primitive functions for all interactions between C and Lua, the auxiliary library provides higher-level functions for some common tasks. All functions from the auxiliary library are defined in header file lauxlib.h and have a prefix luaL_ . All functions in the auxiliary library are built on top of the essays, basic API, and so they provide nothing that cannot be done with this API. Several functions in essay writing questions answers, the auxiliary library are used to creative in north check C function arguments. Their names are always luaL_check* or luaL_opt* . All of these functions throw an error if the check is not satisfied. Because the error message is formatted for arguments (e.g., bad argument #1 ), you should not use these functions for essay other stack values. Here we list all functions and types from the auxiliary library in and reflections, alphabetical order. Adds the character c to the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ).
Adds the string pointed to by s with length l to the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ). The string may contain embedded zeros. Adds to the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ) a string of length n previously copied to the buffer area (see luaL_prepbuffer ). Adds the zero-terminated string pointed to writing by s to the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ). Creative Mfa Programs In North! The string may not contain embedded zeros. Adds the value at the top of the stack to the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ). Pops the answers, value. This is the only function on string buffers that can (and must) be called with an extra element on the stack, which is the value to be added to the buffer. Checks whether cond is true. If not, raises an error with the growing together in grace essay, following message, where func is retrieved from the call stack: Raises an essay writing questions answers error with the following message, where func is of a fair research paper retrieved from the call stack:
This function never returns, but it is an idiom to use it in C functions as return luaL_argerror( args ) . Type for a string buffer . A string buffer allows C code to build Lua strings piecemeal. Its pattern of essay writing, use is as follows: First you declare a variable b of i didn't do my essay, type luaL_Buffer . Then you initialize it with a call luaL_buffinit(L, b) . Then you add string pieces to essay answers the buffer calling any of the luaL_add* functions. You finish by calling luaL_pushresult(b) . This call leaves the final string on the top of the stack. During its normal operation, a string buffer uses a variable number of stack slots. So, while using a buffer, you cannot assume that you know where the top of the stack is. You can use the stack between successive calls to buffer operations as long as that use is balanced; that is, when you call a buffer operation, the stack is at the same level it was immediately after the previous buffer operation. (The only thesis cmu, exception to this rule is luaL_addvalue .) After calling luaL_pushresult the stack is back to its level when the buffer was initialized, plus the final string on its top. Initializes a buffer B . Essay Writing! This function does not allocate any space; the buffer must be declared as a variable (see luaL_Buffer ). Calls a metamethod. If the object at index obj has a metatable and this metatable has a field e , this function calls this field and passes the object as its only argument. In this case this function returns 1 and pushes onto the stack the value returned by the call.
If there is no metatable or no metamethod, this function returns 0 (without pushing any value on do my homework essay the stack). Checks whether the essay writing questions answers, function has an argument of any type (including nil ) at position narg . Checks whether the function argument narg is a number and returns this number cast to an int . Checks whether the function argument narg is thesis cmu a number and returns this number cast to a lua_Integer . Checks whether the function argument narg is a number and returns this number cast to a long . Checks whether the essay questions answers, function argument narg is a string and returns this string; if l is thesis cmu not NULL fills *l with the string's length. This function uses lua_tolstring to get its result, so all conversions and caveats of that function apply here. Checks whether the essay writing, function argument narg is fair paper a number and returns this number. Checks whether the function argument narg is a string and searches for this string in the array lst (which must be NULL-terminated). Returns the index in the array where the essay, string was found. Raises an error if the argument is not a string or if the string cannot be found. If def is not NULL , the function uses def as a default value when there is no argument narg or if this argument is nil . This is a useful function for mapping strings to C enums. (The usual convention in thesis cmu, Lua libraries is to essay writing use strings instead of numbers to parts of a science paper select options.) Grows the stack size to top + sz elements, raising an essay answers error if the stack cannot grow to that size. msg is an additional text to science research go into the error message. Checks whether the function argument narg is essay writing questions a string and returns this string.
This function uses lua_tolstring to get its result, so all conversions and caveats of thesis cmu, that function apply here. Checks whether the function argument narg has type t . See lua_type for the encoding of types for t . Checks whether the function argument narg is a userdata of the questions, type tname (see luaL_newmetatable ). Loads and runs the given file. It is defined as the following macro: It returns 0 if there are no errors or 1 in case of errors. Loads and runs the given string. It is defined as the writing mfa programs, following macro: It returns 0 if there are no errors or 1 in case of essay writing, errors. Raises an error. The error message format is given by fmt plus any extra arguments, following the same rules of lua_pushfstring . It also adds at the beginning of the message the parts science fair, file name and the line number where the essay questions answers, error occurred, if this information is available.
This function never returns, but it is an idiom to use it in C functions as return luaL_error( args ) . Pushes onto the stack the fair research, field e from the essay writing, metatable of the object at index obj . If the object does not have a metatable, or if the metatable does not have this field, returns 0 and pushes nothing. Pushes onto the stack the metatable associated with name tname in the registry (see luaL_newmetatable ). Creates a copy of string s by replacing any occurrence of the string p with the string r . Pushes the resulting string on the stack and returns it. Loads a buffer as a Lua chunk. This function uses lua_load to load the chunk in the buffer pointed to thesis cmu by buff with size sz . This function returns the writing questions answers, same results as lua_load . name is the chunk name, used for debug information and together, error messages. Loads a file as a Lua chunk. This function uses lua_load to questions answers load the chunk in the file named filename . If filename is NULL , then it loads from the standard input.
The first line in of a research paper, the file is writing answers ignored if it starts with a # . This function returns the same results as lua_load , but it has an extra error code LUA_ERRFILE if it cannot open/read the file. As lua_load , this function only loads the bacon sparknotes, chunk; it does not run it. Loads a string as a Lua chunk. This function uses lua_load to load the chunk in the zero-terminated string s . This function returns the same results as lua_load . Also as lua_load , this function only loads the writing, chunk; it does not run it. If the in grace, registry already has the essay, key tname , returns 0. Sparknotes! Otherwise, creates a new table to be used as a metatable for userdata, adds it to the registry with key tname , and returns 1. In both cases pushes onto the stack the final value associated with tname in essay writing answers, the registry. Creates a new Lua state. It calls lua_newstate with an allocator based on the standard C realloc function and then sets a panic function (see lua_atpanic ) that prints an error message to the standard error output in case of fatal errors. Returns the new state, or NULL if there is a memory allocation error.
Opens all standard Lua libraries into the given state. If the function argument narg is a number, returns this number cast to an int . If this argument is absent or is together in grace essay nil , returns d . Otherwise, raises an error. If the function argument narg is writing questions a number, returns this number cast to a lua_Integer . If this argument is in grace essay absent or is nil , returns d . Otherwise, raises an error. If the essay writing questions answers, function argument narg is a number, returns this number cast to essays francis a long . If this argument is absent or is nil , returns d . Essay Answers! Otherwise, raises an error. If the function argument narg is a string, returns this string. If this argument is absent or is nil , returns d . Otherwise, raises an error. If l is not NULL , fills the position *l with the results's length. If the thesis cmu, function argument narg is a number, returns this number. If this argument is absent or is nil , returns d . Otherwise, raises an error. If the function argument narg is writing questions answers a string, returns this string.
If this argument is absent or is thesis cmu nil , returns d . Otherwise, raises an error. Returns an address to a space of size LUAL_BUFFERSIZE where you can copy a string to essay questions answers be added to buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ). And Reflections! After copying the string into this space you must call luaL_addsize with the size of the string to actually add it to the buffer. Finishes the use of buffer B leaving the final string on answers the top of the stack. Creates and returns a reference , in the table at index t , for the object at essays the top of the stack (and pops the object). A reference is a unique integer key. As long as you do not manually add integer keys into table t , luaL_ref ensures the uniqueness of the key it returns. You can retrieve an object referred by essay, reference r by calling lua_rawgeti(L, t, r) . Function luaL_unref frees a reference and writing mfa programs in north carolina, its associated object. If the object at the top of the stack is nil , luaL_ref returns the essay, constant LUA_REFNIL . The constant LUA_NOREF is guaranteed to be different from any reference returned by luaL_ref . Type for arrays of functions to be registered by luaL_register . name is the function name and func is a pointer to the function.
Any array of luaL_Reg must end with an sentinel entry in which both name and func are NULL . Opens a library. When called with libname equal to do my homework NULL , it simply registers all functions in the list l (see luaL_Reg ) into the table on the top of the stack. When called with a non-null libname , luaL_register creates a new table t , sets it as the value of the essay writing questions, global variable libname , sets it as the value of package.loaded[libname] , and essay, registers on it all functions in the list l . If there is a table in package.loaded[libname] or in variable libname , reuses this table instead of creating a new one. In any case the essay writing, function leaves the table on the top of the and reflections, stack. Returns the name of the type of the value at writing questions answers the given index. Generates an mfa programs in north carolina error with a message like the following: where location is produced by luaL_where , func is the name of the current function, and rt is the type name of the actual argument. Releases reference ref from the table at index t (see luaL_ref ). The entry is removed from the table, so that the referred object can be collected. The reference ref is also freed to answers be used again.
Pushes onto the stack a string identifying the current position of the control at level lvl in the call stack. Typically this string has the following format: Level 0 is the running function, level 1 is the function that called the running function, etc. This function is used to build a prefix for error messages. The standard Lua libraries provide useful functions that are implemented directly through the C API. Some of these functions provide essential services to the language (e.g., type and getmetatable ); others provide access to growing together outside services (e.g., I/O); and others could be implemented in writing, Lua itself, but are quite useful or have critical performance requirements that deserve an implementation in C (e.g., table.sort ). All libraries are implemented through the official C API and are provided as separate C modules. Essays! Currently, Lua has the following standard libraries: basic library, which includes the coroutine sub-library; package library; string manipulation; table manipulation; mathematical functions (sin, log, etc.); input and output; operating system facilities; debug facilities. Except for the basic and package libraries, each library provides all its functions as fields of a global table or as methods of its objects.
To have access to these libraries, the C host program should call the luaL_openlibs function, which opens all standard libraries. Alternatively, it can open them individually by writing questions, calling luaopen_base (for the basic library), luaopen_package (for the thesis cmu, package library), luaopen_string (for the string library), luaopen_table (for the table library), luaopen_math (for the mathematical library), luaopen_io (for the I/O library), luaopen_os (for the Operating System library), and questions, luaopen_debug (for the thesis cmu, debug library). These functions are declared in lualib.h and should not be called directly: you must call them like any other Lua C function, e.g., by using lua_call . The basic library provides some core functions to Lua. If you do not include this library in your application, you should check carefully whether you need to provide implementations for some of its facilities. This function is a generic interface to the garbage collector. It performs different functions according to its first argument, opt : collect: performs a full garbage-collection cycle. This is the default option. stop: stops the garbage collector. restart: restarts the garbage collector. count: returns the total memory in use by essay questions, Lua (in Kbytes). step: performs a garbage-collection step.
The step size is controlled by arg (larger values mean more steps) in a non-specified way. Do My! If you want to control the questions answers, step size you must experimentally tune the value of arg . Returns true if the bacon, step finished a collection cycle. setpause: sets arg as the new value for essay writing the pause of the collector (see §2.10). Returns the previous value for pause . setstepmul: sets arg as the new value for the step multiplier of the collector (see §2.10). Do My Homework! Returns the previous value for step . Usually, error adds some information about the error position at the beginning of the message. The level argument specifies how to get the error position. With level 1 (the default), the error position is where the essay answers, error function was called. Level 2 points the error to where the function that called error was called; and so on. Passing a level 0 avoids the addition of error position information to the message. If object does not have a metatable, returns nil . Otherwise, if the object's metatable has a __metatable field, returns the associated value. Otherwise, returns the metatable of the given object. Returns three values: an iterator function, the table t , and 0, so that the construction.
will iterate over the pairs ( 1,t ), ( 2,t ), ···, up to the first integer key absent from the essays and reflections, table. Loads a chunk using function func to get its pieces. Each call to func must return a string that concatenates with previous results. A return of an empty string, nil , or no value signals the writing questions, end of the chunk. If there are no errors, returns the compiled chunk as a function; otherwise, returns nil plus the error message. The environment of the returned function is the global environment. chunkname is used as the chunk name for error messages and parts of a research, debug information. When absent, it defaults to writing questions =(load) . Similar to load , but gets the chunk from file filename or from the standard input, if no file name is given. Similar to load , but gets the chunk from the given string.
