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cahsee essay scoring The CAHSEE Program is closed as of October 31, 2015. Organic. If you have any inquiries regarding the CAHSEE Program, please contact the California Department of Education - High School and Physical Fitness Assessments Office by phone at 1-916-445-9449 or by email at . Ice Cream. Below are several reference documents regarding the interpretation of CAHSEE scores, organized by date of issue. Translated versions of the 2008#x2013;2009 Interpretation Guide for Summary Reports are available in the following languages: Translated versions of the 2008#x2013;2009 Interpretation Guide for the Student and Parent Report are available in small, the following languages: English-Language Arts Teacher Guide. Also includes introduction. Word analysis, fluency, and an inspired brief by howard ibach pdf systematic vocabulary development strand. Reading comprehension strand. Literary response and analysis strand. Writing strategies strand. Farm Plan. Written and oral english language conventions strand. Writing applications strand. Last Reviewed: Friday, May 20, 2016.
Beginning with the Class of 2006, students in California public schools were required to elon application prompts, pass the California High School Exit Examination (CAHSEE) to demonstrate competency in grade-level skills in reading, writing, and mathematics to earn a high school diploma. The content of the CAHSEE was based on small farm plan content standards in English-language arts and mathematics that were adopted by the State Board of Education (SBE) in 2003. Elon Prompts. In 2010, the SBE adopted the Common Core State Standards in small farm business, English#x2013;language arts and elon application essay prompts mathematics. Due to the change in academic standards, Senate Bill 172 (Liu) was signed by organic farm, the Governor to suspend the administration of the CAHSEE and the requirement that students pass the CAHSEE to receive a high school diploma for the 2015#x2013;16, 2016#x2013;17, and 2017#x2013;18 school years. The law required that schools grant a diploma to any pupil who completed grade twelve in and other, the 2003#x2013;04 school year or a subsequent school year and met all applicable graduation requirements other than the passage of the high school exit examination. The law further required the State Superintendent of Public Instruction to convene an advisory panel to provide recommendations to the Superintendent on the continuation of the high school exit examination and on alternative pathways to satisfy the high school graduation requirements pursuant to Education Code sections 51224.5 and 51225.3. The law became effective on small farm January 1, 2016.
Questions and answers about the suspension of the CAHSEE. Letter from Superintendent Torlakson to provide information on the signing of Senate Bill 725. Overview of the California High School Exit Examination (CAHSEE). The primary purpose of the California High School Exit Examination (CAHSEE) was to significantly improve student achievement in public high schools and to ensure that students who graduated from application essay public high schools demonstrated grade level competency in reading, writing, and small farm mathematics. The CAHSEE helped identify students who were not developing skills that are essential for life after high school and encouraged districts to give these students the attention and resources needed to help them achieve these skills during their high school years. All California public school students, except eligible students with disabilities, were required satisfy the CAHSEE requirement, as well as all other state and local requirements, in order to receive a high school diploma. The CAHSEE requirement could be satisfied by passing the examination or, for eligible students with disabilities, meeting the exemption requirement pursuant to California Education Code (EC) Section 60852.3, or receiving a local waiver pursuant to EC Section 60851(c). The CAHSEE had two parts: English#x2013;language arts (ELA) and stick and stones student essay mathematics. Small Farm. The ELA part addressed state content standards through grade ten.
In reading, this included vocabulary, decoding, comprehension, and analysis of information and literary texts. On Sexual Orientation Discrimination. In writing, this covered writing strategies, applications, and the conventions of English (e.g., grammar, spelling, and punctuation). The mathematics part of the small organic farm plan CAHSEE addressed state standards in grades six and seven and Algebra I. Write An Inspired By Howard. The exam included statistics, data analysis and organic business probability, number sense, measurement and Penny Ice Cream geometry, mathematical reasoning, and algebra. Students were also asked to demonstrate a strong foundation in computation and arithmetic, including working with decimals, fractions, and percents. After determining that local proficiency standards, established pursuant to EC Section 51215 (repealed January 1, 2000), were generally set below a high school level and were not consistent with the state's content standards, the Legislature indicated its intent to set higher standards for high school graduation.
In proposing the CAHSEE, the Legislature's primary goal was to . significantly improve pupil achievement in high school and to ensure that pupils who graduate from high school can demonstrate grade level competency in reading, writing, and mathematics. (Senate Bill 2, Section 1[b]). EC Section 60850 (Chapter 1, statutes of 1999-2000, S.B.2, O'Connell) authorized the CAHSEE to small, be developed in application, accordance with State Board of Education (SBE)-adopted content standards in ELA and mathematics. The CAHSEE was developed based on recommendations of the High School Exit Examination Standards Panel, whose members were appointed by the State Superintendent of Public Instruction and approved by the SBE. State law required that the CAHSEE be administered only on the dates designated by the State Superintendent of Public Instruction. Students were required retake the examination until the ELA and mathematics parts were passed; however, students could retake only organic farm, those parts not previously passed. All students were required to take the CAHSEE for the first time in grade ten. Students who did not pass one or both parts of the write creative brief ibach CAHSEE in grade ten could take the parts not passed up to two times per school year in grade eleven and up to five times per school year in small farm, grade twelve. Adult students could take the parts not passed up to three times per school year. The CAHSEE was offered for the first time in spring 2001 (March and May) to volunteer ninth graders (class of 2004). Hippie Essays. In October 2001, Assembly Bill 1609 (Calderon) removed the option for ninth graders to take the organic CAHSEE beginning with the 2002 administration. The CAHSEE was next administered in spring 2002 to all tenth graders who had not passed it during the spring 2001 administration.
The class of 2005 took the CAHSEE for the first time in spring 2003. In July 2003, the SBE took action to move the passage of the CAHSEE as a diploma requirement to the Class of 2006. The Class of 2006 took the CAHSEE for the first time as tenth graders in hippie essays, February 2004. In 2010, the SBE adopted the Common Core State Standards to be used as the small farm plan basis for curriculum, instruction, and assessment for California schools. #xA0;Due to hippie essays, the change in academic standards, Senate Bill 172 (Liu) was signed by the Governor to suspend the plan administration of the on sexual orientation CAHSEE and the requirement that students pass the organic CAHSEE to receive a high school diploma for the 2015#x2013;16, 2016#x2013;17, and 2017#x2013;18 school years. The law required that schools grant a diploma to any pupil who completed grade twelve in the 2003#x2013;04 school year or a subsequent school year and met all applicable graduation requirements other than the passage of the high school exit examination. The law further required the State Superintendent of Public Instruction to convene an advisory panel to provide recommendations to the Superintendent on the continuation of the high school exit examination and on alternative pathways to satisfy the essay prompts high school graduation requirements pursuant to Education Code sections 51224.5 and 51225.3. The law became effective on January 1, 2016. Small Organic. EC Section 60855 required the California Department of Education (CDE) to contract for an independent evaluation of the CAHSEE beginning in Penny Lick Ice Cream, January 2000. Each evaluation report was required to include the following: (1) an analysis of student performance, broken down by grade level, gender, race or ethnicity, and organic business portion of the exam, including any trends that became apparent over time, (2) an analysis of the exam's effects, if any, on college attendance, pupil retention, graduation, and dropout rates, including an write an inspired creative by howard ibach analysis of these effects on small organic business the subgroups described in (1) above, and (3) an analysis of whether the exam was likely to have, or had, differential effects, whether beneficial or detrimental, on the subgroups described in (1) above. The evaluation reports were required to essays, include recommendations to small business plan, improve the quality, fairness, validity, and reliability of the application essay CAHSEE.
The first report of the independent evaluation was completed and presented to organic business, the CDE, SBE, Legislature, Governor, and other control agencies on essays orientation discrimination July 1, 2000. Subsequent evaluation reports were due to these same parties by organic plan, February 1 of essay, every even-numbered year. These reports are posted on the . Frequently asked questions, regulations, test blueprints, released test questions, study guides, and testing accommodations for the CAHSEE. clearly addresses all parts of the writing task. provides a meaningful thesis, demonstrates a consistent tone and focus, and illustrates a purposeful control of organization. thoughtfully supports the thesis and main ideas with specific details and farm examples. provides a variety of sentence types and uses precise , descriptive language. demonstrates a clear sense of audience. contains few , if any errors in the conventions of the English language. (Errors are generally first-draft in essays discrimination, nature) * States and maintains a position, authoritatively defends that position with precise and relevant evidence and convincingly addresses the reader#xED;s concerns, biases and expectations. addresses all parts of the writing task. provides a thesis, demonstrates a consistent tone and focus, illustrates a control of organization. supports the thesis and main ideas with details and organic farm plan examples. provides a variety of sentence types and uses some descriptive language. demonstrates a general sense of audience. Hspa Persuasive Essay. may contain some errors in the conventions of the English language (Errors do no interfere with the readers understanding of thesis) * states and maintains a position, generally defends that position with precise and relevant evidence and addresses the readers concerns, biases, and expectations. addresses only parts of writing task. may provide a thesis, demonstrates an inconsistent tone and focus and illustrates little, if any, control of the organization. may support the thesis and main ideas with limited, if any, details and/or examples. provides a few, if any, types of sentence types and basic predictable language. demonstrates little or no sense of organic farm plan, audience. may contain several errors in the conventions of the English language (Errors may interfere with the elon application readers understanding of the farm essay.) * Defends a position with little evidence and may address the reader#xED;s concerns, biases and expectations.
The Essay may be too short to evaluate or: Addresses only one part of the writing task. May provide a weak, if any, thesis; demonstrates little or no consistence of Ice Cream, tone and small farm plan focus; and illustrates little or no control of organization. Fails to support ideas with details and/or examples. May provide no sentence variety and uses limited vocabulary. May demonstrate no sense of audience.
May contain serious errors in the convention s of the hspa persuasive essay practice English language (Errors interfere with the reader#xED;s understanding of the essay.) * Fails to defend a position with any evidence and fails to address the reader#xED;s concerns, biases, and expectations. Farm. Find Exam administration dates, assistance packets, independent evaluation (HumRRO), and frequently asked questions. This document provides an explanation of the 2014-15 CAHSEE summary results to hspa practice, the public. It also provides additional information for school and organic farm business district staff to assist them in responding to questions from the public. California Department of Education.
Assessment Development and Administration Division.
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The Guides of International Mountain Guides. Peter found his love for the outdoors in the Golden State of California where he spent his summers rock climbing in the Yosemite Valley and winters backcountry skiing in the Sierra Nevada Mountains. He was brought to the northwest for college where he received his B.A. in Business Management and business Leadership Theory from Whitworth University in 2009. He spent his college years avidly pursuing all disciplines of climbing. When not in stick essay, the mountains, Peter is training or enjoying time with his wife and small business plan friends. He has had training in Avalanche Level II, Wilderness First Responder and is an LNT Trainer. Peter has been guiding for International Mountain Guides for stick and other student, over a dozen years. Peter has climbed and small organic farm guided extensively in Alaska, New Zealand, Central and elon application essay South America, Africa, and Nepal. Peter resides in Missoula, Montana where he works as an Emergency Nurse. He is also the director of Sentinel Outdoor Institute, an educational company certifying students around the world in wilderness and emergency medicine, advanced life support, risk management and survival courses.
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She is a Wilderness EMT, Leave No Trace (LNT) Trainer, and has had AIARE Level 2 training. She holds a BA in Environmental Science from the University of Washington, and in her spare time she likes to cook, read, and travel. Dustin has been climbing, hiking, skiing, and organic farm business exploring the Cascades since moving to the Pacific Northwest in 2001. After graduating with a degree in Mechanical Engineering from The University of Texas, he left the Texas heat for the beautiful Cascade mountain range. Dustin now resides in Bend, Oregon after living for elon essay, over a dozen years in the Seattle region. He started guiding for IMG in the summer of 2010 and spends his winters as a Professional Ski Patroller at Mt. Bachelor in organic farm plan, Central Oregon. Dustin is also IMG's Kilimanjaro Program Coordinator and looks forward to his annual trip to Tanzania.
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IMG is fortunate to have The Best partners internationally. Small Business. Romulo has guided our Ecuador climbs for 20 years. He resides just outside of Quito with his wife, Patricia and son, Camilo. We don't even want to count how many times he's been to the summit of each Ecuadorean summit! He's also climbed with IMG on Cerro Aconcagua, Denali and Vinson Massif.
No one knows Ecuador like Romulo. Strong, knowledgeable, friendly and competent are great adjectives to describe our good friend and guide. Romulo gives our Ecuador trips a leg up on the competition. Adam grew up in northwest Montana where he developed a lifelong passion for the mountains. He has spent much of the past fifteen years climbing, skiing, and working in the mountains and has guided trips on Rainier, Denali, and essay Aconcagua. He still loves exploring the Montana ranges, but has also travelled to Alaska, Peru, Nepal, and New Zealand in search of fine alpine terrain. When not guiding, Adam works as an avalanche specialist/educator and as a researcher for the U.S. Geological Survey's glaciology program. He holds an MS degree in geology, has U.S. Level 3 avalanche training, maintains wilderness first responder training, and is working to become a certified guide with the American Mountain Guides Association. When not in the hills, Adam enjoys spending time with his lovely wife Aubrey and their three energetic sons: Hudson, Forrest, and Skyler.
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Kim was born and raised in the Pacific Northwest where she learned to ski and play in the outdoors. Small Business. She took a quick break from the Northwest to study Human Ecology at College of the Atlantic in Bar Harbor, Maine. In 2011, Kim began ski patrolling full-time across the valley at Crystal Mountain. Soon after, she began guiding with IMG in the summer. Personal travels have taken Kim to Ecuador, India, Tibet, Nepal, Japan, and Vietnam. Kim is a Wilderness First Responder, has completed her American Avalanche Association Level 1 and 2, attended the National Avalanche School, and several Avalanche Dog seminars. When she's not climbing or skiing you can find her exploring the Cascades with her Duck Toller/Avalanche Dog extraordinaire, Darwin or fly fishing with her husband and fellow mountain guide, Mike. Mike has been guiding profesionally for IMG since 2008. How To Creative Brief Ibach. His experience is organic plan extensive in the Pacific Northwest as much of and stones student essay, his summers are spent guiding on Mt.
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Mike began guiding in 1997 and is very passionate about his work. He is a year-round professional guide and has traveled and climbed on all seven continents. When not guiding on organic farm plan, Mt. Hippie Essays. Rainier, where he has over 40 summits, his expeditions include 7 to Everest, 9 to small organic business plan Cho Oyu, 10 to Denali, 22 to Aconcagua, 4 to Vinson, 3 to Ecuador, Shishapangma, Kilimanjaro, Mexico, Peru, Chile, Russia, France, and Switzerland among other places. Many clients have remarked that Mike's love for the mountains is contagious. He is a former Division 1 collegiate ski racer and Junior Olympian, has a B.S. from St.
Lawrence University, and is a Wilderness First Responder. Stick And Other Student Essay. Mike cut his teeth on the steep Ice and Rock of the small business plan, Northeast, primarily in the Adirondacks of NY and an inspired creative brief ibach the White Mountains of NH, where he grew up. When not guiding Mike is usually climbing, ski mountaineering, biking, surfing, and fly fishing his way around the globe. In 2012, he wrote a guide book to climbing the Seven Summits. Harry spent his formative years of climbing and skiing in Washington State, the business plan, place where he proudly calls home. He obtained an undergraduate degree in Chemistry from University of Puget Sound where he also gained a second (unofficial) degree in climbing. Elon Application. After graduating, Harry took a summer to hike the entire Pacific Crest Trail from Mexico to Canada before delving into the outdoor industry. Small Organic Business Plan. Since then, Harry has enjoyed a seasonal lifestyle including guiding for Penny, International Mountain Guides in the summer and working as a Ski Patroller at Crystal Mountain in the winter. When not working/climbing/skiing Harry enjoys cooking, reading, exercising, and eating ice cream. Harry has had training in small business, AvPro, AMGA SPI, EMT-B, OEC, and WFR.
Maximo Henostroza IFMGA Fully Certified Guide. Maximo Henostroza directs IMG's climbing and trekking programs in hippie essays, Peru, his native country. Small Farm. A guide for over 25 years, Maximo is elon application essay a UIAGM/UIAA certified International Mountain Guide and has climbed and guided virtually every significant peak in the Cordillera Blanca above 6000 meters. In addition to climbs in farm plan, Peru, Maximo has also climbed extensively in Bolivia, Argentina, the Himalayas, and was the second Peruvian climber to hspa practice reach the summit of Mt. Everest.
Anna grew up in Olympia, WA, exploring the woods around her house. After receiving a B.A. in small organic business, Environmental Studies, she worked for a decade for the National Park Service, primarily at Mount Rainier. In 2015, she received an MBA in Sustainable Systems. Anna discovered her love for mountaineering when she first climbed Mount Rainier in 2007, and has been climbing the how to write an inspired creative brief ibach, volcanoes of the Pacific northwest ever since. She also loves to travel, rock climb, ski, bike tour, and trail run. Farm Business Plan. As a guide for IMG, Anna loves to help people discover the adventures and rewarding experiences the mountains offer. She holds training in Wilderness First Responder and Avalanche Levels 1 and essays 2.
Blair, a Washington native, is an organic plan active outdoors enthusiast, since beginning skiing at age 5. Hippie Essays. After years of skiing, backpacking and rock climbing throughout the Pacific Northwest, Blair set his sights on the mountaineering, which he took up in 2009 with IMG. He has had training in Avalanche Level I and Wilderness First Responder. Currently, Blair is farm plan attending the and stones and other student, University of Vermont in Burlington earning his degree in Environmental Science. When not at studying, Blair enjoys playing frisbee, biking, and the company of farm plan, good friends. Robert was born and raised in Kansas, where he was most reliably found high in the nearest tree. Robert's parents instilled a sense of adventure in him, and upon discovering rock climbing on a family trip to how to write an inspired brief by howard Colorado he was bitten by a virulent form of the small organic farm, climbing bug. Penny Lick. After graduating high school Robert moved around the west guiding whitewater rafting and sea kayaking, all the farm business, while climbing at every chance he got. Robert moved to Washington in 2009 to attend Evergreen State College and explore the discrimination, wonders of the Washington Cascades.
During his time at Evergreen, Robert received a B.S. in Evolutionary Biology, a B.A. in Outdoor Leadership and helped restart the college's outdoor program. He worked with the park service as a volunteer climbing ranger before joining IMG as a guide. Robert has training as an EMT, Avalanche level I, and LNT Master Educator. Craig has been guiding for IMG since 1987 and has done over fifty high altitude expeditions to all corners of the farm, world that include thirteen Himalayan expeditions, 24 to Kilimanjaro, ten to Denali, several to Aconcagua, the Mexican volcanoes and other peaks around the world. Hspa Persuasive Practice. Craig summited Everest in 1998 and has two ascents of Cho You. Currently he has over 200 ascents of small organic farm business, Rainier.
Domestically Craig has climbed ice, rock and creative ibach alpine routes all over small organic farm business plan the U.S. During the winter he runs the IMG White Mountains program. Craig is an hippie essays AMGA Certified Top Rope Site Manager and Single Pitch Instructor. He has a Masters Degree in Applied Behavioral Science. Additional training includes WFR, Avalanche II and high angle rock rescue. Farm. When not climbing and hspa persuasive essay guiding Craig can be found shoeing horses, fly fishing and small organic business plan hanging out with his adopted daughter from China, Sarah Mei. Emily started her climbing career by jubilantly summiting Glacier Peak when she was 13. She spent her teen years climbing in the North Cascades of Washington, and in Oregon and British Columbia. After college, she instructed for Outward Bound in Joshua Tree and Central Oregon, then began guiding on Mt. Write An Inspired Creative Brief Ibach. Rainier in 1989. Over the years she's also enjoyed guiding in the North Cascades, Alaska, Mexico, and small organic plan the Himalayas.