To load and run a given string, use the idiom. When absent, chunkname defaults to the given string. Allows a program to traverse all fields of a table. Its first argument is a table and its second argument is an index in this table. next returns the next index of the table and and reflections, its associated value. When called with nil as its second argument, next returns an initial index and its associated value. When called with the last index, or with nil in an empty table, next returns nil . If the second argument is absent, then it is interpreted as nil . In particular, you can use next(t) to check whether a table is empty. The order in which the indices are enumerated is not specified, even for essay questions answers numeric indices . (To traverse a table in do my essay, numeric order, use a numerical for or the ipairs function.) The behavior of next is undefined if, during the traversal, you assign any value to a non-existent field in essay writing, the table. You may however modify existing fields. Do My Homework! In particular, you may clear existing fields.
Returns three values: the next function, the table t , and nil , so that the essay answers, construction. will iterate over all keyvalue pairs of table t . See function next for the caveats of modifying the table during its traversal. Calls function f with the given arguments in protected mode . This means that any error inside f is not propagated; instead, pcall catches the error and returns a status code. Essays! Its first result is the status code (a boolean), which is true if the questions answers, call succeeds without errors. Growing Together! In such case, pcall also returns all results from the call, after this first result. In case of any error, pcall returns false plus the error message. This function returns table . If index is a number, returns all arguments after argument number index . Otherwise, index must be the string # , and select returns the total number of essay writing, extra arguments it received. Sets the environment to be used by the given function. f can be a Lua function or a number that specifies the writing mfa programs in north carolina, function at essay questions answers that stack level: Level 1 is the function calling setfenv . setfenv returns the i didn't, given function. As a special case, when f is 0 setfenv changes the environment of the essay questions answers, running thread.
In this case, setfenv returns no values. Sets the of a research, metatable for the given table. (You cannot change the metatable of other types from Lua, only from C.) If metatable is nil , removes the metatable of the given table. If the writing, original metatable has a __metatable field, raises an error. This function returns table . An optional argument specifies the base to interpret the numeral. The base may be any integer between 2 and 36, inclusive. In bases above 10, the essays and reflections, letter ' A ' (in either upper or lower case) represents 10, ' B ' represents 11, and so forth, with ' Z ' representing 35.
In base 10 (the default), the writing, number can have a decimal part, as well as an i didn't do my essay optional exponent part (see §2.1). Writing! In other bases, only essays and reflections, unsigned integers are accepted. If the metatable of e has a __tostring field, then tostring calls the corresponding value with e as argument, and uses the result of the call as its result. except that the writing, above code can be written only for a fixed number of elements. By default, i is 1 and j is the growing essay, length of the list, as defined by the length operator (see §2.5.5).
This function is questions similar to pcall , except that you can set a new error handler. xpcall calls function f in homework essay, protected mode, using err as the error handler. Any error inside f is not propagated; instead, xpcall catches the error, calls the err function with the questions, original error object, and returns a status code. Do My! Its first result is the status code (a boolean), which is true if the call succeeds without errors. In this case, xpcall also returns all results from the call, after this first result. In case of any error, xpcall returns false plus the result from err . The operations related to writing questions answers coroutines comprise a sub-library of the basic library and come inside the essays sparknotes, table coroutine . Writing Questions Answers! See §2.11 for a general description of coroutines. Creates a new coroutine, with body f . f must be a Lua function. Returns this new coroutine, an object with type thread . Starts or continues the growing, execution of coroutine co . The first time you resume a coroutine, it starts running its body. The values val1 , ··· are passed as the essay writing answers, arguments to the body function. If the coroutine has yielded, resume restarts it; the values val1 , ··· are passed as the results from the yield. If the coroutine runs without any errors, resume returns true plus any values passed to yield (if the coroutine yields) or any values returned by growing together, the body function (if the coroutine terminates).
If there is any error, resume returns false plus the error message. Returns the running coroutine, or nil when called by the main thread. Returns the status of coroutine co , as a string: running , if the questions answers, coroutine is thesis cmu running (that is, it called status ); suspended , if the coroutine is suspended in a call to essay writing questions answers yield , or if it has not started running yet; normal if the coroutine is active but not running (that is, it has resumed another coroutine); and dead if the coroutine has finished its body function, or if it has stopped with an error. Creates a new coroutine, with body f . f must be a Lua function. Returns a function that resumes the coroutine each time it is called. Any arguments passed to the function behave as the essays, extra arguments to resume . Returns the same values returned by resume , except the first boolean. Questions Answers! In case of error, propagates the error. Suspends the execution of the calling coroutine.
The coroutine cannot be running a C function, a metamethod, or an iterator. Thesis Cmu! Any arguments to yield are passed as extra results to resume . The package library provides basic facilities for loading and building modules in Lua. It exports two of its functions directly in the global environment: require and module . Everything else is exported in a table package . Creates a module. If there is a table in package.loaded[name] , this table is the module. Essay Writing! Otherwise, if there is a global table t with the given name, this table is the module. Otherwise creates a new table t and writing in north carolina, sets it as the value of the global name and the value of package.loaded[name] . This function also initializes t._NAME with the given name, t._M with the module ( t itself), and writing questions, t._PACKAGE with the package name (the full module name minus last component; see below). Finally, module sets t as the new environment of the current function and francis bacon, the new value of package.loaded[name] , so that require returns t . If name is answers a compound name (that is, one with components separated by dots), module creates (or reuses, if they already exist) tables for each component. Thesis Cmu! For instance, if name is a.b.c , then module stores the module table in field c of field b of global a . This function can receive optional options after the module name, where each option is a function to writing questions answers be applied over the module.
Loads the given module. The function starts by looking into the package.loaded table to determine whether modname is already loaded. If it is, then require returns the value stored at package.loaded[modname] . Otherwise, it tries to find a loader for the module. To find a loader, require is guided by the package.loaders array. By changing this array, we can change how require looks for a module. The following explanation is based on the default configuration for package.loaders . First require queries package.preload[modname] . If it has a value, this value (which should be a function) is the loader. Otherwise require searches for a Lua loader using the path stored in essays, package.path . If that also fails, it searches for writing a C loader using the together in grace, path stored in package.cpath . If that also fails, it tries an all-in-one loader (see package.loaders ). Once a loader is found, require calls the loader with a single argument, modname . Essay Questions Answers! If the loader returns any value, require assigns the returned value to package.loaded[modname] . Creative Writing! If the loader returns no value and has not assigned any value to package.loaded[modname] , then require assigns true to this entry. In any case, require returns the final value of package.loaded[modname] . If there is any error loading or running the module, or if it cannot find any loader for the module, then require signals an error. The path used by require to search for a C loader.
Lua initializes the C path package.cpath in the same way it initializes the Lua path package.path , using the environment variable LUA_CPATH or a default path defined in luaconf.h . A table used by require to control which modules are already loaded. When you require a module modname and package.loaded[modname] is essay not false, require simply returns the value stored there. A table used by in north carolina, require to control how to load modules. Each entry in this table is essay answers a searcher function . Essays! When looking for a module, require calls each of essay writing questions answers, these searchers in ascending order, with the thesis cmu, module name (the argument given to require ) as its sole parameter. The function can return another function (the module loader ) or a string explaining why it did not find that module (or nil if it has nothing to essay writing answers say). Lua initializes this table with four functions. The first searcher simply looks for a loader in the package.preload table.
The second searcher looks for a loader as a Lua library, using the path stored at package.path . A path is a sequence of templates separated by semicolons. For each template, the searcher will change each interrogation mark in growing together essay, the template by filename , which is the module name with each dot replaced by a directory separator (such as / in essay questions answers, Unix); then it will try to open the resulting file name. So, for instance, if the Lua path is the string. the search for writing mfa programs a Lua file for essay writing answers module foo will try to open the files ./foo.lua , ./foo.lc , and /usr/local/foo/init.lua , in that order. The third searcher looks for a loader as a C library, using the path given by the variable package.cpath . For instance, if the essays, C path is the string. the searcher for module foo will try to open the writing questions answers, files ./foo.so , ./foo.dll , and /usr/local/foo/init.so , in that order. Once it finds a C library, this searcher first uses a dynamic link facility to link the homework essay, application with the answers, library. Then it tries to find a C function inside the library to be used as the loader. The name of this C function is the string luaopen_ concatenated with a copy of the module name where each dot is replaced by an underscore. Bacon! Moreover, if the module name has a hyphen, its prefix up to (and including) the first hyphen is essay writing questions answers removed.
For instance, if the module name is a.v1-b.c , the function name will be luaopen_b_c . The fourth searcher tries an homework essay all-in-one loader . It searches the C path for a library for the root name of the given module. For instance, when requiring a.b.c , it will search for a C library for a . If found, it looks into it for questions an open function for the submodule; in our example, that would be luaopen_a_b_c . And Reflections! With this facility, a package can pack several C submodules into one single library, with each submodule keeping its original open function. Dynamically links the host program with the C library libname . Inside this library, looks for a function funcname and returns this function as a C function. (So, funcname must follow the protocol (see lua_CFunction )). This is a low-level function. Writing Questions! It completely bypasses the package and module system. Unlike require , it does not perform any path searching and does not automatically adds extensions. libname must be the complete file name of the C library, including if necessary a path and growing together in grace essay, extension. funcname must be the writing questions, exact name exported by the C library (which may depend on the C compiler and linker used).
This function is not supported by ANSI C. As such, it is only available on some platforms (Windows, Linux, Mac OS X, Solaris, BSD, plus other Unix systems that support the dlfcn standard). The path used by require to writing mfa programs in north carolina search for a Lua loader. At start-up, Lua initializes this variable with the value of the writing questions, environment variable LUA_PATH or with a default path defined in essays and reflections, luaconf.h , if the environment variable is not defined. Any ;; in the value of the environment variable is replaced by the default path. A table to store loaders for writing questions specific modules (see require ). Sets a metatable for module with its __index field referring to the global environment, so that this module inherits values from the global environment. To be used as an option to function module . This library provides generic functions for string manipulation, such as finding and extracting substrings, and pattern matching. When indexing a string in Lua, the first character is at bacon sparknotes position 1 (not at 0, as in C).
Indices are allowed to be negative and essay writing questions answers, are interpreted as indexing backwards, from the end of the string. Thus, the writing in north carolina, last character is at position -1, and so on. The string library provides all its functions inside the essay questions answers, table string . It also sets a metatable for strings where the __index field points to the string table. Therefore, you can use the string functions in object-oriented style. Creative Writing In North Carolina! For instance, string.byte(s, i) can be written as s:byte(i) . The string library assumes one-byte character encodings. Note that numerical codes are not necessarily portable across platforms. Note that numerical codes are not necessarily portable across platforms.
Returns a string containing a binary representation of the given function, so that a later loadstring on this string returns a copy of the function. function must be a Lua function without upvalues. string.find (s, pattern [, init [, plain]]) If the pattern has captures, then in a successful match the captured values are also returned, after the two indices. will produce the string: The options c , d , E , e , f , g , G , i , o , u , X , and x all expect a number as argument, whereas q and s expect a string. This function does not accept string values containing embedded zeros, except as arguments to the q option. As an example, the following loop. will iterate over all the essay answers, words from string s , printing one per line.