Adventure races, whitewater competitions, and personal travels have taken her to the rivers and mountains of every continent except Antarctica (it's on Lick, the list, but she'd rather go to the Space Station first!) Beyond her alpine life, she's lived/studied/worked in small organic farm, the Dominican Republic, Taiwan, Thailand, France, New Zealand, Australia, Israel, Indonesia, DR Congo, Nepal, and Bhutan. Her training includes EMT-B, Leave No Trace Trainer, Level 3 Avalanche Certification, and MD. Write Creative Ibach Pdf. When she's away from IMG, she works as a whitewater guide, ER doc, and professional ski patroller. In all of her spare time, she enjoys backcountry skiing, writing, sculpture, trail running, mountain biking, and the occasional refuge of organic business, silent meditation. Sheldon began her mountain guiding career in Alaska in 2004 and has participated in 20-something expeditions in the Wrangell-St Elias, The Chilcats, The Chugach and hspa practice The Alaska Range over organic plan the past decade. She has also guided rock, alpine and hspa persuasive essay practice ice climbing in the Rockies, the Alps, the Andes. An avid ski-mountaineer, Sheldon has first descents in Norway, Colorado and Alaska and is sponsored by Outdoor Research, La Sportiva and organic farm plan Deuter. Sheldon calls Colorado's San Juan Mountains her home and spends winters there ski guiding from chairlifts, skin tracks, and helicopters when she isn't soaking in hot springs. Sheldon has achieved the highest level of avalanche certification available in the U.S., AIARE Level 3, and is one of very few women working her way through the hippie essays, American Mountain Guides Association certification process. Most importantly, she is pleasant, fun, and plan a great cook.
Find out prompts, more at sheldonkerr.com. International trips succeed, in part, because of the partners and relations you have abroad. Martin is a powerful part of our Aconcagua programs. A native of Mendoza, he's there when we need him. Whether it's confirming a hotel or transportation reservation, buying food or climbing with us on Aconcagua, he's a go-to man. Mountains like Aconcagua, Tupungato and Mercedario are his backyard. Small Organic Plan. Since his first ascent at age 15, mountains are now his life.
Whether it's winning ice climbing festival competitions, skiing, snowboarding #151; Martin can do it all. First aid, vertical rescue and high mountain guide courses have only strengthened his resume and value to IMG. You'll likely meet and climb with Martin as part of our guide team on hippie essays, many IMG Aconcagua expeditions. You'll be glad you did. Chris's early forays into the woods were on a borrowed mountain bike. The shoes didn't fit and he didn't have a helmet.
Still, he was hooked, an adrenaline junkie was born, and he instantly loved the smell of pine duff and its feel beneath his feet. After completing a bachelor's in English, Chris followed the Great Divide Route south on his mountain bike, pulling a trailer, border to small border. Major Appalachian Trail section hikes followed, then a move to New Hampshire in how to write an inspired creative by howard pdf, 2001. Chris has continued to travel the United States in search of lesser visited places, scaling rock walls throughout the West and South. He has established many dozens of business plan, new rock routes in New England and the South, and how to write an inspired by howard pdf has worked professionally as a mountain guide, across disciplines #151; rock, ice, snow #151; since 2008. During this time, he's had the opportunity to share passions, activities and places, with others, over 1,100 to date. Small Organic Business. He's as comfortable on a desert tower as a glacier or a backwoods, scrappy New England crag, and discrimination if you're with him, you'll feel comfortable too.
Even after 20 years of wilderness adventure, Chris feels his affinity and appreciation for and understanding of the backcountry increase with each visit. He has learned that some areas are so incredibly unique and fragile that preservation and small organic farm business conservation are an obligation: part of sharing the persuasive essay practice, intrinsic value of business, these places with others is hippie essays consideration of future generations. He is a founding member the organic business, nonprofit Keep the essays, Whites Wild. Max was born and raised along the rugged New England coastline of Maine. His love for the outdoors started at an early age and matured quickly.
He attended the University of organic business, Maine where he received a degree in Earth Sciences with a focus on paleoclimatology. Hspa Essay Practice. Soon after, he began to pursue a guiding career in the White Mountains of New Hampshire where he still guides and teaches during the small organic business plan, winter months. In the summer, Max migrates to the Pacific Northwest for the Mt. Rainier and Northern Cascades season. When Max is not sharing his love for the mountains with others, he is usually out exploring those passions on application, his own all across North and South America. Max is a nationally registered Emergency Medical Technician and small organic business holds Level II AIARE avalanche training. His dedication to his craft is exemplified in his continued pursuit of full certification in both the essay, rock and alpine guiding disciplines through the American Mountain Guide Association. Aaron Mainer IFMGA and organic farm business AMGA Fully Certified Guide. As a native of Washington State, Aaron was introduced to the outdoors at an early age by his parents, who often took him and his younger sister skiing, backpacking, and boating. He attended the University of Puget Sound, where he graduated with a degree in International Political Economy. Since he started working with IMG in 2006, he has guided well over 100 trips on Mount Rainier and along the way done several trips to Alaska, Antarctica, South America and the Himalaya (to the summit of Everest).
His passion is for ski mountaineering and he has numerous first and second descents in Washington and Alaska. One of write creative by howard ibach, his favorite things to do is ski on Mount Rainier, where he has skied over organic farm business a dozen different routes from the prompts, summit, including most recently a first descent of farm business, Cryogenesis. (Check out the video.) Aaron is a fully certified AMGA and IFMGA mountain guide. He lives in Enumclaw, WA, but does not like horses. Josh was only six years old when he started climbing with his father. Growing up in Penny Lick Ice Cream, Washington State, he spent nearly every weekend exploring and organic farm climbing in persuasive, the Cascade and Olympic Mountains. After high school, he attended Whitworth University, where he earned two degrees in small farm, Education and History, all while competing on stick and other student essay, the varsity swim team. Throughout college, he spent his free time sharpening his skills as a rock climber and mountaineer. Small Business Plan. After climbing Mt. Rainier for the first time in 2005, he realized that guiding would be the perfect way to combine his love of teaching and climbing. In addition to over 85 summits of Mt. Rainier, he has a wide range of expedition experience.
Josh has guided and climbed on 20 expeditions, which include Mount Everest (x2), Cho Oyu, Aconcagua (x7), Ama Dablam, Denali, Pico de Orizaba (x5), Mount Bona (x2), and Mount Vinson. When not guiding, Josh can be found teaching, rock climbing, and skiing. He has had training in Wilderness First Responder, Leave No Trace, and Avalanche Level I II. Chris has called Washington State home since 2004, and began guiding in 2007. He loves sharing the experience of the mountains with others and feels lucky to be able to do so for a living. He has guided on Mt Rainier, as well as numerous other peaks in the Washington Cascades, Mexico and Nepal. When not guiding, he spends time exploring the Cascades on backcountry skis and hippie essays climbing trips. Climbing and skiing have also taken him to most of the western U.S., Canada, France, New Zealand, and Thailand. He has had training in Avalanche Level II and Wilderness First Responder. Chris also holds an engineering degree that gets used intermittently. Justin Merle AMGA Certified Alpine Guide.
Justin grew up climbing in the mountains of the Pacific Northwest. He began guiding on Mount Rainier in 1999 and now shares his passion for the mountains on small organic farm business, climbs all over the world. Essay. On top of seven successful summits of Mount Everest, he has climbed Mount Rainier over 150 times and guided successful expeditions on Denali, Vinson, Aconcagua and Kilimanjaro. Small Farm Business. Since his first trip to the Himalayas in 2003 guiding on Cho Oyu, he's returned to write an inspired by howard ibach guide 20 more expeditions and racked up six successful guiding summits of the more technical Ama Dablam. Small Farm. Justin often spends the spring and fall guiding in the Himalayas and summer guiding on Rainier and in the North Cascades. He spends all winter in Ouray, Colorado, guiding ice climbing for IMG where he enjoys guiding more technical climbing and not having to spend nights out tent-camping in the snow! He has a B.A. in Geology, has had training in WFR and US Avalanche III, and is an AMGA certified Alpine Guide. When not guiding, he spends his free time riding his mountain bike and road bike, climbing for fun, skiing, and persuasive essay laying on small organic business, the couch.
Liam grew up in Seattle, WA. On a hike to stick and stones essay Camp Muir on Mount Rainier as a teenager his passion for farm business, the mountains and climbing began. He started guiding on Rainier in 1999 and realized not only did he love climbing, he also loved guiding. He hasn't looked back since. An experienced lead guide, Liam has guided climbs in the Cascades, Sierra Nevadas, Alaska, Mexico, Africa, and the Himalaya while logging over 110 summits of hippie essays, Mount Rainier. Liam has a particular interest in small organic business plan, wilderness medicine, and when not in hspa persuasive essay, the mountains, works as an emergency physician and enjoys trail running, skiing, and mountain biking. Jenni Pfafman grew up in Arizona in a family that spent almost every vacation camping and hiking. She started rock climbing in small farm, her early twenties, and eventually progressed to mountaineering, climbing Mt. Rainier for the first time in 1999.
A few years later, she started guiding. Jenni started her career guiding on Mt. Whitney in Lick Ice Cream, the Eastern Sierra of California and was hired by IMG in 2007. Jenni has numerous summits of Mt. Rainier, two summits of Mt. McKinley, climbed several volcanoes in Ecuador including Cayambe, three ascents of Kilimanjaro and leads treks in small, Nepal and application essay prompts Myanmar. Jenni has had training in Avalanche Level II, Outdoor Emergency Care and Wilderness First Responder. She lives in small organic business plan, Truckee, CA and spends much of her free time mountain biking when there's no snow and backcountry snowboarding when there is. Jenni picked up skate skiing a few years ago and is a volunteer patroller at Tahoe Donner Cross Country center. In addition to her guiding career, Jenni is an officer in hippie essays, the Air Force Reserve, and has logged many hours flying KC-135's for small organic farm plan, the military as well as civilian 737's and Lear 35's. Andy has been climbing since high school in the early 70's, having taken part in all forms of the essay prompts, sport.
He started guiding at Mount Rainier in organic business, 1979 and has 150 ascents of the mountain. He has spent a fair time in the big mountains, whether guiding or challenging climbs with a couple of buddies: Denali several times, the southern alps of New Zealand, the Ecuador volcanoes, seven trips to Mount Everest, K2 and the first ascent of one of the largest walls in the world, the South Face of Mount Saint Elias. For over 20 years, Andy has been facilitating outdoor adventures in a local high school: from river trips, to winter trips in NH, to a ski trip across Yellowstone, in January. Andy works full time as a corrosion technician, in the oil and gas industry. Andy Polloczek UIAGM and AMGA Fully Certified Guide. Andreas grew up near Munich, Germany where he found his passion for climbing and the outdoors early in life. At the age of stick essay, 19 he moved to organic business Alaska to be a professional river guide in the summer and dog mushing guide in the winter.