The next example collects all pairs key=value from the given string into a table: For this function, a ' ^ ' at creative in north carolina the start of a pattern does not work as an writing questions anchor, as this would prevent the iteration. If repl is a string, then its value is used for replacement. The character % works as an escape character: any sequence in repl of the form % n , with n between 1 and 9, stands for the value of the thesis cmu, n -th captured substring (see below). The sequence %0 stands for the whole match. The sequence %% stands for a single % . If repl is a table, then the table is queried for every match, using the first capture as the key; if the pattern specifies no captures, then the whole match is used as the key. If repl is a function, then this function is called every time a match occurs, with all captured substrings passed as arguments, in order; if the essay writing answers, pattern specifies no captures, then the whole match is passed as a sole argument. If the value returned by the table query or by the function call is a string or a number, then it is writing in north carolina used as the replacement string; otherwise, if it is false or nil , then there is essay writing questions no replacement (that is, the original match is kept in the string). Here are some examples:
A character class is used to represent a set of characters. Growing In Grace! The following combinations are allowed in questions, describing a character class: x : (where x is not one of the magic characters ^$()%.*+-? ) represents the character x itself. . : (a dot) represents all characters. %a : represents all letters. %c : represents all control characters. %d : represents all digits. %l : represents all lowercase letters. %p : represents all punctuation characters. %s : represents all space characters. %u : represents all uppercase letters. Essays Sparknotes! %w : represents all alphanumeric characters. %x : represents all hexadecimal digits. Writing! %z : represents the character with representation 0. % x : (where x is any non-alphanumeric character) represents the growing together, character x . This is the standard way to essay writing questions escape the magic characters. Any punctuation character (even the non magic) can be preceded by a ' % ' when used to represent itself in a pattern. [ set ] : represents the class which is the union of all characters in set . A range of characters can be specified by separating the thesis cmu, end characters of the range with a ' - '. All classes % x described above can also be used as components in set . All other characters in set represent themselves. For example, [%w_] (or [_%w] ) represents all alphanumeric characters plus the underscore, [0-7] represents the octal digits, and [0-7%l%-] represents the writing questions, octal digits plus the together in grace, lowercase letters plus the ' - ' character. The interaction between ranges and classes is not defined.
Therefore, patterns like [%a-z] or [a-%%] have no meaning. Questions! [^ set ] : represents the complement of set , where set is interpreted as above. For all classes represented by single letters ( %a , %c , etc.), the corresponding uppercase letter represents the complement of the class. For instance, %S represents all non-space characters. The definitions of letter, space, and other character groups depend on the current locale. In particular, the class [a-z] may not be equivalent to %l . A pattern item can be a single character class, which matches any single character in the class; a single character class followed by ' * ', which matches 0 or more repetitions of characters in the class. These repetition items will always match the longest possible sequence; a single character class followed by ' + ', which matches 1 or more repetitions of characters in the class. These repetition items will always match the longest possible sequence; a single character class followed by ' - ', which also matches 0 or more repetitions of characters in parts of a fair research, the class. Unlike ' * ', these repetition items will always match the shortest possible sequence; a single character class followed by ' ? ', which matches 0 or 1 occurrence of a character in the class; % n , for n between 1 and 9; such item matches a substring equal to the n -th captured string (see below); %b xy , where x and y are two distinct characters; such item matches strings that start with x , end with y , and writing, where the x and y are balanced . Thesis Cmu! This means that, if one reads the string from left to right, counting +1 for an x and -1 for a y , the ending y is the first y where the count reaches 0. For instance, the item %b() matches expressions with balanced parentheses. A pattern is a sequence of pattern items.
A ' ^ ' at the beginning of a pattern anchors the match at the beginning of the subject string. A ' $ ' at the end of a pattern anchors the essay, match at the end of the in grace, subject string. At other positions, ' ^ ' and ' $ ' have no special meaning and represent themselves. A pattern can contain sub-patterns enclosed in parentheses; they describe captures . When a match succeeds, the substrings of the writing, subject string that match captures are stored ( captured ) for future use. Captures are numbered according to sparknotes their left parentheses. For instance, in the pattern (a*(.)%w(%s*)) , the part of the string matching a*(.)%w(%s*) is stored as the first capture (and therefore has number 1); the character matching . is captured with number 2, and the part matching %s* has number 3.
As a special case, the essay writing questions answers, empty capture () captures the do my essay, current string position (a number). For instance, if we apply the pattern ()aa() on the string flaaap , there will be two captures: 3 and 5. A pattern cannot contain embedded zeros. Use %z instead. This library provides generic functions for table manipulation. Essay! It provides all its functions inside the table table . Most functions in the table library assume that the table represents an array or a list. For these functions, when we talk about the essays and reflections, length of writing questions, a table we mean the result of the homework, length operator. Inserts element value at position pos in table , shifting up other elements to open space, if necessary.
The default value for pos is n+1 , where n is the length of the table (see §2.5.5), so that a call table.insert(t,x) inserts x at the end of table t . Returns the largest positive numerical index of the given table, or zero if the table has no positive numerical indices. (To do its job this function does a linear traversal of the whole table.) Removes from table the element at position pos , shifting down other elements to close the space, if necessary. Returns the value of the removed element. The default value for pos is n , where n is the length of the table, so that a call table.remove(t) removes the last element of table t . The sort algorithm is not stable; that is, elements considered equal by the given order may have their relative positions changed by writing questions answers, the sort. This library is an interface to creative writing mfa programs in north carolina the standard C math library. It provides all its functions inside the answers, table math . Returns the absolute value of x . Returns the arc cosine of x (in radians).
Returns the arc sine of x (in radians). Returns the arc tangent of x (in radians). Returns the arc tangent of y/x (in radians), but uses the thesis cmu, signs of both parameters to find the quadrant of the result. Writing Questions! (It also handles correctly the case of x being zero.) Returns the smallest integer larger than or equal to x . Returns the cosine of x (assumed to be in radians). Returns the essay, hyperbolic cosine of x . Returns the angle x (given in radians) in degrees. Returns the value e x . Returns the writing questions, largest integer smaller than or equal to x . Returns the remainder of the division of x by y that rounds the quotient towards zero. Returns m and e such that x = m2 e , e is an and reflections integer and the absolute value of m is in essay writing questions answers, the range [0.5, 1) (or zero when x is zero). The value HUGE_VAL , a value larger than or equal to any other numerical value. Returns m2 e ( e should be an integer). Returns the natural logarithm of thesis cmu, x . Returns the base-10 logarithm of x . Returns the essay writing questions, maximum value among its arguments. Returns the essays francis sparknotes, minimum value among its arguments.
Returns two numbers, the integral part of x and the fractional part of x . Returns x y . (You can also use the expression x^y to compute this value.) Returns the essay writing questions answers, angle x (given in degrees) in radians. This function is an in grace interface to the simple pseudo-random generator function rand provided by ANSI C. (No guarantees can be given for its statistical properties.) When called without arguments, returns a uniform pseudo-random real number in the range [0,1) . When called with an integer number m , math.random returns a uniform pseudo-random integer in the range [1, m] . When called with two integer numbers m and n , math.random returns a uniform pseudo-random integer in the range [m, n] . Sets x as the seed for the pseudo-random generator: equal seeds produce equal sequences of numbers. Returns the sine of x (assumed to be in radians). Returns the hyperbolic sine of x . Returns the square root of x . (You can also use the expression x^0.5 to compute this value.) Returns the tangent of x (assumed to be in radians).
Returns the hyperbolic tangent of x . The I/O library provides two different styles for file manipulation. The first one uses implicit file descriptors; that is, there are operations to set a default input file and a default output file, and all input/output operations are over these default files. The second style uses explicit file descriptors. When using implicit file descriptors, all operations are supplied by table io . When using explicit file descriptors, the operation io.open returns a file descriptor and then all operations are supplied as methods of the file descriptor. The table io also provides three predefined file descriptors with their usual meanings from C: io.stdin , io.stdout , and io.stderr . The I/O library never closes these files. Unless otherwise stated, all I/O functions return nil on failure (plus an error message as a second result and a system-dependent error code as a third result) and some value different from nil on success.
Equivalent to file:close() . Without a file , closes the default output file. Equivalent to file:flush over essay answers, the default output file. When called with a file name, it opens the creative mfa programs, named file (in text mode), and sets its handle as the default input file. When called with a file handle, it simply sets this file handle as the default input file. When called without parameters, it returns the current default input file. In case of errors this function raises the writing answers, error, instead of returning an error code. Opens the given file name in parts science fair, read mode and returns an iterator function that, each time it is called, returns a new line from the essay, file. Therefore, the construction. will iterate over all lines of the file.
When the iterator function detects the essays francis sparknotes, end of file, it returns nil (to finish the loop) and automatically closes the file. The call io.lines() (with no file name) is equivalent to io.input():lines() ; that is, it iterates over the lines of the default input file. Writing Questions Answers! In this case it does not close the thesis cmu, file when the loop ends. This function opens a file, in the mode specified in the string mode . It returns a new file handle, or, in case of errors, nil plus an error message. The mode string can be any of the following: r: read mode (the default); w: write mode; a: append mode; r+: update mode, all previous data is preserved; w+: update mode, all previous data is erased; a+: append update mode, previous data is essay questions preserved, writing is only allowed at the end of file. The mode string can also have a ' b ' at i didn't do my the end, which is needed in some systems to open the file in binary mode. This string is exactly what is used in the standard C function fopen . Similar to io.input , but operates over the default output file.
Starts program prog in a separated process and returns a file handle that you can use to writing questions read data from essays francis bacon this program (if mode is r , the default) or to write data to this program (if mode is w ). This function is essay writing questions answers system dependent and is not available on all platforms. Equivalent to io.input():read . Returns a handle for a temporary file. This file is opened in update mode and mfa programs carolina, it is automatically removed when the program ends. Checks whether obj is a valid file handle. Returns the string file if obj is an writing answers open file handle, closed file if obj is creative a closed file handle, or nil if obj is not a file handle. Equivalent to questions answers io.output():write . Closes file . Note that files are automatically closed when their handles are garbage collected, but that takes an essays francis unpredictable amount of time to happen. Saves any written data to file . Returns an iterator function that, each time it is writing questions called, returns a new line from the file. Therefore, the construction. will iterate over all lines of the file. (Unlike io.lines , this function does not close the and reflections, file when the loop ends.) Reads the file file , according to the given formats, which specify what to read.
For each format, the essay questions answers, function returns a string (or a number) with the characters read, or nil if it cannot read data with the specified format. When called without formats, it uses a default format that reads the entire next line (see below). The available formats are *n: reads a number; this is the only format that returns a number instead of a string. *a: reads the whole file, starting at the current position. Essays And Reflections! On end of file, it returns the empty string. *l: reads the next line (skipping the end of line), returning nil on end of writing answers, file. This is the default format. number : reads a string with up to this number of characters, returning nil on end of francis bacon sparknotes, file. If number is questions answers zero, it reads nothing and returns an empty string, or nil on end of francis, file. Sets and gets the file position, measured from the beginning of the questions, file, to the position given by offset plus a base specified by the string whence , as follows: set: base is i didn't homework essay position 0 (beginning of the file); cur: base is current position; end: base is end of essay writing questions answers, file; In case of success, function seek returns the final file position, measured in bytes from the thesis cmu, beginning of the file. If this function fails, it returns nil , plus a string describing the error.
The default value for whence is cur , and for writing offset is 0. Therefore, the francis bacon sparknotes, call file:seek() returns the current file position, without changing it; the call file:seek(set) sets the position to the beginning of the file (and returns 0); and the call file:seek(end) sets the position to the end of the file, and returns its size. Sets the buffering mode for an output file. There are three available modes: no: no buffering; the result of questions answers, any output operation appears immediately. In Grace! full: full buffering; output operation is performed only when the buffer is essay writing questions full (or when you explicitly flush the file (see io.flush )). line: line buffering; output is buffered until a newline is output or there is any input from some special files (such as a terminal device). For the last two cases, size specifies the size of the buffer, in growing in grace essay, bytes. The default is an writing questions appropriate size. Writes the value of each of its arguments to parts of a research paper the file . The arguments must be strings or numbers. To write other values, use tostring or string.format before write . This library is implemented through table os . Returns an approximation of the amount in answers, seconds of CPU time used by the program. Returns a string or a table containing date and time, formatted according to the given string format . If the together in grace essay, time argument is essay writing questions answers present, this is the time to carolina be formatted (see the os.time function for a description of this value).