While in Alaska, he competed in the Yukon Quest, a 1000mile long sled dog race that takes racers from Fairbanks(AK) to hspa essay Whitehorse(Canada). In 2007, he started guiding for IMG with trips including: Rainier, the North Cascades, China(Yunnan), Ouray and in 2012, a successful summit of Everest. He also has climbed and/or guided Denali three times, Aconcagua, Chimborazo, Cotopaxi, Monte Blanc, the Matterhorn and several other peaks in the Alps and the Alaska Range. He currently lives in the mountains near Park City (Utah) with his wife and their two young daughters, where he builds houses and ski guides in the winters for a local guide service in between trips for small organic business, IMG. In his free time he enjoys rafting and hiking with his family and write creative ibach rock climbing on organic business, the sunny rock faces of essays on sexual orientation discrimination, Zion, Moab, Red Rocks and anywhere one can climb with shorts and a T-shirt. His current certifications include AMGA/UIAGM Certified Guide, Avalanche Level III, OEC and WFR. John Race IFMGA and AMGA Fully Certified Guide. John started guiding on Mt.
Rainier and small organic farm business has been a full-time guide ever since. John gained full IFMGA certification in persuasive, 2006. He currently lives in small business plan, Leavenworth, WA where he owns and operates the Northwest Mountain School with his wife, Olivia Race, also an and other student IFMGA guide. Small Organic. John has extensive expedition experience and has participated in over 60 expeditions to mountains in the Himalaya, Alaska, South America, Antarctica, Africa, Europe, Mexico, Russia, and essay other spots. Recent highlights include a second summit of Cho Oyu, and a ski traverse of South Georgia Island while retracing Ernest Shackleton's epic trip. John now spends his winters ski and ice guiding, and his summers rock and alpine guiding, a balance that allows him to guide full-time, year round. John is currently on the AMGA Board of small organic farm business plan, Directors where he serves as the Vice President and how to write an inspired brief by howard ibach pdf and works to improve the level of guiding in the US and to open new opportunities for guides going through the certification process.
Olivia Race IFMGA and small AMGA Fully Certified Guide. Olivia is an avid outdoors person, who works year round as an elon alpine, rock and small plan ski guide. Olivia started guiding professionally in 2000 and is the third American woman to persuasive complete her full AMGA and IFMGA certification. Organic Business Plan. In addition to guiding, Olivia runs the Northwest Mountain School with husband John Race. Olivia has guided in many areas of the United States including Rainier, McKinley, the hspa, Wrangell-St.
Elias Range and the North Cascades. She's climbed in organic business, France, guided in Mexico and on Penny Lick Ice Cream, Aconcagua and reached the summit of Cho Oyu, the world's sixth highest peak. Additionally, her training includes WFR, US Avalanche II and small farm business plan LNT Trainer. Luke was born in stick student, colorful Colorado and organic spent much of his childhood backpacking, fly-fishing, biking and skiing in application essay, the Rockies. He moved to organic farm Durango, CO in 2004, where he graduated with a BA in Agricultural Business at Fort Lewis College. It was in how to brief by howard ibach pdf, Durango that Luke met his climbing mentor who fueled his passion for the mountains. Organic Business. After college Luke spent a lot of time climbing big walls in Zion National Park as well as climbing all the Volcanoes in Ecuador. Since joining the IMG team in 2011 Luke has led climbs on hippie essays, Rainier, Aconcagua, as well as in Ecuador (Cotopaxi, Cayambe, Chimborazo) and in farm business, Bolivia (Pequeno Alpamayo, Huayna Potosi, Illimani). Most recently Luke joined IMG in elon application prompts, the Himalayas on our 2014 Everest Expedition and small organic will join IMG again on Everest in 2015.
Eric has guided and climbed extensively throughout the and stones essay, great mountain ranges of the world for the past eleven years. A passion for organic business plan, the environment and world cultures remain the underlying drivers in Eric's path forward as a mountain guide. Eric has led expeditions with success to Mount Everest and many other significant mountains in Nepal and Tibet. Along with 12 ascents of Aconcagua and 8 ascents of Mount McKinley, Eric has established himself as a safe and how to an inspired creative brief by howard successful high altitude mountaineering guide. A graduate of Prescott College, Eric holds two B.A. degrees: one in Environmental Studies and one in Wilderness Leadership. Eric is an avid backcountry skier, rock and ice climber, and surfer. Eric In The News: Eric Remza profiled in his hometown newspaper in organic business plan, upstate NY: A Midwest transplant, Liz was originally lured to the Northwest by the prospect of designing airplanes. She instead found her calling on her days off while skiing and essay playing in small farm business, the Cascades.
She began her outdoor career as an outdoor educator leading wilderness trips in Alaska and Patagonia. She is passionate about facilitating great experiences in the outdoors, whether that is helping a client reach a summit or facilitating reflective wilderness experiences on long expeditions. Liz is a wilderness EMT, LNT master educator and has avalanche level II training. When not playing in and stones and other, the mountains, Liz works variously as a curriculum designer and educator on topics ranging from engineering to avalanche safety. Farm Business Plan. A new mother she is now tackling the sport of hippie essays, adventure parenting, high angle diaper changes and the art of carrying tiny humans while moving through the mountains. Sasha was born in 1985 in St. Petersburg but spent all her childhood in the Polar Urals. Sasha says that all her childhood memories are about hiking, rafting, skiing or climbing in the Ural mountains.
She attended St. Petersburg State University, and in 2007, got a Master's degree in simultaneous interpreting. Obviously, Sasha speaks excellent English. After becoming a member of one of St. Small Organic Farm Plan. Petersburg's numerous mountaineering clubs, she started guiding on Elbrus at the age of 19 and now has close to persuasive essay practice 50 ascents of the peak.
After several years of being torn between an office job as an interpreter and guiding, she finally made a choice and now guides almost full time on Elbrus and small business Kilimanjaro. She enjoys technical climbing, including rock, ice and dry-tooling. That's in addition to skate skiing, skating surfing and running. When actually at home, she loves reading, cooking, playing piano and guitar and creative brief pdf playing with her dog. Jesus Paco Sanjines is a major reason our climbers are so successful in Bolivia. He has been guiding since 1987 and has climbed many of the mountains IMG visits over 200 times. Jesus has trained in Germany and France as well as being up to date with all medical certifications. When Jesus is not guiding, you will find him training younger guides and raising his five children. Jesus is quite possibly the most patient guide we have on small farm business, staff in Bolivia if not the how to write by howard, world! Jonathan is business plan a native Northwesterner who grew up on the central Oregon coast.
He has gradually moved eastward, toward drier climes and now makes his home base in the high desert town of Bend, Oregon. His climbing career began as a teenager on persuasive, the rocks and peaks around the Pacific Northwest. He graduated in organic plan, 2002 from Linfield College with a business degree and, after a short side trip through a career in corporate finance, found his way back to the mountains as a rock climbing guide and finally as a mountaineering guide for IMG. He enjoys all sorts of adventuring in the hills but his favorite climbs have been in the Bugaboos of B.C. Canada and Argentine Patagonia. Jonathan maintains WFR and Avalanche Level II training. He also earned his pilot's license as a teenager and still dreams of flying despite it being a few years since his last time behind the controls. His spare time is usually split between reading, road-riding, and trail-running around the northwest back-country. Austin Shannon IFMGA and AMGA Fully Certified Guide. Austin Shannon grew up in prompts, Bend Oregon where his love for the mountains began.
He followed that passion to small business plan Colorado for college at Colorado Christian University. During his time in application essay, Colorado, he enjoyed all that it had to small organic farm business plan offer, from rock climbing and ice climbing, to snowboarding and mountaineering. Austin had been professionally guiding since 2008. During that time he has climbed all over how to by howard the world in places such as South America, Antarctica, Asia, Alaska, and Mexico. Austin is a fully certified IFMGA/AMGA guide. He has also had training in Wilderness First Responder, Avy II, and Leave No Trace. When he's not guiding, you're likely to find Austin attached to a rock face somewhere or on his skis pointing downhill. Miles Smart IFMGA and AMGA Fully Certified Guide. Miles Smart is an small organic farm plan IFMGA/UIAGM mountain guide.
He is the 2004 recipient of the AMGA Guide of the Year award. Penny Lick. Miles is an AMGA Certified Rock, Alpine and Ski Guide and works as an instructor for the AMGA guide training and certification program. Over the small organic business plan, past ten years Miles has guided full time around the globe working equally with climbing, mountaineering and skiing. Miles has brought many clients from application essay beginner to expert and has guided objectives such as a 12 hour climb of the Cathedral Traverse and a ski descent of the small organic farm plan, Grand Teton in Wyoming. Miles returns to Alaska every spring to heli ski guide the steeps of Alaska.
Outside of Miles' professional guiding career his accomplishments include numerous speed climbing ascents and ski mountaineering descents. His climbing exploits include climbing on the Trango Towers in Pakistan, winter ascents in Chamonix and speed records on El Capitan and Half Dome. One such speed record, the North America Wall on El Capitan, took just over 9½ hours. He has climbed El Capitan in Yosemite 22 times via 16 different routes. Stick And Stones Student Essay. He established one of the most difficult routes on El Capitan, Disorderly Conduct. His skiing exploits include lines such as the small business, Gervasutti Couloir and the North Face of the Aiguille du Midi in Chamonix, and 2 different lines on the Grand Teton in Wyoming.
Liz Oakes Smart IFMGA AMGA Fully Certified Guide. Liz Oakes Smart is an IFMGA/UIAGM mountain guide, ski mountaineer and climber. She grew up in Aspen, Colorado and has since traveled the world for climbing and skiing, spending time in places such as the European Alps, the Tetons, the how to write an inspired creative brief by howard pdf, Himalaya and Alaska. She has made many ski mountaineering descents including the Glacier Rond and the Couloir du Cosmiques in Chamonix; the Pan de Rideau and small the Polichinele in La Grave, France; the Fuhrer Finger on Penny Ice Cream, Mt. Rainier; and various descents in Alaska's Chugach range. Liz has also skied from 7,200 meters on Shishapangma in Tibet. She has been featured in various Skiing Magazine articles. Farm. Along with her skiing accomplishments, Liz has done long free climbs in Yosemite and Squamish, British Columbia and has completed a one-day ascent of the Cathedral Traverse in the Tetons. She has also taken expeditions to the Himalaya including an how to creative brief by howard ibach pdf ascent of Ama Dablam in Nepal and small farm business plan an attempt of Jupono in Sikkim, India. Josh's guiding career began at Lick Ice Cream an early age. At 16, he was leading mountain bike tours down 14,000 ft. peaks in Colorado . At the age of 18, he moved to Austria where he was mentored by an Austrian UIAGM Mountain Guide.
After returning from Europe, Josh moved to small plan Jackson, WY to pursue skiing professionally. While in Jackson, he decided to dedicate his life to the Mountain Guiding profession and began working towards full IFMGA certification. Josh lives in Revelstoke, BC where he works as a Heli-Ski Guide. He is a Lead Guide at IMG and has been working in Lick, the Cascades since 2008. When he is not guiding, Josh works as a Head Judge for the Freeride World Tour, traveling around N. America and small organic farm Europe judging Big Mountain Skiing Competitions. He attended the University of student, Colorado where he worked as a Coach for the Freestyle Ski Team while earning a B.A. in Communication. Business. Josh is a Professional member of the Canadian Avalanche Association (CAA) and the Association of Canadian Mountain Guides (ACMG).
He is a ACMG Asst. Rock and Ski Guide, Wilderness First Responder, Outdoor Emergency Care Technician, and hspa essay practice holds the Canadian Avalanche Association Level 2 Certification which is recognized world-wide as one of the highest levels of training attainable by Avalanche Professionals. Josh is most well known for his ski exploits, which locally include skiing two different routes on Mt. Rainier in the same day as well as a solo ski descent of Liberty Ridge. Most recently, Josh skied the Nisqually Ice Cliff, a route that had only been skied once before. Jason has worked as a professional mountain guide since 1996. Mountain guiding has taken him to small organic plan many peaks in the western US and around the world, including the and stones essay, top of Mt. Farm Plan. Rainier over 130 times, Mt. Vinson in Antarctica, Kilimanjaro, and six Alaskan expeditions.
Jason is a veteran of expeditions to Cho Oyu and Everest (to the summit in 2004). How To Write. He was one of the plan, recipients of the American Alpine Club's prestigious Sowles Award in 2001 for his role in what became the world's highest mountaineering rescue at 28,750 ft. on Everest's North Ridge in 2001. Jason holds a masters degree in teaching and worked as a high school biology teacher before returning to school at University of Washington where he earned his dental degree in 2010. When he is hspa persuasive practice not guiding you will find him working as a dentist at Mint Dental Studio in Bozeman, MT or spending time with his wife and two daughters enjoying the mountains of Montana. A long time veteran of Mt Rainier and business The Cascades, lead guide Jess Tapp is originally from the western hills of hspa persuasive essay, Massachusetts. She grew up skiing, hiking and camping with her family all over the country and developed a love the mountains and outdoors which inspired her to small farm business pursue a life in the mountains. Jess successfully completed her 1st bachelor's degree in Hospitality Management, and is now graduating from Montana State University with a 2nd Bachelors degree in Nursing. She is hoping to live the exciting life of a Flight / ER nurse. When Jess isn't saving lives in the hospital or climbing mountains she is and stones and other student a semi-professional Triathlete. She travels for organic, all different distances and races swimming, biking and running trying to keep her stress levels down, and by howard ibach pdf any excuse to have a beer with dinner. Jess has been a ski patroller at Crystal Mountain WA, Snowbowl MT, and Teton Pass MT.
She has a Wilderness First Responder certification, AERIE level II avalanche certification, and soon an RN license (coming fall 2015). She is married to Fellow IMG Guide Josh Tapp, and they live with their hunting dog Trapper in Missoula, Montana. Josh Tapp grew up in organic farm business, the foothills of South Carolina, where he honed his camping and climbing skills in the Southern Appalachians. After graduating with a degree in Political Science from hippie essays University of South Carolina in 2005 he packed his bags and hiked the entire Appalachian trail. Seeking more, he moved west to Montana where he was exposed to some big mountains. After a few years of guiding in small organic business plan, the Wind Rivers of write an inspired by howard ibach pdf, Wyoming and the Southern Rockies of business, Colorado, he found his home in the Cascades of how to an inspired creative by howard ibach pdf, Washington.
Josh has had training in Wilderness EMT, Wilderness First Responder, and Avalanche 1 and 2. Josh spends the winter months as a Ski Patroller at Crystal Mountain just north of Mt. Rainier. In Josh's free time you can find him backcountry skiing, ice climbing, or fly fishing. Greg travels the world as a Senior Lead Guide for IMG. He enjoys leading programs on Mt.
Rainier, including the Winter and Denali Expedition programs in early season. When not guiding on Rainier, Greg has been active in the Himalayas (with successful ascents of Cho Oyu, Lhotse, Everest, and a first ascent in Tibet) and has led many expeditions to Denali, Vinson, Aconcagua, Ecuador, Bolivia, Mexico, and other climbs in the United States. Greg takes enormous pride in small organic farm business, his role as the Expedition Leader on Mount Everest and Penny Lick enjoys working with IMG guides and climbers throughout the world. He often gets asked which is his favorite climb. The answer: All of them, it just depends on what you are looking for! Before embarking on his current career, Vernovage played and coached collegiate volleyball and small organic farm plan has had the opportunity to be involved in two Olympic Games, winning a Gold Medal in the 2000 Sydney Games. Greg enjoys traveling throughout the world and combining his climbing and coaching skills to help people achieve their dreams and goals.
Leandro was born in 1985 and he was 14 when he climbed his first mountain. A few years later, he began to study in the Mountain Guides School of Mendoza. Penny Ice Cream. Since that time, he has worked with many adventure tourism agencies, in addition to all his own projects and expeditions. He began working in farm business plan, Aconcagua Provincial Park in 2007, first as a 'carrier' and essays orientation discrimination currently now as a Certified Guide. He climbs in the Northern and Southern Andes near Mendoza, in Bariloche and also in Bolivia. Small. With 4 Aconcagua summits already, Leandro is a great addition to the IMG crew on stick and other student, Aconcagua. Strong, good English skills, a great work ethic and unending enthusiasm adds greatly to expeditions with Leandro. Brenda has an uncanny ability to walk up and down stairs endlessly.
That, combined with a passion for helping others and a love of the outdoors, led to a career in small organic business plan, mountain guiding. Persuasive Practice. Her trudging abilities have led her to over one hundred summits of Mt. Rainier and to the top of, among others, Mt. Blanc, Cotopaxi, McKinley, and Mt. Business. Everest.
She's also skilled at sitting behind a desk for long periods of time, especially when it helps to get others out from behind theirs. Hippie Essays. She's organized fundraising climbs for small business, the Chris Hooyman Outdoor Education Fund #151; a memorial fund for a fallen climbing guide that provides financial assistance to hippie essays disadvantaged youth to partake in outdoor experiential programs. Farm. She's also served as the program director at Team Survivor Northwest, managing fitness programs for women cancer survivors. Brenda holds training in Wilderness First Responder, Avalanche level II, and Leave No Trace. She has a B.A. in Geography from the University of hippie essays, Washington and an MBA in Sustainable Business from Pinchot University. Brenda is married to a wonderful nine-to-fiver and is a mom to two delightful girls.
She splits her time working and playing in the city and the mountains. Brenda often climbs with a large bag of potato chips and is happily in favor of the new cholesterol guidelines. Jeff Ward IFMGA and AMGA Fully Certified Guide. Jeff has worked as a full-time mountain guide since 1995 and for IMG since 1997. Farm Business. As a certified IFMGA and hippie essays AMGA rock, alpine and small organic farm plan ski mountaineering guide he has traveled around the world guiding trips to hippie essays Alaska, France, Switzerland, Italy, Peru, Argentina, Ecuador, Tanzania, Canada, Nepal and across the Western US. These days much of Jeff's time is spent working in organic farm plan, the European Alps, guiding rock and ice climbs in the summer and steep skiing and hut-to-hut tours in and other essay, the spring.
During the winters Jeff guides helicopter and backcountry skiing in farm business plan, Washington and Canada and write an inspired creative by howard pdf ice climbing in Ouray Colorado. Jeff is currently a member of the American Mountain Guides Association's Alpine Instructor Pool, teaching aspiring mountain guides the tricks of the trade. Jeff has been trained in high angle rescue, has US level 3 avalanche training, and organic plan is a wilderness first responder. When not working you can often find Jeff in the mountains with his wife Kristen (a recovering mountain guide) skiing and climbing. They live in Leavenworth, WA with their daughter Allison and Lick Ice Cream dog Murphy. I've been involved with some type of guiding for the most part since 2007 when I first matriculated to Alaska to learn the ways of climbing. Much has happened since that first visit to organic farm plan the Great North country.
I've been blessed to see the essay, world from the small business, tops of Africa, North America, and South America. they all look good and are well worth the Penny Ice Cream, journey. I try to always be in small organic farm business plan, pursuit of something and with guiding that is twofold: the essay prompts, facilitation of amazing experience and organic farm further certification and training. In addition to application essay prompts guiding I'm due to finish Yoga Teacher Training school in October of small organic farm plan, 2015 and when I graduate from the Lexington Healing Arts Academy in Lexington, Kentucky I'll be a Registered Yoga Teacher through the Yoga Alliance. Yoga has manifested itself as a blessing in my life as well, so now whenever I'm worried or I can't sleep, I can take Bing Crosby's advice and count my blessings. they're numerous. My favorite thing is being alive in the world today. and Lick Ice Cream most things Kentucky #151; including and especially the small organic plan, Kentucky Wildcats.
I'd like to thank any and all who have had a hand in getting me to where I am today. you know who you are! I'd also like to hspa essay practice give special thanks to my family at International Mountain Guides. Farm Plan. You burst into my awareness like a boon of spring, and for that I am very grateful. Aho mitakuye oyasin. Daniel Zokaites IFMGA and AMGA Fully Certified Guide. Living in southwest Colorado, Dan guides rock, ice, and skiing year round. Dan earned a BA in Mechanical Engineering from Virginia Tech and enjoys the real world application of mechanical principles he finds in the mountains. His love of ropes, technical systems, and nature's complexities originate from his extensive climbing and caving background. Showing others the finer points of climbing and watching them break through boundaries draws Dan to guiding.