Otherwise, date formats the current time. If format starts with ' ! ', then the date is formatted in essay answers, Coordinated Universal Time. After this optional character, if format is the string *t , then date returns a table with the following fields: year (four digits), month (1--12), day (1--31), hour (0--23), min (0--59), sec (0--61), wday (weekday, Sunday is 1), yday (day of the year), and isdst (daylight saving flag, a boolean). If format is not *t , then date returns the date as a string, formatted according to the same rules as the C function strftime . When called without arguments, date returns a reasonable date and creative mfa programs in north, time representation that depends on the host system and on the current locale (that is, os.date() is equivalent to os.date(%c) ). Returns the number of seconds from writing questions answers time t1 to time t2 . In POSIX, Windows, and homework, some other systems, this value is exactly t2 - t1 . This function is equivalent to the C function system . It passes command to be executed by an operating system shell. It returns a status code, which is system-dependent. Essay Writing Questions! If command is absent, then it returns nonzero if a shell is available and zero otherwise. Calls the C function exit , with an optional code , to terminate the host program. The default value for parts science research paper code is the success code. Returns the essay questions answers, value of the process environment variable varname , or nil if the variable is not defined.
Deletes the file or directory with the given name. Directories must be empty to be removed. If this function fails, it returns nil , plus a string describing the error. Renames file or directory named oldname to of a science paper newname . If this function fails, it returns nil , plus a string describing the error. Sets the current locale of the program. locale is a string specifying a locale; category is an optional string describing which category to change: all , collate , ctype , monetary , numeric , or time ; the default category is all . The function returns the name of the new locale, or nil if the request cannot be honored. If locale is the empty string, the writing answers, current locale is set to an implementation-defined native locale. If locale is the writing mfa programs in north carolina, string C , the essay answers, current locale is set to the standard C locale. When called with nil as the first argument, this function only returns the name of the current locale for the given category. Returns the current time when called without arguments, or a time representing the date and time specified by the given table.
This table must have fields year , month , and day , and may have fields hour , min , sec , and isdst (for a description of these fields, see the os.date function). The returned value is a number, whose meaning depends on your system. In POSIX, Windows, and some other systems, this number counts the number of seconds since some given start time (the epoch). In other systems, the parts fair paper, meaning is not specified, and the number returned by essay answers, time can be used only as an and reflections argument to date and difftime . Returns a string with a file name that can be used for essay a temporary file. The file must be explicitly opened before its use and explicitly removed when no longer needed. On some systems (POSIX), this function also creates a file with that name, to avoid security risks. (Someone else might create the francis bacon, file with wrong permissions in the time between getting the name and creating the file.) You still have to open the essay writing questions answers, file to use it and to remove it (even if you do not use it).
When possible, you may prefer to use io.tmpfile , which automatically removes the file when the essay, program ends. This library provides the functionality of the questions, debug interface to Lua programs. You should exert care when using this library. The functions provided here should be used exclusively for thesis cmu debugging and similar tasks, such as profiling. Please resist the temptation to use them as a usual programming tool: they can be very slow.
Moreover, several of these functions violate some assumptions about Lua code (e.g., that variables local to a function cannot be accessed from outside or that userdata metatables cannot be changed by Lua code) and therefore can compromise otherwise secure code. All functions in this library are provided inside the debug table. All functions that operate over a thread have an essay writing questions answers optional first argument which is the thread to operate over. The default is always the writing mfa programs carolina, current thread. Enters an interactive mode with the user, running each string that the user enters. Writing Questions! Using simple commands and other debug facilities, the user can inspect global and local variables, change their values, evaluate expressions, and so on. A line containing only the word cont finishes this function, so that the caller continues its execution. Note that commands for together in grace essay debug.debug are not lexically nested within any function, and so have no direct access to local variables. Returns the current hook settings of the thread, as three values: the current hook function, the current hook mask, and the current hook count (as set by the debug.sethook function).
debug.getinfo ([thread,] function [, what]) Returns a table with information about a function. You can give the function directly, or you can give a number as the value of function , which means the function running at level function of the call stack of the given thread: level 0 is the current function ( getinfo itself); level 1 is the essay writing, function that called getinfo ; and so on. If function is a number larger than the essays francis sparknotes, number of active functions, then getinfo returns nil . The returned table can contain all the fields returned by lua_getinfo , with the essay answers, string what describing which fields to bacon fill in. The default for what is to get all information available, except the table of valid lines.
If present, the answers, option ' f ' adds a field named func with the function itself. If present, the option ' L ' adds a field named activelines with the table of valid lines. For instance, the expression debug.getinfo(1,n).name returns a table with a name for the current function, if a reasonable name can be found, and the expression debug.getinfo(print) returns a table with all available information about the print function. This function returns the name and the value of the local variable with index local of the function at level level of the stack. (The first parameter or local variable has index 1, and so on, until the last active local variable.) The function returns nil if there is no local variable with the given index, and raises an error when called with a level out of range. (You can call debug.getinfo to check whether the level is valid.) Variable names starting with ' ( ' (open parentheses) represent internal variables (loop control variables, temporaries, and C function locals). Returns the metatable of the given object or nil if it does not have a metatable. Returns the registry table (see §3.5).
This function returns the name and the value of the upvalue with index up of the function func . The function returns nil if there is no upvalue with the given index. Sets the do my homework, environment of the questions answers, given object to the given table . Returns object . debug.sethook ([thread,] hook, mask [, count]) Sets the given function as a hook. And Reflections! The string mask and the number count describe when the questions answers, hook will be called. Essays Francis Bacon Sparknotes! The string mask may have the following characters, with the given meaning: c : the hook is called every time Lua calls a function; r : the questions answers, hook is called every time Lua returns from a function; l : the hook is do my essay called every time Lua enters a new line of code. With a count different from zero, the hook is essay writing questions answers called after every count instructions. When called without arguments, debug.sethook turns off the hook.
When the hook is called, its first parameter is a string describing the event that has triggered its call: call , return (or tail return , when simulating a return from thesis cmu a tail call), line , and count . For line events, the hook also gets the essay writing, new line number as its second parameter. Inside a hook, you can call getinfo with level 2 to get more information about the running function (level 0 is the getinfo function, and level 1 is the and reflections, hook function), unless the essay questions answers, event is essays francis sparknotes tail return . Essay Writing Answers! In this case, Lua is only simulating the return, and a call to getinfo will return invalid data. debug.setlocal ([thread,] level, local, value) This function assigns the value value to the local variable with index local of the essay, function at essay writing questions level level of the stack. The function returns nil if there is no local variable with the given index, and parts of a research paper, raises an questions answers error when called with a level out of essays and reflections, range. (You can call getinfo to check whether the level is valid.) Otherwise, it returns the writing answers, name of the local variable. Sets the metatable for the given object to the given table (which can be nil ). This function assigns the value value to the upvalue with index up of the function func . The function returns nil if there is writing carolina no upvalue with the given index. Questions! Otherwise, it returns the name of the upvalue. debug.traceback ([thread,] [message [, level]]) Returns a string with a traceback of the call stack. Of A Science Fair Paper! An optional message string is writing answers appended at essays the beginning of the traceback.
An optional level number tells at which level to start the traceback (default is essay writing questions 1, the function calling traceback ). Although Lua has been designed as an extension language, to be embedded in a host C program, it is also frequently used as a stand-alone language. Essays Francis Bacon! An interpreter for Lua as a stand-alone language, called simply lua , is essay writing questions provided with the standard distribution. The stand-alone interpreter includes all standard libraries, including the debug library. Its usage is:
The options are: -e stat : executes string stat ; -l mod : requires mod ; -i : enters interactive mode after running script ; -v : prints version information; -- : stops handling options; - : executes stdin as a file and stops handling options. After handling its options, lua runs the thesis cmu, given script , passing to it the essay questions, given args as string arguments. When called without arguments, lua behaves as lua -v -i when the standard input ( stdin ) is a terminal, and as lua - otherwise. Before running any argument, the essays, interpreter checks for an environment variable LUA_INIT . If its format is @ filename , then lua executes the file. Otherwise, lua executes the string itself. All options are handled in order, except -i . For instance, an invocation like. will first set a to 1, then print the value of a (which is ' 1 '), and finally run the file script.lua with no arguments. (Here $ is the shell prompt. Your prompt may be different.)
Before starting to essay answers run the script, lua collects all arguments in the command line in creative writing in north, a global table called arg . Essay Questions Answers! The script name is stored at index 0, the first argument after the script name goes to index 1, and so on. Any arguments before the script name (that is, the interpreter name plus the options) go to negative indices. For instance, in writing in north carolina, the call. the interpreter first runs the writing questions answers, file a.lua , then creates a table. and finally runs the file b.lua . The script is called with arg , arg , ··· as arguments; it can also access these arguments with the vararg expression ' . '. In interactive mode, if you write an incomplete statement, the homework essay, interpreter waits for its completion by issuing a different prompt. If the global variable _PROMPT contains a string, then its value is used as the essay, prompt. Similarly, if the global variable _PROMPT2 contains a string, its value is used as the thesis cmu, secondary prompt (issued during incomplete statements). Questions Answers! Therefore, both prompts can be changed directly on the command line or in any Lua programs by assigning to thesis cmu _PROMPT . Questions! See the of a science, next example: (The outer pair of writing questions, quotes is for the shell, the inner pair is for Lua.) Note the use of thesis cmu, -i to enter interactive mode; otherwise, the program would just end silently right after the assignment to _PROMPT . To allow the use of writing answers, Lua as a script interpreter in Unix systems, the stand-alone interpreter skips the first line of a chunk if it starts with # . Therefore, Lua scripts can be made into executable programs by using chmod +x and the #! form, as in.
(Of course, the location of the thesis cmu, Lua interpreter may be different in your machine. If lua is in your PATH , then. is a more portable solution.) 7 Incompatibilities with the Previous Version. Here we list the incompatibilities that you may find when moving a program from answers Lua 5.0 to Lua 5.1. You can avoid most of the incompatibilities compiling Lua with appropriate options (see file luaconf.h ). Creative! However, all these compatibility options will be removed in the next version of Lua. The vararg system changed from the pseudo-argument arg with a table with the extra arguments to essay writing questions answers the vararg expression. (See compile-time option LUA_COMPAT_VARARG in luaconf.h .) There was a subtle change in the scope of the implicit variables of the for statement and for the repeat statement.
The long string/long comment syntax ( [[ string ]] ) does not allow nesting. Essays Francis Sparknotes! You can use the new syntax ( [=[ string ]=] ) in questions, these cases. Homework! (See compile-time option LUA_COMPAT_LSTR in luaconf.h .) Function string.gfind was renamed string.gmatch . (See compile-time option LUA_COMPAT_GFIND in luaconf.h .) When string.gsub is called with a function as its third argument, whenever this function returns nil or false the replacement string is the whole match, instead of the empty string. Function table.setn was deprecated. Function table.getn corresponds to essay writing the new length operator ( # ); use the operator instead of the function. (See compile-time option LUA_COMPAT_GETN in thesis cmu, luaconf.h .) Function loadlib was renamed package.loadlib . (See compile-time option LUA_COMPAT_LOADLIB in luaconf.h .) Function math.mod was renamed math.fmod . Essay Questions Answers! (See compile-time option LUA_COMPAT_MOD in luaconf.h .) Functions table.foreach and thesis cmu, table.foreachi are deprecated. You can use a for loop with pairs or ipairs instead. Essay Writing Answers! There were substantial changes in essays francis bacon sparknotes, function require due to the new module system.
However, the new behavior is mostly compatible with the old, but require gets the path from package.path instead of from LUA_PATH . Function collectgarbage has different arguments. Function gcinfo is deprecated; use collectgarbage(count) instead. The luaopen_* functions (to open libraries) cannot be called directly, like a regular C function. They must be called through Lua, like a Lua function. Function lua_open was replaced by lua_newstate to essay answers allow the user to set a memory-allocation function.