Dan has also spent past winters ski patrolling at Telluride Ski Resort. Dan is an AMGA and IFMGA Certified Guide and has had training in Outdoor Emergency Care, Wilderness First Responder, and Avalanche Level II. IMG Climbing Sherpas going above basecamp have more than: 350 Everest Expeditions. 125 Everest Summits. 200 8000m Summits. 450 8000m Expeditions. Experience is listed by number of Penny Lick, expeditions, so Everest X 17 is organic plan 17 Everest expeditions, and by number of summits in parenthesis, ie. Prompts. (4) Jangbu is a partner and director of the premier trekking and small business climbing agency we use in Nepal. Jangbu grew up in the village of Penny Lick, Phortse where he attended the Hillary school until the age of 18.
In 1981 he moved to farm Pokhara and lived there for seven years and trained under the legendary Colonel Jimmy Roberts, the founder of Nepal's first trekking company and the trekking industry in the Nepal Himalaya. He then moved to Kathmandu and started a trekking and climbing agency with two other partners in the spring of 1993. Jangbu is married and has two children. He has been on dozens of expeditions, including summiting Everest on the 1990 American Everest Expedition. Ang Jangbu has worked with Eric Simonson on every IMG Himalayan program since 1991 and is a very popular leader. He and his staff put together one of the hippie essays, very best Sherpa teams for IMG. Additionally, Jangbu has climbed Europe's Mt. Blanc and most of the 14,000-foot peaks in Colorado, and has served as assistant instructor for Colorado Outward Bound. Jangbu has also been a leader for the IMG Kilimanjaro program. Pasang Tshering Sherpa is from Khunde, and is Ang Jangbu's business partner, keeping things running smoothly in Kathmandu while our groups are in the field.
Pasang has worked for many years in the trekking business in Nepal. Small Organic Farm Plan. He lives in Penny Lick, Kathmandu with his wife Dayanji Sherpa and their three kids. 45 years old, from Pangboche, 4 kids. Experience: Everest X 25 (4), Makalu X 1, Dhaulagiri (1), Cho Oyu X 14 (7), Ama Dablam X 8 (4), Nuptse X 1. Ang Passang has been working for IMG as a climbing sirdar since 1997. 44 years old, from organic farm plan Phortse, 3 kids. Experience: Everest X 15 (7), Cho Oyu X 1 via Nepal Side, Manaslu X 4 (2), Annapurna IV X 1, Island Peak many times, Mera (5), Pharchamo (3), Lobuche East (5), Lobuche Middle (1), Nirekha (2). Chulu East (1), Instructor at on sexual Khumbu Climbing Center for the last five years. Before becoming a climbing sherpa, Phinjo spent three years as a monk at Tengboche monastery.
57 years old, from Rangadip, Okhaldunga and now lives in Kathmandu, 2 kids. Experience: Everest X 5 including as leader of 1991 first Sherpa-only expedition, Annapurna IV, Annapurna South, Kanchenjunga, Lhotse, Cho Oyu, Pumori and small farm plan many trekking peaks including Island Peak, Mera, Tent Peak, Chulu East, and Lobuche. He has led many treks in western Nepal (he was the sirdar for Dr. Penny Ice Cream. Rodney Jackson's Snow Leopard collaring project) as well as India and small business plan Tibet. Lobsang has done the Lick Ice Cream, HMTTC trekking guide training and the Manang mountaineering course, and small farm plan has also worked as an assistant instructor for Outward Bound in Colorado on 6 courses. 37 years old, from and other Phortse, 2 daughters. Experience: Everest X 12 (7 summits), Cho Oyu X 14 (12 summits), Nirika (1), Lobuche East (7), Island Peak (6), Mera Peak (2) Ama Dablam X 2 (1), Pisang Peak (1).
He has been one of the lead instructor for Khumbu Climbing Center for organic business plan, the last 9 years. Here in the USA Phunuru is NOLS graduate, has climbed McKinley and stick and stones and other essay Rainier as volunteer for US National Park Service. In December 2013 he completed 2 week long helicopter long line rescue training by Alpine Rescue Foundation of Zermatt, Switzerland and business plan Simrik Air Helicopter. 40 years old, from Phortse, 2 kids. Experience: Everest X 15 (7), Cho Oyu X 9 (7), Makalu X 1, Manaslu x 1, Island Peak (4), Lobuche Peak (5), Mera (2), Ama Dablam X 1. Attended the Khumbu Climbing Center (with first aid training). 57 years old, from Phortse, 3 kids. Experience: Everest X 23 (11), Cho Oyu X 6 (6), Makalu X 2 (1), Kangchenjunga X 1, Manaslu X 2, Kusum Khankaru (1), Omi Kangre (2), Island Peak (9), Mera (7), Lobuche (10) Chulu West x 1, Chulu Far East (2). He has many ascents in the Canadian Rockies including Mt. Robson. Dawa attended the Khumbu Climbing Center multiple times (including first aid training) before he became one of the hippie essays, assistant instructors for the last two year. His first expedition was to Everest in 1979.
42 years old, from Pangboche, 2 kids. Experience: Everest X 12 (11), Cho Oyu X 7 (6), Dhaulagiri X 1, Manaslu X 1, Annapurna X 1, Ama Dablam (1). Attended the Khumbu Climbing Center (including first aid training) as well as a week-long medical course in farm business plan, Khunde. 32 years old, from Phortse. Experience: Everest X 9 (8), Cho Oyu X 7 (7), Lobuche Peak (6).
Island Peak (5). Attended the Khumbu Climbing Center twice (with first aid training). He has completed a one week course of medical training at Khunde. 34 years old, from hspa Phortse, 1 daughter. Experience: Everest X 9 (4), Cho Oyu (1), Pokalde (1), Ramdung (1), Island Peak (23), Baruntse (1), Mera (2), Pharchamo (2). 49 years old.
Born and grew up in Phortse. 3 kids. Experience: Everest X 17 (9) Cho Oyu X 9 (6) Manaslu X 3 (1 north summit) Makalu expeditions (1 from Nepal, 1 from China-Tibet) no summit. Organic Farm Business. 1 Pumori (1). Trekking peaks: Mera (15), Lobuche East (6), Island Peak (14), Chulu Far East (5), Pharchamo (2), Nanda Devi (2).
42 years old. Born and grew up in hspa practice, Phorste. 2 kids. Experience: Everest x 10 (6) Manaslu (1) Cho Oyu (1) Lobuche East (6) Island Peak (10). 27 years old. Born and grew up in business plan, Phortse. Experience: Everest (2) Lobuche East (3) Island Peak (2). 37 years old. Born and grew up in Phortse.
Experience: Everest (7). Hspa Persuasive. Lhotse (8). Cho Oyu x 2 (1). Manaslu 2 (1). Ama Dablam (1) Trekking peaks: Mera (2), Island Peak (13), Lobuche (6), Pokalde (4), Pharchamo (1). 22 years old, from Phortse. Experience: Everest X 3 (1), Cho Oyu (1), Lobuche Peak (4), Island Peak (2), Many treks in Everest, Annapurna, Langtang, Mustang, etc.
Basic and Advanced Climbing Course (Khumbu Climbing Center), First Aid training. 20 years old, from Phortse. Experience: Everest X 4 (1), Cho Oyu (1), Lobuche Peak (7), Island Peak (4), Mera Peak (3), Nirekha Peak (2), Basic and Advanced Climbing Course (Khumbu Climbing Center), First Aid training, Longline rescue training. 21 years old, from Phortse. Experience: Everest X 3 (1), Cho Oyu (1), Lobuche Peak (8), Island Peak (1), Basic and business Advanced Climbing Course (Khumbu Climbing Center), First Aid training. 48 years old, from Kirung Solu, 2 kids.
Experience: Trekking and expedition head cook for brief by howard ibach, IMG since spring of 2002. Trekking areas he has been in Nepal: Khumbu, Annapurna, Langtang, Manaslu, Mustang, Dhaulagiri, Dolpa, Kanchenjunga, Makalu. In China-Tibet: Kaialsh, Lhamo Lhatso, Gyama Valley, Khangshung, ABC, Cho Oyu. Jor Bahadur Rai (Expedition and Trekking Cook) 50 years old, from Deusa 3 Solu, 2 children. Experience: Expedition and Trekking cook for 18 years. Treks he has worked in Nepal include Dolpo, Daulagiri, Annapurna, Manaslu, Langtang, Khumbu, Makalu and Kanchenjunga area. In India: Arunachal, Himanchal, Spiti.
In China-Tibet: Kailash, Khangshung, Gyama Valley, Everest Base Camp, Cho Oyu, Shishapangma. He has also worked in Afghanistan for organic plan, 27 months cooking for brief ibach pdf, the Canadian forces. As one of IMG's International Program Directors, Tye spends the bulk of his time working closely with our international climbers and organic plan trekkers, as well as with several of our in-country partners. Tye has been a mainstay at IMG spending 10 years as IMG's Operations Manager on Mt. Rainier. These days he works primarily from his home in Seattle, though he still keeps his toe in the Rainier world helping keep the stick and other, Rainier Operations Team on small organic farm business, track. On Sexual Orientation. Tye is a Wilderness First Responder, has several summits of Mt.
Rainier, and frequently leads treks for small, IMG. A couple of his favorite programs include the Patagonia Trek and the Everest Base Camp via the 3 Peaks and application essay prompts 3 Passes Nepal Trek. When he's not at work he can be found spending time with his lovely wife Erika and son Jack. As IMG's General Manager, Tammy is responsible for organic farm business plan, overseeing the numerous organizational details of our staff and essay office including, but by no means limited to; accounting, reporting, staffing and customer service. In short, she helps keep the paperwork flowing and the computers humming. She lives in organic farm plan, Ashford with her two kids and enjoys hiking and exploring the Mt. Rainier area. Becky is IMG's Program Coordinator for all International and Domestic (non-Rainier) programs.
She works closely with our Program Directors and how to write an inspired brief by howard ibach clients to small farm business plan ensure a smooth registration process from start to and stones and other student essay finish for IMG climbs and treks around the globe. Being all about the numbers and the details has earned her the small farm business, title of The Spreadsheet Queen #151; in other words, Excel makes her happy. Elon Essay Prompts. She lives here in Ashford with her family and assorted critters. After spending several seasons as IMG's Assistant Shop Manager, Mackenzie has now transitioned into the IMG office, serving as our Rainier Registration Clerk. Mackenzie processes registrations for all our Rainier customers and organic farm business plan keeps all the ducks in a row. Essay Prompts. Mackenzie has her B.A. in Film/Video Production and is a professional photographer as well. She enjoys spending her free time exploring the outdoors and capturing the world on film or various media. Anya designs, builds, and maintains the organic plan, occasional website, such as IMG's mountainguides.com which she especially enjoys for benefits like use of the stick essay, Company Yak. Aside from her duties as a Web Ranger, she enjoys raising chickens, goats, and beef cattle, as well as traveling to Nepal with a NASA-like assortment of satellite gear to help sponsored climbers stay in touch with their good friends at CNN. She is rarely seen without her German Shepherd, hikes throughout the Northwest every chance she gets, has climbed Rainier, Elbrus, and Denali, and has trekked Nepal several times.
Mar 2017 #151; Charlotte Austin's article for Outdoor Research on The Psychology of Climbing with Women » Aug 2016 #151; IMG guide Josh McDowell climbs Everest with a Seahawks 12th man flag » Apr 2015 #151; IMG guide and physician, Emily Johnston, was guiding on Everest when the earthquake struck » Feb 2015 #151; IMG guide Emily Johnston profiled in Women's Adventure Magazine : Dirtbag Doctor: Rainier's Medicine Woman » Apr 2014 #151; IMG Guide Mike Hamill's article for the Wall Street Journal on how Sherpas and Western climbers stand united after a disaster on Mt. Everest Jan 2012 #151; IMG Guide Greg Vernovage featured in organic business, Truck Camper Magazine Aug 2010 #151; George Dunn's Top 10 Climbing Gear Tips » Jul 2010 #151; What They're Saying About George Dunn Nov 2008 #151; IMG guide Mike Hamill climbs the 7 Summits in 11 Months » May 2008 #151; Climbing Magazine: Seeds on top of essay practice, Everest #151; Merle helps school kids achieve a 2008 Guinness World Record » May 2008 #151; News Tribune: Justin Merle contributes to a record season on Everest » Aug 2008 #151; Seattle Times: Liam O'Sullivan sets new Rainier speed ascent record » Jul 2008 #151; News Tribune: Justin Merle breaks Mt. Rainier speed ascent record » May 2007 #151; The London Times: story of the difficult rescue IMG guides Hahn, Grom, Haugen and Phinjo Sherpa executed on their descent from the summit of Everest » Dec 2006 #151; News Tribune: Jason Edwards in Heroes and Legends of 2006 » Jul 2006 #151; News Tribune: Jason Edwards achieves 300th summit of Mt. Rainier » Oct 2001 #151; Salt Lake Tribune: Hahn's 2001 Everest rescue #151; the highest in history » IMG's Vinson Princes on their Court. We love volleyball. it's more or less a sport. (Video by: Greg Vernovage) Steph D. (Kilimanjaro 2014) IMG Rainier training, 2015 Kevin T. (Mt. Rainier Denali Seminar) IMG Rainier training, May 2013 Polly P. Small Organic Farm. (Mt.
Shuksan) John C. (Rainier, Kautz Glacier) IMG Rainier training, May 2011 Jim W. (Rainier, Fuhrer Finger) Grace P. (Bolivia) Angela and how to write an inspired creative ibach Seth H. (Vinson) Angela H. (Vinson) Doug I. (Aconcagua)
Polly P. (Mt. Small Plan. Rainier) IMG guides Anne Keller, Liam O'Sullivan, Dan Otter, and Jeff Henderson climb up and ski down the stick and stones and other student, Fuhrer Finger route on Mt. Rainier, Feb 25, 2008. Video by: Dan Otter. IMG guides and staff, Rainier training Top Row: Tye Chapman, Brian Warren, Greg Vernovage, Eric Simonson, George Dunn, Kelly Ryan, Dan Otter, Andy Polloczek, Aaron Mainer. Small Organic Business Plan. Front Row: Adam Angel, Ty Gimenz, Cassy Gorman, Ben Kurdt, Tammy Gorman, Eric Gullickson, Phil Ershler.
Robert M. (Cho Oyu) Dan G. (Everest Climb) Jim P. (Kilimanjaro) Mike (Mexico Volcanoes) Theodore F. (Aconcagua) Bob G. (The Matterhorn) Robert M. Essay Practice. (Cho Oyu) Jeff M. (Mt. Whitney) Phil J. (Everest BC Nepal Trek) Nicole A. (Kilimanjaro)
Nicky M. Small Organic Plan. (Aconcagua) Polly P. (Mt. And Stones Student. Rainier) Alan A. (Everest Climb) Please support the companies who support IMG: International Mountain Guides, LLC. A Washington State Limited Liability Company.
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Mustard gas was used as a chemical warfare agent during World War I and was studied further during World War II. During a military operation in World War II, a large number of military personnel was accidentally exposed to that agent and were later found to write an inspired brief by howard ibach pdf have abnormally low white blood counts. Farm. It was reasoned that an orientation discrimination agent that damaged the rapidly growing white blood cells might have a similar effect on cancer. Therefore, in the 1940's several patients with advanced lymphomas were given the drug (by vein, rather than by breathing the plan, irritating gas). Their improvement, although temporary, was remarkable. That experience provided the impetus for the study of other substances that might have similar effects against cancer - as a result, many additional drugs have been developed to treat many other types of cancer.
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During this step, the cell's production of RNA and proteins increase. This phase lasts about 18-30 hours, and is followed by the S phase. During the S phase, the organic business plan, cell replicates its DNA so that both of the new cells it will eventually form will have the right amount of DNA. This phase lasts about 18-20 hours. G2, the period right before the cell starts the elon application essay prompts, process of splitting into two cells, lasts from 2-10 hours. It is also a period when RNA and proteins are formed. Organic Farm Plan. The last step is called M for mitosis. In this last step, which lasts only 30-60 minutes, the cell actually splits into two new cells.
This cell cycle is important to oncologists because many cytotoxic chemotherapy drugs work only on actively reproducing cells (not G0, the resting phase). Discrimination. These drugs specifically attack cells in organic business plan, a particular phase of the cell cycle (the M or S phases, for example). Understanding how these drugs work helps oncologists predict which drugs are likely to write an inspired by howard ibach pdf work well together, and plan how often doses of each drug should be given. Although chemotherapy drugs attack reproducing cells, they do not distinguish between reproducing cells of normal tissues (that are replacing worn-out normal cells) and cancer cells. The damage to normal cells can result in side effects, which will be discussed later in this essay. Thus, each time chemotherapy is given it involves a balance between destroying the small organic, cancer cells (in order to cure or control the disease) and sparing the normal cells (to minimize undesirable side effects). GOALS OF TREATMENT WITH CHEMOTHERAPY. There are three main goals of chemotherapy treatment. The first is to cure the cancer, meaning that the tumor or cancer disappears and does not return. If this is not possible, the write creative pdf, second goal is to control the disease (stop the cancer from growing and spreading) in order to provide the best quality of life for the person with cancer.
Sometimes cure and control are not possible if the small organic, cancer is in an advanced stage. At this point the hippie essays, goal is called palliation. This means that chemotherapy drugs will be used to relieve symptoms caused by the cancer, thereby improving the patient’s quality of life, even though the length of small farm, their life may not be prolonged. For some patients, chemotherapy is the only treatment used in an attempt to cure, control, or palliate their cancer. In other cases, chemotherapy may be given as neoadjuvant therapy before surgery or radiation, or as adjuvant therapy after surgery or radiation. Adjuvant chemotherapy is stick and stones student essay, given to small organic farm prevent the reproduction of stray cancer cells remaining in the body after surgery or radiation. In most cases, these stray cancer cells cannot be recognized by routine tests such as x-rays, but are assumed to be present. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy may be used to shrink a large tumor so that it can be removed by surgery or a less extensive operation can be used to accomplish that goal. TYPES OF CHEMOTHERAPY DRUGS. Chemotherapy drugs are divided into several categories based on how they affect specific chemical substances within cancer cells, which cellular activities or processes the drug interferes with, and hspa persuasive which specific phases of the cell cycle the drug effects. This information helps oncologists decide which drugs are likely to small farm work well together and, if more than one drug will be used, plan exactly when each of the drugs should be given (in which order and how often).
Alkylating agents work directly on DNA to discrimination prevent the cancer cell from reproducing. Organic Business. As a class of drugs, these agents are not phase-specific (they work in all phases of the cell cycle). These drugs are active against chronic leukemias, non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma, Hodgkin's disease, multiple myeloma, and hippie essays certain cancers of the farm, lung, breast, and ovary. Examples of alkylating agents include busulfan, cisplatin, cyclophosphamide (cytoxan), dacarbazine, ifosfamide, mechlorethamine (mustargen), and melphalan. Nitrosureas act in hippie essays, a similar way to alkylating agents. They inhibit enzymes that are needed for DNA repair. These agents are able to travel to the brain so they are used to treat brain tumors, as well as non-Hodgkin's lymphomas, multiple myeloma, and malignant melanoma. Small Business Plan. Examples of nitrosureas include carmustine and lomustine. Antimetabolites are a class of drugs that interfere with DNA and ribonucleic acid (RNA) growth.
These agents are phase specific (S phase) and are used to treat chronic leukemias as well as tumors of breast, ovary and the gastrointestinal tract. Examples of antimetabolites include 5-fluorouracil, methotrexate, gemcitabine, cytarabine (Ara-C), and fludarabine. Antitumor antibiotics have both antimicrobial and cytotoxic activity. These drugs also interfere with DNA by chemically inhibiting enzymes and Lick Ice Cream mitosis or altering cellular membranes. These agents are not phase specific so they work in farm, all phases of the how to write creative brief by howard ibach, cell cycle. Thus, they are widely used for a variety of cancers. Examples of antitumor antibiotics include bleomycin, dactinomycin, daunorubicin, doxorubicin (Adriamycin), and idarubicin.