You can use luaL_newstate from the standard library to create a state with a standard allocation function (based on realloc ). Functions luaL_getn and luaL_setn (from the auxiliary library) are deprecated. Use lua_objlen instead of together in grace essay, luaL_getn and nothing instead of luaL_setn . Function luaL_openlib was replaced by luaL_register . Function luaL_checkudata now throws an error when the given value is not a userdata of the expected type. (In Lua 5.0 it returned NULL .) Here is the writing questions answers, complete syntax of together in grace essay, Lua in extended BNF. Essay Writing Questions! (It does not describe operator precedences.)
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1000 Word Essay Essays and Research Papers. Words are powerless when looked at individually but they have the essay writing questions potential for good or evil, when someone who can properly use them to his . Francis Sparknotes! or her advantage. That is what Nathaniel Hawthorne quote means, and I fully agree with him. An example of words being used for evil could be a dictator trying to convince his people that he is best for the country. An example of words being used for good could be a civil rights activist trying to essay writing questions answers persuade people to get along and to treat everyone with respect. Core issues in ethics , Evil , God 1292 Words | 4 Pages. ne. pas negative form, Descartes' extraordinary fondness for multiple negatives and the desire of many translators to render his words . exactly into English and i didn't essay, you commonly get a text which is constructed of double, treble and at least one octuple negative.
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It is the responsibility of essays and reflections, each soldier The word SAFETY is often associated with what term? Risk Management What accounts for the majority of accidents? Carelessness Accidents are reported in essay writing accordance with what regulation? AR 385-40 3 safety features commonly found in any barracks. Lights.
Army Combat Uniform , Brigade , Human sexual behavior 85951 Words | 302 Pages. 5 Senses Effects Food Food is do my essay, not a want it is a necessity. However, in essay writing today’s society we have evolved beyond eating to survive and progressed to eating . for do my homework essay, pleasure. We no longer limit ourselves to family meals at questions answers home. Instead the essays and reflections majority of the population tends to enjoy gathering family and friends and going out for a dining experience. When dining out, the food itself is not the essay answers only factor to determining whether or not the meal was pleasing.
The atmosphere, the essay visual, the taste, and the. A1 Steak Sauce , Eating , Food 1062 Words | 3 Pages. Essay Questions! My name is Karmele Sagarzazu, I'm the second of thesis cmu, a family of three kids. Essay! I was born in a hard working Venezuelan-Basque family in Caracas, Venezuela. In this . application I hope to demonstrate not only the academic and professional qualifications that make me an parts fair paper, exceptional candidate to answers XXX University's Master's program in Refinery Design and Operation and to your scholarship, but also the personal characteristics that will allow me to obtain the most from studying at XXX University. As mentioned.
Chemical engineering , Oil refinery , Petroleum 1029 Words | 4 Pages. ? Stereotyping the thesis cmu World Short Essay : Your Body and Society Socio-Cultural Perspectives in Kinesiology HH/KINE 1000 Section . C Nick Ashby - Tutorial wow Name: Mimi Ramos Student Number: mhmm In the essay writing answers world that we live in today, prejudice and stereotyping has a great impact on our perspectives of others. Every day, people are criticized and judged on their appearance based their body weight, their height and the way we look. I myself have also experienced judgement due to my physical appearance. Human height , Human physical appearance , People 1244 Words | 5 Pages. Growing Together In Grace! The only planetary system that is known to man is our solar system. It is made up of nine planets. The nine major planets in our solar system are Mercury, . Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune and Pluto. There are also many other minor planets, which are also in our solar system, but they are unimportant compared to the nine major planets. Mercury, which is the planet that is essay answers, closest to together the sun, is the first and smallest of the inner planets. It is writing, speculated that the heat from. Earth , Jupiter , Mars 973 Words | 3 Pages. one needs to understand the origin of words . Etymology, according to Yule(2006) is “the study of the thesis cmu origin and history of a . word ” (p.35).
This process is used in questions answers the evolution of mfa programs, words today, the internet is the building block of this process. The internet is essay writing questions answers, a catalyst for a number of new words that have become normal in everyday language. This has raised some fundamental questions about the nature of such words being included in the dictionary. This essay will argue that although change is inevitable. English language , Etymology , French language 1231 Words | 4 Pages. health studies 1000 word assignment. Carolina! ? Enhanced readability/comprehension The following essay will define health, in relation to the social and medical model of health.
A . description of the both social and essay writing answers, medical model will be included in this essay as well as comparisons of the similarities that they both have. In this essay it is important to outline the positives and negatives of essays, both models as it shows an understanding of both of the models. I will start my essay by showing my understanding of the essay questions definition health and including. Epidemiology , Health , Health care 1441 Words | 7 Pages. in a more accurate way. WELL, that is how I feel about what I write. Since coming home for the summer, I’ve revisited old papers and essays . for further refinement and fine tweaking just because I think it’s fun (and because I’m a perfectionist, whoops).
So some of the essays I post are more loved and tended to than others, but today I am posting the first essay I wrote for the Nonfiction Writing class I took this past spring at KU. It’s come a long way since then, and I’m certain I will pay it. Microsoft Word , Political correctness , Word 2077 Words | 6 Pages. Mark G. Period 6 01.24.12 AP Literature Othello Words Essay The word “heaven” is one of the writing mfa programs most frequently . used words in the play Othello. Throughout the play, the word is used in various forms with numerous connotations, often including multiple ones in essay writing questions answers a single incident. Of A Fair! “Heaven” is used in the first few acts mostly as a “power or majesty of heaven, or as God”(“Heaven” Def. 7a). The people refer to the heavens as a God or a divine being, such as when Cassio says “Oh, let the heavens Give him. Connotation , Dictionary , English language 887 Words | 3 Pages. the Usage of the “N” Word When discussing the definition, effects, and the history behind the “N” word , it is interesting how . this word has managed to change over essay answers, time from having a descriptive meaning, to parts of a fair a negative connotation, and to a positive controversial meaning. Essay Answers! That is why there are those who believe that the “N” word should and should not be used, and do my homework essay, there are those that believe that only some (or the accepted ones) should use it in order to avoid conflicts. Essay Writing Answers! This essay will go over bacon, some. Black people , Hip hop , Hip hop music 918 Words | 3 Pages.
The Odyssey Translations Essay WORD. ?The Odyssey Translations Essay The Odyssey is an essay writing answers, epic poem, written in classical Greek, describing Odysseus's adventures in his ten year . attempt to return to Ithaca after the Trojan War. Bacon Sparknotes! Since this 2,500 year old book was written, there have been several English translations that are believed to be the essay writing questions closest interpretations to growing together the original version of The Odyssey. Essay Writing Answers! Alexander Pope, Emile V. Rieu, Robert Fitzgerald, and Robert Fagles each wrote a translation of his own. These translations are read. Aeneid , Cyclops , Homer 865 Words | 3 Pages. ?Assignment The student should complete a brief essay analysing the use of technologies to essays bacon enhance your own learning and teaching. This should . also include the benefits and limitations of using technology in learning and teaching. (400 words minimum) Technology has moved on in leaps and bounds within the last thirty years and can be a great benefit but may also be frustrating for some that do not understand how to use it. From my own perspective the internet (computers, tablets and phones) has helped. Learning 916 Words | 2 Pages. Essay Answers! The 500- word Essay : Some Thoughts Gordon Thompson The 500- word length is consistent with many other kinds of sparknotes, . professional writing, from blogs to book reviews.
Moreover, if you want to capture and essay answers, hold your audience's attention, the growing in grace three-section statement maximizes your opportunity. The statements below provide ideas on how you might successfully write. The short essays for this seminar have several goals. 1. They provide you with an opportunity to explore a topic we have covered in our discussions. English passive voice , Essay , Grammar 1108 Words | 3 Pages.
800 Word Essay Food, health and medical technologies have a large impact on individuals and communities today and in essay writing answers the . future. Throughout this paper, discussion will involve the issues that society faces regarding food and health and how we can create a healthier and i didn't, safer world for our future. Essay Questions! The food industry has a large impact on individuals and together in grace essay, will affect wider communities in the future. The rush of today’s society has pushed food production to become more commercialized with prepackaged/premade. Fast food , Food , Health 826 Words | 3 Pages. 346). In his essay , “Slurring Spanish,” Luis Rodriguez highlights the difficulties of bilingual speakers, specifically Spanish speakers, in . America.
He concentrates on the challenges that Spanish speakers face in school from having English forced as the language to be spoken at all times, moreover Rodriguez points out two Spanish-speaking students that experienced the hardships of bilingual speakers in an “English Only” education system. Essay! Although Luis Rodriguez could have written his essay in his native. Bilingual education , English language , French language 1061 Words | 4 Pages. ?2000 Word Essay on Disrespecting an NCO by SPC BUTLER On November 21, I received a negative counseling for essays, disrespecting a Non . Commissioned Officer, though it was warranted by a series of events I didn’t agree with I should have found a more appropriate way to voice my concerns. The online dictionary defines disrespect as an expression of lack of essay writing questions answers, respect and and reflections, a fashion that is essay writing answers, generally disrespectful and contemptuous. I define disrespect as putting one down verbally, physical or emotionally. In. Corporal , Non-commissioned officer , Officer 2059 Words | 3 Pages. A Definition Essay on the Word Romance. The Attraction of Romance Romance: the word the puts the art in heart, the word describes the actions that take place to imprint . your name in a girls head, the word that everyone thinks about growing essay, when two people are madly in love with one another. The Oxford English Dictionary tells the word came from answers, 1497 from a time when chivalry was the growing together essay key to love. In this time, the essay questions answers word meant to be chivalrous, but in modern times to romance someone is to “put your moves on them” to dazzle someone with your personality.
English language , French language , Kid Rock 925 Words | 3 Pages. ?One word essay : HARMONY Confucius once said “Let the states of equilibrium and essays, Harmony exist in perfection, and essay writing, a happy order . will prevail throughout heaven and earth, and all things will be nourished and and reflections, flourish.” Harmony is defined as the state of being in agreement or concord. Singapore is a bustling metropolis and a multi-racial society, where people of different ethnic groups co-exist and lived harmoniously. Singapore has thrived rapidly because of our openness to international trade. Ethnic group , Race 916 Words | 4 Pages. on the use of writing, “forbidden words ” in the media, the individual responsibility of using curse words has increased. In this research . Thesis Cmu! I have found that the use of curse words has heightened some people’s sensitivity to essay writing these words . Children are the growing in grace most affected and the parents are not far behind. Writing Answers! The use of curse words in our media has changed our perspective; children and teens use them sometimes on the daily basis, but is this change a good thing? The common curse words , some starting with S’s and. I Didn't Do My Essay! Curse , Fuck , Minced oath 1426 Words | 5 Pages. Write an Essay of Approximately 1000 Words, Plus Appropriate Illustrations and References That Explores the Relationships Between Lithology, Topography, Soils and Vegetation. Write an essay of approximately 1000 words , plus appropriate illustrations and references that explores the . relationships between lithology, topography, soils and vegetation.
Vegetation is the essay writing sum of essays and reflections, plant life covering the ground in an area. Vegetation is a more generalised term than flora. Lithology, topography and essay writing questions, soils all have a relationship and impact on vegetation. Lithology is the macroscopic physical characteristics of a rock, (Thomas and Goudie, 2004). Such as the porosity, grain size. Adiabatic process , Geomorphology , Lapse rate 798 Words | 3 Pages. For this assignment I chose to i didn't do my homework essay read A Loss for Words : A story of essay writing questions, deafness in growing a family, by writing questions answers Lou Ann Walker. She recounts growing up hearing with . two deaf parents. Once I started reading I was surprised to find that Walker grew up in Indiana! Her father is from Montpelier, her mother is from francis bacon, Greencastle, and the author came of age in Indianapolis.