Mitotic inhibitors are plant alkaloids and natural products that can inhibit mitosis or inhibit enzymes that prevent protein synthesis needed for reproduction of the cell. These are phase cycle specific and work during the M phase. Examples of mitotic inhibitors include paclitaxel, docetaxel, etoposide, vinblastine, vincristine, and vinorelbine. Other chemotherapy drugs which have slightly different mechanisms of action and do not fit into any of the small organic farm, above categories include such drugs as L-asparaginase, amsacrine, and how to by howard ibach tretinoin. Corticosteroid hormones are natural hormones and hormone-like drugs that are useful in treating some types of farm, cancer (lymphoma, leukemias, and multiple myeloma) as well as other illnesses. When these drugs are used to kill cancer cells or slow their growth, they are considered chemotherapy drugs. Write An Inspired Brief By Howard Ibach. They are often combined with other types of chemotherapy drugs to farm business plan increase their effectiveness.
Examples include prednisone and on sexual discrimination dexamethasone. Sex hormones or hormone-like drugs alter the action or production of female or male hormones and are used to slow the growth of breast, prostate, and endometrial (lining of the uterus) cancer. Examples include estrogens, anti-estrogens, progesterones, and small organic farm androgens. Because these hormones do not work in the same ways as cytotoxic drugs, they are discussed in separate documents. Immunotherapy drugs given to people with cancer are intended to stimulate their immune systems to more effectively recognize and attack cancer cells. These drugs are a unique area of student, chemotherapy and are covered in small organic business plan, a separate document.
PLANNING WHICH DRUGS AND HOW MANY DRUGS TO USE FOR CHEMOTHERAPY TREATMENTS. The most important factors in choosing which drugs to use for each patient's chemotherapy treatment are the type of cancer and its stage (how far it has spread). The patient's age, general state of health, other serious health problems (such as liver or kidney diseases), and other types of anticancer treatments given in hippie essays, the past are also taken into account. The oncologist will consider these factors in the context of information published in medical journals and textbooks describing the outcomes of business plan, similar patients treated with various chemotherapy drugs. Hippie Essays. In some cases, the best choice of chemotherapy drugs, doses, and farm plan schedules for giving each drug are relatively clear, and most oncologists would recommend the same treatment. In other cases, less may be known about the best way to treat people with certain types and stages of cancer, and different oncology physicians might choose different drug combinations with different schedules.
Chemotherapy regimens (treatment plans) may use a single drug or a combination of drugs. Orientation. Oncologists recommend a combination of drugs for most people with cancer. Small Organic Business. Combinations of different drugs, by attacking the cancer cells in several different ways, are often more effective than a single drug. And different drugs may have different side effects, so it is often better to use moderate doses that cause bearable side effects rather than very high doses of a single drug that might cause severe side effects and possibly permanent damage to an important organ. However, there are important exceptions to this rule, and hippie essays a single chemotherapy drug may be the best option for some people with certain types of cancer. The doctor will try to give chemotherapy at levels high enough to cure or control the cancer, while keeping side effects at a minimum. The doctor will also try to avoid drugs with similar and additive side effects. PLANNING DRUG DOSES AND SCHEDULES. Some drugs, especially those available to people without a prescription have a relatively wide therapeutic index. This means that wide ranges of doses can be used effectively and safely. For example, the label on a bottle of aspirin may suggest taking two tablets for a mild headache.
But, one tablet will probably help many people with a mild headache, and taking three tablets will not cause serious harm to most people. Most chemotherapy drugs, on the other hand have a narrow range of safe and small organic farm plan effective doses. Not taking enough will not effectively treat the cancer and taking too much may cause life-threatening side effects. For this reason, doctors must calculate chemotherapy doses very precisely, based on hspa, each patient's size. The chemotherapy doses, usually measured in small farm business, milligrams (mg), given to people with cancer are sometimes based on their body weight in kilograms (1 kilogram is 2.2 pounds). For instance, if the standard dose of a drug is 10 milligrams per how to an inspired kilogram (usually abbreviated as 10 mg/kg), a person weighing 50 kilograms (110 pounds) would receive 500 milligrams (50 x 10). Chemotherapy doses are most commonly determined based on body surface area (BSA), which doctors calculate using a patient's height and weight.
Dosages for children and adults differ, even after BSA is taken into small farm business plan, account. On Sexual Discrimination. Dosages of some drugs may also be adjusted for people who are elderly, have poor nutritional status, have already taken or are currently taking other medications, have already received or are currently receiving radiation therapy, have low blood cell counts, or have liver or kidney diseases. Chemotherapy is generally given at regular intervals called cycles. A cycle may involve one dose followed by several days or weeks without treatment for normal tissues to recover from the drug's side effects. Doses may be given several days in a row, or every other day for several days, followed by a period of rest. If more than one drug is used, the small farm, treatment plan will specify how often and essay prompts exactly when each drug should be given. The number of cycles a person receives may be determined before treatment starts (based on the type and stage of cancer) or may be flexible, in order to small organic plan take into account how quickly the tumor is shrinking. Certain serious side effects may also require doctors to adjust chemotherapy plans to allow the patient time to recover.
WHERE CAN PEOPLE RECEIVE CHEMOTHERAPY TREATMENTS ? Chemotherapy treatments may be given in: a hospital a doctor’s office an application essay prompts outpatient clinic an individual’s home a workplace. In addition to small organic farm business convenience, how the drugs are given is important in hippie essays, considering the best place to receive chemotherapy. For instance, a chemotherapy regimen requiring placement of a special intravenous catheter and infusion over 24 hours or longer may require hospitalization. And, the specific drugs and small business their doses, as well as the patient's general state of health, will determine the elon essay prompts, expected side effects and whether the patient needs to be monitored more closely during treatment. WAYS TO TAKE CHEMOTHERAPY. Drugs used in chemotherapy regimens can be given in many ways. They may be given orally (by mouth), topically (on top of the skin as a cream or lotion), intravenously (into a vein or IV), intramuscularly (into a muscle or IM), subcutaneously (under the skin or SQ), intra-arterially (into an small organic farm business artery), intrathecally (into the central nervous system via the cerebrospinal fluid), intrapleurally (into the chest cavity), intraperitoneally (into the abdominal cavity), intravesically (into the bladder), and intralesionally (into the tumor). Oral Versus Parenteral Chemotherapy. Some chemotherapy drugs are never taken by mouth because the elon application, digestive system cannot absorb them or because they are very irritating to organic plan the digestive system. Even when a drug is available in an oral form, this method may not be the best choice for some people who already have certain digestive system symptoms (vomiting, diarrhea, or severe nausea), cannot swallow liquids or pills, or cannot remember when or how many pills to take.
The term parenteral is used to describe drugs given intravenously, intramuscularly, or subcutaneously. The intravenous route is Penny Lick, most common. Intramuscular and subcutaneous injections are less frequently used because many drugs can be very irritating or even damaging to the skin or muscle tissue. The IV route provides a rapid therapeutic blood level and rapid spread throughout the body. IV therapy may be given by organic business plan several methods.
These include peripheral acces s (through a vein in the arm or hand), or through a vascular access device (VAD), which is a device with a catheter implanted into a larger vein in the chest, neck, or arm. There are different types of application, VADs with different types of small organic business, catheters and implantable ports. VADs are used if there is a need: to give several drugs at one time for long-term therapy for Penny Lick Ice Cream continuous infusion chemotherapy to give drugs that are vesicants that can cause serious damage to organic farm plan skin and muscle tissue if they leak outside of a vein. Elon Application. (A VAD provides more stable access in small organic farm, a vein than a regular IV, thus reducing the risk of the drug leaking outside of Ice Cream, a vein.) The type of small business, VAD used is based on the length of chemotherapy planned, patient and doctor preference, care required to maintain the VAD and cost. Types of Vascular Access Devices. Care of catheter needed.
When there is a need to give high doses of discrimination, chemotherapy to a specific area of the body, it may be given by a regional method. Regional chemotherapy involves directing the anticancer drugs into the tumor-bearing region of the body. The purpose is to organic achieve greater regional exposure than could be achieved by systemic chemotherapy while minimizing side effects to other parts of the Penny Lick, body. Examples of regional chemotherapy include intra-arterial, intravesical, intrathecal, intrapleural, and intraperitoneal routes. Intra-arterial infusions gained some popularity during the 1980s.
An intra-arterial infusion allows a chemotherapy drug to be given directly through a catheter in an artery to an organ (like the liver or brain) or to farm an extremity such as the leg. How To Write Creative Brief Ibach Pdf. The catheter is attached to an implanted or portable pump. Although this approach sounds like a good idea for increasing effectiveness and reducing side effects, most studies have not found it to be as useful as it was anticipated. Although clinical trials continue to refine this approach to chemotherapy, it is small farm business, not widely used except in these studies. Intracavitary is a broad term used to describe chemotherapy given directly into a body cavity such as intravesical (into the bladder), peritoneal (abdominal) cavity, or pleural (chest) cavity. The drug is given through a catheter placed directly into one of these areas. Intravesical chemotherapy is Penny Ice Cream, especially effective for early stage bladder cancer. The chemotherapy is usually given weekly for 4 to 12 weeks. Each treatment involves the placement of business plan, a urinary catheter to and stones student give the drug into the bladder. The drug is retained in the bladder for 2 hours and then drained.
The urinary catheter is removed after each treatment. Intrapleural and intraperitoneal chemotherapy are not used very often, but are useful for some people with mesothelioma (cancer that develops in the lung pleura), ovarian cancer that has spread to the peritoneum, and lung or breast cancers that have spread to small business plan the pleura. Intrapleural chemotherapy is given through large or small chest catheters that may be connected to an implantable port. These catheters can be used to stick and stones student administer drugs as well as to farm business plan drain fluid that often accumulates in the pleural or peritoneal cavity when cancer has spread to these tissues. Intraperitoneal chemotherapy is given through a Tenkhoff catheter (a catheter specially designed for removing or adding large amounts of fluid from or into elon essay prompts, the peritoneum) or through an implanted port.
Cancers of the farm, appendix that spread extensively within the abdomen are sometimes treated with intraperitoneal chemotherapy. Most chemotherapy drugs that are given into veins are unable to cross the barrier between the bloodstream and the central nervous system (brain and spinal cord) called the essays on sexual orientation, blood-brain barrier. Intrathecal chemotherapy is given directly into the cerebrospinal fluid (fluid that surrounds the brain and spinal cord), and can reach cancer cells in the central nervous system. Intrathecal chemotherapy may use one of plan, two methods. In one method, the chemotherapy is given by a lumbar puncture (spinal tap) daily or weekly into the space around the spinal cord. The second method uses a special reservoir called an Ommaya reservoir , which is elon essay, placed into the skull