Lou Ann’s story begins as her parents are driving her to Harvard. She went to Ball State for her first two years, but decided it was not enough of a challenge. Answers! Deaf culture , Deafness , Family 1866 Words | 5 Pages. on the creative arts as much as academics in order to thesis cmu keep creative ideas flowing in our society. The points he offers in his speech, about childhood and essay, . losing site of our creativity by educating it out, is why I chose his talk to write this essay . His reasoning hits home for me because I currently have four children in different stages of the growing in grace essay education system. It is clear to see that the education system falls short in challenging the creativity of our future society after a few years in the. CBC Radio One , Creativity , Education 765 Words | 5 Pages. Valentine's Day Dinner There is always one day out of the essay answers year that you go above and i didn't essay, beyond for that special person in writing questions answers your life, that day is February 14th. . Most people do not believe in Valentine’s Day simply for the reason that people should show their love everyday and not specifically on one day. I also believe you should show your love every day but it is also nice to have a special holiday just dedicated to your husband, wife, boyfriend, or girlfriend. I am one of the few that actually go. Growing Essay! Black pepper , Butter , Butterfat 1005 Words | 3 Pages. Kerrigan Lebloch., 2014) I learnt how communication is linked to some of the domains in the professional capabilities framework (PCF) this domain . Writing Answers! highlighted how communication is essential to social work professional practice when we were given an essay in homework essay professionalism at the beginning of the module.
The link are domain 1, 2, 3,4,5,7 and essay writing, 8. 1. Professionalism: this domain identify and tell us to behave as a professional social worker, this mean I will need to make use of my skills as part of my. Communication , Nonverbal communication , Paralanguage 2125 Words | 6 Pages. Change over Time Essay: the Americas 1000-1850. Change Over Time Essay : The Americas 1000 -1850 As time progressed from 1000 to about 1500, the . economic and political aspects of and reflections, Latin American and Caribbean culture became more compliant with European norm due to the colonization of essay writing answers, land by essays francis bacon the Spanish and Portuguese. The stages it went through vary, in that some were temporary while others were endured. Some changes that occurred was the management of the slave trade, and sugar plantation, the writing different roles of essays and reflections, men and women. Africa , African slave trade , Atlantic slave trade 960 Words | 3 Pages. Essay Writing Answers! disquisition, monograph; More 2. formal an bacon, attempt or effort. a misjudged essay synonyms: attempt, effort, endeavor, try, venture, . Answers! trial, experiment, undertaking his first essay in thesis cmu telecommunications a trial design of essay answers, a postage stamp yet to be accepted. Thesis Cmu! verbformal verb: essay ; 3rd person present: essays ; past tense: essayed; past participle: essayed; gerund or present participle: essaying e?sa/ 1. attempt or try. essay a smile Origin late 15th century (as a verb in the sense ‘test the.
Definition , Essay , Gerund 608 Words | 4 Pages. Essay Answers! How to Avoid Going Over an essays, Essay Word Limit. ?AfraSiab Mohal 03454644423 How to Avoid Going Over an Essay Word Limit 1.Write first and edit later. This is answers, very important: . If you constantly worry about word limits, it is quite likely that you will end up discarding ideas that add to your paper. Alternatively, consider adding bullet-pointed thoughts as they arise if it bothers you to write too many words that will later require cutting back 2. Replace phrases with single words . There are always opportunities to say more with less. For.
English passive voice , Passive voice , Phrase 1801 Words | 6 Pages. used. 2. Do you agree that “what a word means today is what it meant in the past?” Please explain what etymology???can help with today’s . meaning of thesis cmu, a word . I don’t agree because language would change gradually as the time went by. It would cause semantic and questions answers, meaning change.The study of etymologies may throw light on thesis cmu, how a present-day meaning developed or reveal something about the essay questions working of the human mind, but it doesn’t help in parts of a science research determining what a word means today. 3. What is language. Compound , English language , Etymology 785 Words | 4 Pages. Submit the essay to the Assignments page by going to the lefthand navigation bar of the main class page and clicking on Essay #1. . Submit either as a .doc or .docx or .rtf file. The Essay is considered on time or late depending on when it arrives in my Assignment inbox and not when you send it. Double space. The essay should have an introduction, a multiparagraph body, and a conclusion. Essay Writing Questions Answers! You must use specific facts from the assigned textbook reading and creative mfa programs, you must cite those facts in the body of the. 18th century , Charles I of England , Charles II of England 1058 Words | 3 Pages. stand.” The Sword of The Spirit . and the sword of the writing questions spirit, which is the word of God: What is The Sword of of a research, The Spirit? . The word of God!
The rhema; or ‘spoken’ word of God. What is the word of God? Psalms 119:105 – Your word is a lamp to my feet and a light to essay writing answers my path. Parts Science Research! ‘God’s word - The Holy Bible illuminates. It reveals to us the writing questions good and the bad, the wise and i didn't, the unwise. The word of God is the ultimate tool in learning how to live a righteous life. A life free from wickedness. Bible , Christianity , God 1038 Words | 6 Pages. Writing Questions! ? Essay Instructions You will write 4 essays (double spaced, 12-point Times New Roman font).
The first essay must . Homework! be 1,000–1,200 words , and questions answers, the following essays must be 750–1,000 words each. Essay one corresponds to the essay one prompt as listed below. Essay two corresponds with the essay two prompt, etc. through all four essays . Each essay is a separate assignment. In completing each essay , research must be conducted through 2–4 peer-reviewed, scholarly sources in addition to parts fair research the Bible and writing answers, the. Thesis Cmu! Bible , Religious text 990 Words | 3 Pages. Essay Questions Answers! Popular Persuasive Speech/ Essay Topics • Do schools have the right to search students’ lockers? • Should children be given sex education in . Mfa Programs In North! schools, or should this be the responsibility of the questions answers parents? • Reality T.V. shows are damaging to their views. Bacon Sparknotes! • Sexually suggestive ads should be banned/broadcast only after 10:00 P.M. • Students should be allowed to use cell phones during school. • Students should be allowed to listen to music during the school day. • Cosmetic plastic surgery should. Essay Writing! Birth control , Censorship , Education 570 Words | 3 Pages. And Reflections! 151 Words Short Essay On The City I Live In.
African slave trade , Answer , Atlantic slave trade 857 Words | 4 Pages. Don’t be afraid of failure; as it teaches you what strategies to use the next time around. If all who accomplished what they wanted was afraid to fail, they . never would have succeeded.” --- Happy Sunday! Real Talk … “Be mindful of your actions, words , actions and deeds. “Forgiving is the easy part, it's the forgetting that's difficult.” Food for creative in north, Thought … “When your foundation is strong, the only way it falls is essay writing, when there’s a weak link. Creative Writing In North! Be mindful, it only writing questions answers takes one leak to sink a great. Human , Monday , Sunday 1961 Words | 7 Pages. Essays are generally scholarly pieces of writing written from an author's personal point of view, but the definition is vague, overlapping with . those of an article, a pamphlet and a short story. Essays can consist of a number of creative, elements, including: literary criticism, political manifestos, learned arguments, observations of daily life, recollections, and essay answers, reflections of the growing in grace essay author. Almost all modern essays are written in prose, but works in verse have been dubbed essays (e.g. Alexander Pope's.
Alexander Pope , Essay , Essays 1053 Words | 4 Pages. Bankers Adda How to write Essay in SBI PO Exam? Dear readers, as you know that SBI PO 2014 Paper will also contain a Descriptive Test of answers, . 50 marks (1 hour duration), which will consist of English Language Comprehension, Short Precis, Letter Writing Essay ). So, here we are presenting you How to write Essay ? and few points to remember while writing an essay in thesis cmu the exam, which will be important for answers, upcoming SBI PO exam. How to and reflections write an essay ? 1. Analyze the prompt. Note exactly what. Essay , Jawaharlal Nehru , Linguistics 812 Words | 4 Pages. The Book Thief - Power of Words Essay.
Paradis ENG2D 8th April 2014 The beautiful, ghastly, and immense power of words . Words … words are things we . use and hear literally all of the writing questions time, although they give us the power to and reflections communicate, they are certainly not as influential or manipulative as they have the ability to be. Essay! Nazi Germany is a place where the use of the immense power of combined letters is perfected. In the novel, The Book Thief, by Markus Zusak, words are used to create goodness, comfort, and sanity in a time of war. When. Adolf Hitler , Fuhrer , Nazi Germany 1670 Words | 6 Pages. ENG 102 WP-1 - Evaluation Essay Write an in grace, essay that evaluates the value or effectiveness of something according to criteria . you establish or identify in the essay . The Genre: You’re familiar with the book and movie reviews that appear in essay questions answers newspapers, magazines, and bacon sparknotes, websites. They are just one kind of evaluative writing, but from them we can identify the writing answers key components of the genre. First, there is the object to be evaluated. Often this is a single thing—a music CD, a scholarly study, a corporation—but. Parts Research Paper! Academia , Academic publishing , Essay 768 Words | 3 Pages. This example essay addresses the issue of how to write an essay . Essay Writing Answers! The processes of writing are described: preparing to write, . writing the essay and editing.
The importance of planning and research is discussed. This is followed by an explanation of how essays should be constructed, including how to essays write the introduction, main body and conclusion, and the use of essay writing, sentences and paragraphs. The use of word processors is considered in relation to essay writing, including for editing. Preparation is. Essay , Essays , Idea 1091 Words | 4 Pages. Odyssey, tr., Stanley Lombardo Vergil, The Aeneid, tr., L.R. Lind Barry Strauss, The Trojan War, A New History Course Evaluation midterm examination . 35% final examination (comprehensive) 45% two 1-page essays (400 word minimum per essay ) 10% 4-page book review ( 1000 word minimum) 10% Reading Assignments Week 1 (Sept. 30-4) Monday Epic of Gilgamesh pp. 7-20, pp.
61-96 Wednesday Epic of Gilgamesh pp. 96-119 Friday Epic of essay, Gilgamesh continued Week 2 (Oct. Achilles , Epic poetry , Homer 446 Words | 3 Pages. Name: Andrew Gordon Subject: Exp201, Professor Morales Summary Assignment Forerunners Sei Shonagon: Hateful Things Essay question: . Essay! Consider Sei Shonagon’s definition of the word ‘hate’ in the Heian era. Thesis Cmu! Is an opinion considered hostile if it focuses on honesty and writing questions, transparency of a situation? “Hateful Things” is an opinionated extract from the book “Pillow Talk” written by Sei Shonagon. Pillow Talk is a collection of the lists, desires, poetry and judgmental conversations by growing together in grace essay Shonagon. Sei. Writing Answers! Essay , Heian period , Japan 1371 Words | 4 Pages.
What Is Courage Essay 800 1000 Words. ? A Woman’s Great Stand Courage Essay Chase Devlin English 1401 January 27, 2015 Professor Hardwick How would you feel if you went . out to dinner with your wife and a couple tells you to move because of the color of your skin? Now, imagine that this couple is armed with weapons and thesis cmu, intended on using them, if you do not get up. What would you do? Rosa Parks was a forty- two year old African American seamstress who lived in Montgomery, Alabama during the time of segregation. Rosa Parks refused. African American , African Methodist Episcopal Church , African Methodist Episcopal Zion Church 604 Words | 3 Pages. Essay Writing, Sample Essay Topic: Philosophy Essay in answers German - 1220 Words. Essay writing, sample essay topic: Philosophy Essay In German - 1220 words Formulierung des . Problems (Zusammengefasst): Man nehme an, dass es einen Hgel gibt auf dem eine Straenbahn fhrt und am Ende des Hgels eine Strae verluft. Nehmen wir an auf der Strae genau auf den Straenbahnschienen steht ein Schulbus voll mit kleinen Kindern und pltzlich versagen die bremsen der Straenbahn und sie rast auf den Schulbus zu.
Es ist klar das alle Kinder sterben, wenn die Straenbahn den Schulbus trifft. Zwischen. 1230 Words | 4 Pages. BM 6105 Assignment BM 6105 Managing Change Assignment (3000 words ) Essay Due on Monday 14th of January 2013 You are . required to write an essay supported with reference to the academic literature that answers the growing in grace essay following question: • You have recently been appointed to your first management post following graduation. You are keenly aware that as part of your management role you will be responsible for managing change and anticipate drawing on your BM 6105 studies to help you achieve success. Essay , Management , Organization 690 Words | 3 Pages. create flashcards for free at Cram.com Sign In | Sign Up StudyMode - Premium and Free Essays , Term Papers Book Notes Essays . Book Notes AP Notes Citation Generator More Code Napoleon and essay writing, “Declaration of the Rights of Man” Comparison By wis2cool, april. 2013 | 5 Pages (1064 Words ) | 1 Views | 4.5 12345 (1) | Report | This is parts of a science research paper, a Premium essay for upgraded members Sign Up to access full essay DID YOU LIKE THIS? TELL YOUR FRIENDS.
Send Code Napoleon and essay writing answers, “Declaration. Age of Enlightenment , Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen , French Revolution 632 Words | 4 Pages. Francis Sparknotes! 1,000 Word Essay on the Love Story. small. All of these little details are left out in the movie. Essay Questions! Although it doesn't seem like a great deal, the little details do play a large part in growing together essay the . importance of the essay writing questions Postal Office in the story.
Although the story seems more simple in the word sense, it also leaves a lot of room for homework essay, the mind to wonder what it is like back in the 1800's. Therefore the essay writing questions answers story is more open for parts of a research, the mind and it is more pleasing. A girl in essay writing answers a high-necked dark dress with cameo brooch at essays and reflections the collar. Her. Human physical appearance , Mind , Post office 1104 Words | 6 Pages. Essay Questions! symbols which can be understood and essays francis sparknotes, manipulated by someone who is culturally literate. Second, being literate can mean having knowledge or competence. For . Writing Questions Answers! example, we speak of people being computer literate or politically literate. For your first essay , try to focus on a moment or a period in your life when you realized the significance of being literate in this fashion.
Did you have trouble using a computer to register for parts of a paper, classes? Did you fit into a subculture because you learned to speak its. Essay , Knowledge , Literacy 1120 Words | 4 Pages. such strategies as scanning, skimming, main ideas, contextual clues and inferences. Learning Outcomes: Upon completion of this subject, student will . Questions Answers! be able to: 1. write summaries as well as process, comparison-contrast and cause-effect essays 2. apply basic grammatical concepts in writing 3. answer questions based on academic texts 4. give oral presentations Textbook: 1. Daise, D., Norloff, C., and Carne, P., (2011). Q: Skills for Success 4 : Reading and Writing Oxford University. Cambridge , Essay , Latin 401 Words | 3 Pages.
ELEMENTS OF AN ESSAY Preliminary Remarks Following are some suggestions to help you write an acceptable academic- level essay . . This is not the only way to essays organize and develop an essay . Essay Questions Answers! It is, however, a tried and true system and will likely be what your TCC instructors require of you. Audience and Purpose Before beginning, you should consider both your audience and purpose. Essays Francis! For, before you can know how to approach the subject, you must determine whom you will be addressing, how much they already. 2005 albums , Essay , Five paragraph essay 1430 Words | 5 Pages. water scarcity. Writing Answers! TRAFFIC Essay contest on ‘Ideas to transform Vellore into Wellore’ Special Correspondent Share · print · T+ . I Didn't Essay! lt;a href=http://www.thehindu.com/todays-paper/tp-national/tp-tamilnadu/ essay -contest-on-ideas-to-transform-vellore-into-wellore/article4786698.ece?textsize=largeamp;test=1 title=Large Text Size gt;T+lt;/agt;amp;nbsp;amp;nbsp;·amp;nbsp;amp;nbsp; lt;a href=http://www.thehindu.com/todays-paper/tp-national/tp-tamilnadu/ essay -contest-on-ideas-to-transform-vellore-into-wellore/article4786698.
Aquifer , Groundwater , Hydrogeology 900 Words | 3 Pages.
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Essay on the Importance of Library. The library occupies a very important place in school. With its books suited to the interests and aptitude of essay answers students of different age group, with its magazines, periodicals, news papers and with its calm and tranquil atmosphere it has a special call to the students who go there and quench their thirst for reading the material which cannot be provided to them in the class room. Here they find an environment which is conductive to the building up of habit of self learning. Essays And Reflections. The library is the center of the intellectual and social activities of school. The library has got very wholesome effect over the work of school. Habit of reading can be cultivated, when students get practice in reading and reading habit in the beginning are made firm when students get that material to read which interests them and essay questions, occupies their attention. In the class room the of a science fair research paper, books that are prescribed may not serve the purpose, some students may not be in writing questions a position to purchase all books that they want to read, while others may not find books that are of interest to them.
Interests differ, aptitudes vary, individual capacities present a wide variation in students’ reading capacities. In the library each has what he wants, each goes at the speed to which his capabilities allow him to go. The library is thus, a common platform upon essays and reflections, which all students meet on a common level with equal opportunities. It is the nucleus of the essay answers, school environment, the center of the intellectual activities of the school. The library may be regarded as an essential instrument for putting progressive methods into practice. But it is most unfortunate that in a large number of schools there are at present no libraries worth the name. Essays Sparknotes. The books are usually old, out-dated, unsuitable, usually selected without reference to the students’ tastes and interests.
They are stocked in a few book shelves, which are housed in an inadequate and unattractive room. The person in charge of the library is often a clerk or an indifferent teacher, who does the work on a part-time basis and has neither love for books nor knowledge of library technique. What makes this situation particularly difficult is the fact that most teachers and headmasters and even the educational administrators and authorities do not realize how unsatisfactory this position is and, therefore, hey have no sense to take necessary steps for improving the condition. The library must be made the most attractive place in the school so that students will be naturally drawn to it. It should be housed in essay a spacious well lighted hall. The book shelves, tables, chairs, reading desks should be carefully designed with an eye to artistic effect as well as functional efficiency. As far as possible the open shelf system should be introduced so that students may have free access to books. The success of library depends largely on thesis cmu, the proper selection of books, journals and periodicals. There should be a small committee of teachers, for selecting the books for the library.
The guiding principles in selection should be, not the teacher’s own idea of what books the essay writing answers, students must read but their natural and together in grace, psychological interests. The Commission recommended that trained librarians who have a love for books and understanding of student’s interests should be provided in all secondary schools and all teachers should be given some training in writing questions answers the basic principles of library work in the training colleges as well as through refresher courses. As the proper use of essay well equipped school library is absolutely essential for the official working of essay writing questions answers every educational institution and for encouraging literary and cultural interests in students, every secondary school should have such a library. Class libraries and subject libraries should also be utilized for essays and reflections the purpose. Writing. The subject teachers should be in charge of subject library. Competent subject teachers can enrich their teaching greatly with the help of small collections of books in their own subjects. This should not be confined to text books only. Advance works, reference books, books on related subjects and allied field, all these will find a place in that collection.
Most of the teachers in fact, have no idea of what a majority of students are reading or whether they are reading at all. Essays. So the Commission recommended that a systematic register should be maintained and each student must be allotted a few pages of the register in essay questions which all books studied by him are entered date-wise. This procedure will be very much helpful to the class teachers and headmasters to give necessary advice and encouragement to individual student for developing their reading habit. On the creative writing mfa programs in north, other hand each student is expected to maintain a diary in which he may enter date-wise, the names of all the books (with the names of the Authors) which he has read together with brief quotation or extracts that may appeal to him. The Commission further suggested that where there are no separate public libraries, the school libraries should, so far as possible make their facilities available to the local public and all public libraries should have a special section for children and essay answers, adolescents. (i) It supplements class work by increasing students’ vocabulary, quickening their intelligence and extending their general knowledge; (ii) It enables the essays francis sparknotes, students to prepare themselves for taking part in the various co-curricular activities of the school. Essay Writing Answers. They get information which is very helpful to them in taking part in debates, giving lectures and writing for thesis cmu the school magazine; (iii) It develops habits of the essay writing questions, students to derive pleasure and information from recreational and informative books; (iv) It broadens their outlook by placing a vast sphere of information before them; (v) It imparts training to the students for essays bacon sparknotes the proper use of books; (vi) It gives students training in punctuality by impressing ‘ upon them the necessity of writing answers returning and borrowing books at a fixed time; (vii) It provides suitable books to the students to growing together in grace, satisfy their hunger of reading books and saves them from the essay writing answers, harmful effects of reading unsuitable and injurious literature; (viii) It inculcates in the students the habit of silent reading ; (ix) It provides an opportunity to make the thesis cmu, best use of leisure time thereby lessening the chance of indiscipline in the school. In the history of questions Indian Education the importance of Secondary Education Commission is of great significance. Prior to this, various Commissions and Committees recommended for the improvement of secondary education, but adequate steps were not taken at different levels for its practical application. The present system of secondary education was introduced by the British authority. But within the francis, hundred years of answers its existence there was no remarkable improvement in the field of secondary education.
When everybody was feeling intensely for a progressive and workable change at this level, the Secondary Education Commission submitted its report with constructive suggestions. The Commission attempted to investigate all the writing, fundamental problem pertaining to secondary education and recommended certain concrete measures for eradicating the evils that stood as stumbling block on the path of the progress of education. It probed deep into each and essay questions answers, every aspect of the secondary education and made more practical and sound recommendations than those made by other Commissions appointed in the past. The government took initiative to implement some of the recommendation only parts science research because those were befitting to the time and made in the light of the recommendations of other Commissions and Committees. The Commission has put forth sincere efforts to rectify those defects persisted in secondary education i.e. predominance of bookish and literary knowledge, lack of vocational and technical-education, defective system of examination, shortcomings inherent in the managing bodies and organisation of schools etc. Realizing the essay questions answers, futility of single track institutions the Commission gave entirely original suggestion for the establishment of ‘Multipurpose Schools” catering to the needs of the various ability, aptitude and interest of the essays, students. One of the most vital problems that confronting the essay writing questions, country at present is the i didn't do my homework essay, development of agriculture and industry. Inclusion of these subjects in the curriculum of the secondary education and emphasis of education in them is a notable feature of the Commission. For improving the progressively deteriorating conditions regarding discipline, reorganization of administration and management of questions school at essays and reflections, this level, the commission gave certain practical suggestions.
It also made proposals for bringing about a greater diversity and comprehensiveness in educational courses which would include both general and vocational subjects. Besides, other suggestions for reforming examination and evaluation system, diversified of studies, improvement of teachers’ lot, reform of private management etc. Questions Answers. are merely repetition and lack the spirit of departure from the beaten track. Different Commissions and Committees appointed earlier also highlighted some of these things. As government was not so very keen in eradicating the fundamental defects in the sphere of secondary education, root and branch, the homework essay, tangible result could not be arrived at. In-spite of the answers, merits and significance of these recommendations there are certain limitations and shortcomings which should not be lost sight off.
As a matter of fact the Commission has endeavoured to mould the pre-existing pattern of secondary education by suggesting improvements and changes which are not very sound and effective. Moreover, insufficient attention has been paid for the improvement of female education and suggestion for teachers training is merely conventional. Its suggestion for financial resources and government responsibilities Sin this regard are most inadequate. In-spite of the above shortcomings and limitations it can be said that the recommendations of the Secondary Education Commission opened a new era of reconstruction and reform of education at the secondary stage. These recommendations have got far reaching consequences and are likely to go a long way if faithfully implemented keeping in view to strengthen the weakest link in the system of education of the country.
Steps were taken during 2nd plan to implement pattern of reorganization of secondary education as recommended by thesis cmu S.E.C.” Accordingly financial allocation was made in the budget. Government took effective measures during 2nd plan period to introduce crafts and diversified courses, better facilities for science teaching, establishment of multipurpose schools and junior technical schools as well as upgrading of the high schools to higher secondary schools. In the 1st plan about 250 multipurpose seconds were established. About 1150 high schools were converted into higher secondary schools by the end of the 2nd plan. As a result of the government’s effort secondary education expanded considerably. At the end of the 1st plan the number of all types of secondary schools was 32,568 with 8,26,509 students and the number increased to 66,920 with 1,81,22,356 students by the end of 2nd plan. One of the major aims of the writing, 3rd plan was to expand and intensify the essays and reflections, educational effort and to bring every home within its fold so that in all branches of national life, education becomes the focal point of planned development.
Education programmes embodied in the 3rd plan were comprehensive in scope. The programme for the reorganization and improvement of essay writing answers secondary education, which had been implemented during 2nd plan period was continued. It was designed both to enlarge the content of secondary education and to make it a self contained unit within the educational process. During 3rd plan measures were taken for the conversion of high schools into higher secondary schools, development of multipurpose schools with provision of a number of elective subjects, expansion and improvement of facilities for the teaching of science, provision of educational and vocational guidance, improvement of the examination and evaluation system, enlargement of facilities for vocational education, increased facilities for the education of essays bacon girls and the backward classes and encouragement to merit through scholarships. However steady progress was maintained during this period and the number of schools increased considerably. The number of higher secondary schools increased from 3,121 to 6,203 and the number of secondary schools increased to 90 thousands with 300 lakhs students by the end of 3rd plan. During 3rd plan Indian Education Commission was appointed under the essay questions, chairmanship of Dr.
D.S. Kothari, which is popularly known as Kothari Commission, 1964-66. The Commission aimed at an entire overhauling of the existing setup. Besides many other things it pleaded eloquently for the improvement of secondary education and recommended that: (i) Enrolment in secondary education should be regulated during the next twenty years by essays bacon sparknotes proper planning of the location of secondary schools, maintaining adequate standards and to that end, by determining the enrolment in terms of facilities available and selecting the best student; (ii) A developmental plan for secondary education should be prepared for each district and implemented in a period of ten years, (iii) The best students should be selected for admission into secondary schools, through a process of self selection at the lower secondary stage, and on the basis of external examination results and school records at the higher secondary stage; (iv) Secondary education should be vocationalised in a large measure and enrolments in vocational courses raised to 20 per cent of total enrolment at the lower secondary stage and essay writing questions, 50 per cent of total enrolment at the higher secondary stage by 1986. (v) A variety of part-time and full-time facilities in vocational education should be available at both these stages to i didn't, meet the needs of the boys and girls, in writing questions urban and rural areas. Special sections should be set up in the education department to help young pupils who drop out after class VIII or VII to obtain training on a full time or part time basis, and to be in overall charge of the organisation of these courses; (vi) The central government should provide special grants to state governments in centrally sponsored sector for sparknotes the vocationalisation of secondary education; (vii) Facilities for part-time education should be provided on essay writing, a large scale at the lower and higher secondary stages in general and vocational courses. Francis Bacon Sparknotes. Special emphasis will have to be placed on agricultural courses or those who have taken to farming as a vocation and on questions answers, courses in home science or household industries for girls; (viii) Efforts should be made to accelerate the creative in north, expansion of girls education so that the proportion of essay girls to boys reaches 1 : 2 at essay, the lower secondary stage and 1:3 at the higher secondary stage in 20 years ; (ix) Emphasis should be placed on establishing separate schools for girls, provision of essay writing questions hostels and scholarships and part-time vocational courses; (x) a national policy for the location of thesis cmu new institutions for each category should be adopted so as to avoid waste and duplication; (xi) Vocational schools should be located near the industry concerned; (xii) In non-vocational schools, a common curriculum of general education should be provided for the first ten years of essay writing questions answers school education and diversification of studies and specialization should begin only at the higher secondary stage; (xiii) At the higher secondary stage courses will be diversified in such a manner as to enable pupils to study a group of any three subjects in depth with considerable freedom and creative writing in north, elasticity in the grouping of subjects. In order to ensure the writing questions answers, balanced development of the adolescents, total personality the essays and reflections, curriculum at essay questions answers, this stage should provide half the time to the languages and one-fourth to physical education, arts and crafts, moral and spiritual education. After the recommendations of Kothari Commission, following measures were taken during 4th plan for the qualitative improvement of secondary education.
(i) Enrichment of the content of secondary education by adding one more class to parts of a research paper, the high school and making it higher secondary course of 11 year duration. (ii) Implementation of a long range programme of examination reform aiming at a closer integration of educational objectives, learning process and methods of evaluation. (iii) Conversion of high schools into higher secondary and multi-purpose schools. Besides, improvement of science education, implementation of the pilot projects for the introduction of work experience and vocationalisation, development of school complex etc. were some of the measures undertaken during 4th plan period. As a result of the different measures, the number of schools at the secondary level increased considerably.
By the year 1973-74, 74.40% boys and questions, 29.60% girls were reading at the secondary stage. Different states accepted the new-pattern of essays and reflections education and essay writing, introduced this system according to their own convenience. Though there is a lot of confusion and feeling of creative writing anxiety in the minds of the people regarding the writing, practical application of the new pattern, yet in the overall interest of the student population and for national integration there is great need of a uniform pattern of education. So steps were taken to of a paper, accelerate the pace of progress in implementing the new scheme. It was not only for the sake of essay questions answers uniformity that the new structural pattern was introduced, but it was meant to provide definite stages for pupils to branch off from the academic streams. If provision would not be made for students to branch off to vocational courses after completion of the particular stage of growing in grace essay education, the change of pattern would only partially achieve the objectives and students who would do better in vocational courses would tend to go in for general education.
During 5th plan, the objective in essay writing questions this sector was consolidated and controlled expansion. In order to raise the growing together in grace, standard of education reorganisation of the curriculum, improvement of the essay writing questions answers, methods of teaching, reforms in the system of examination, development of instructional materials and text books were undertaken during 5th plan period. Even then the achievement in this sector was not encouraging. So there were concerted efforts to achieve predetermined targets and creative writing mfa programs in north carolina, objectives within the stipulated period. In the 6th plan, for the success of the new education policy of 10+2+3 necessary changes were made in the curriculum at questions, the school stage in order to relieve the burden on i didn't do my homework, the child and make it realistic. It was expected that enrolment in secondary schools during the plan would be about 30 lakhs.
It had been proposed to achieve this objective by essay writing answers better and efficient utilisation of present secondary schools instead of opening new ones. However, the parts of a science research, target would be fulfilled only through hard and sustained work, original and creative thinking, devotion and essay writing questions, involvement of personnel associated with the planning and implementation of the new-pattern of education. The country had formally adopted a uniform pattern of education viz, the 10+2+3 pattern, consisting of 10 year school education followed by a two years higher-secondary or equivalent and !a three year degree course. Yet there was no uniformity in the number of years one spent in the three stages of school education; primary, upper-primary and secondary. However, classes VI to VIII were taken as components of the thesis cmu, upper-primary stage. When the writing answers, first and second All India Educational Surveys were conducted in the years 1957 and 1965, respectively, a distance of three miles or approximately 5 kilometers was considered to together essay, be a convenient walking distance for writing answers children in classes VI to VIII.
Gradually, the distance limit was brought down to essays and reflections, three kilometers. Besides, the pattern of upper primary schools prevailing in respective states and union territories varies. Therefore, the facilities for higher-primary education were available in different types of essay questions schools. Some secondary and higher-secondary schools also had upper-primary classes attached to them. Unlike primary schools, the creative writing mfa programs carolina, upper- primary schools were also managed by the government, local bodies, private bodies etc.
As the government had been giving a major thrust to the expansion of education in writing answers rural areas, private managements had been playing a dominant role in urban areas. However, the overall annual increase in enrolment at the upper primary stage between the third and fourth survey was found to be 5.75 percent while that of between the fourth and creative writing in north, fifth survey was 6.8 percent. An encouraging feature was that the essay writing answers, rate of increase in enrolment had been more in rural areas than in urban areas. The period between the first and homework, the second survey witnessed a sharp increase in the percentage of habitations which had access to secondary stage education either within the habitation or up to a distance of eight kilometers (five miles). But it was reduced to five kilometers by essay questions answers the time of the third survey. The fourth survey (1978) revealed that 72.54% habitations were served by secondary education within eight kilometers, which was increased to 78.92% by the fifth survey. In fact, it revealed that the facilities of secondary education had been extended to a larger number of essays and reflections habitations covering a higher proportion of rural population.
As such, there were 52,560 secondary schools in India by 1986. Of these, 38,862 were located in rural acres and the remaining 13,698 in urban areas. At the time of questions 1978 (fourth survey) the thesis cmu, number of secondary schools was 36,675. It may be mentioned that the increase in the number of secondary schools during the period between 1973 and 1978 was only 3.5%. The sixth five year plan envisaged for the extended educational facilities in rural and backward areas specially for weaker section of the community in the field of secondary and higher secondary education. During this plan period greater facilities for secondary education had to provide due to the expansion of the base of education at the elementary stage. Since secondary education is considered as the means of social mobility and economic independence, particularly among the socially disadvantaged. Essay Writing Answers. Besides, the plan emphasized the importance of paying special attention to the quality of education at this stage and to improve the internal efficiency of the system and enhancing the employability of its products. Heathen, there was great need for more sustained and planned effort for the qualitative improvement of education at this level. Parts Of A Fair Research. Gradually the demand for secondary education had been growing. The expansion of educational institution at the ground level provided a further impetus to this growth.
For instance the number of upper-primary schools had increased from essay questions 1.35 lakhs to 1.46 laks from 1985-86 to 1990-91, respectively. Therefore, during seventh plan provision was made for promoting distance learning techniques and open school systems. As a result, unplanned growth of high and higher secondary school was checked. Norms for the establishment of secondary school were evolved and do my, strictly observed in order to avoid proliferation of economically nonviable and educationally inefficient institutions. Answers. In expanding the facilities, special attention was paid to the needs of backward areas of under privileged sections of the thesis cmu, community. The teaching of science and mathematics at high and higher secondary stage was strengthened and made universal. Moreover, efforts were made to update and modernize science curricula, improvement of laboratories and libraries in writing answers schools and ensure the quality of growing in grace essay science teachers through large-scale in service training programmes.
In-fact, the progressive outlook of the authority is clearly evident from the writing questions, introduction of environmental education in the courses of study which formed an important aspect of science education during this plan period. As such, the science fair research paper, Socially Useful Productive Work (Work Experience) programme component constituted a link between work and education for the development of positive work ethics and work habits in learners. During sixth plan, a small beginning was made in providing computer literacy to students in essay questions selected secondary schools. Based on this experience, steps were taken to extend the programme to cover different aspects of computer appreciation and application. The NPE, 1986 laid down that “access to essays francis bacon sparknotes, secondary education will be widened to cover areas unserved by it at present.” As such, it recommended for the strengthening of the essay, State Board of Secondary Education, reorganization of teacher education along with in service training, examination reform, improvement and growing together essay, modification of the content of secondary education curriculum, strengthening of the open school system, provision of extended educational facilities, special arrangement for essay writing talented children with pronounced competence etc. However, there had been a significance increase in the number of secondary schools. It increased from 54,845 in 1987-88 to 59,468 in 90-91 and the quality of education at creative writing mfa programs, this stage was enhanced. Because the key issues in secondary education, apart from access, were quality, modernisation and questions answers, diversification. Though a considerable degree of uniformity had been achieved in writing mfa programs regard to essay writing questions, common education structure of 10+2+3, there was a considerable diversity regarding the location of the +2 stage.
In quite a few states it was not a part of the school system. The secondary stage was divided in to two very distinct sub-stages- Secondary (up to class X) which was the stage of general education and higher secondary (class XI and and reflections, XIl) which was marked by answers differentiation and diversification. For the national system of education the NPE envisaged a national curriculum frame work. The work of curriculum revision for the secondary stage was undertaken in almost all the states and research paper, the UTs in the light of the guide-lines prepared by NCERT. Further, necessary steps were taken by extending the access to secondary education by opening new schools in the un-served areas and by extending and consolidating the existing facilities with particular emphasis on ensuring substantially increased enrolment of girls and essay writing answers, the scheduled castes and i didn't essay, scheduled tribes. Besides, greater autonomy was given to essay writing, the Board of Secondary Education of different states for strengthening their structure and composition. Quality improvement programmes were under taken relating to teacher- education by according statutory and autonomous status to NCTE, strengthening and upgrading the teacher-training colleges to Institute of Advanced studies (IASE) and College of Teacher Education. Moreover, pre-service and in-service teacher training programmes were designed and open school system at creative mfa programs in north, this level was extended.
As time went on, the number of essay secondary schools increased enormously from 59,468 in 1990-91 to 90761 by 2002- 2003. The number of teacher at teacher at this sage was 996054 and teacher pupil ratio was 1:30 by 2002-03. Before publishing your articles on this site, please read the in north carolina, following pages: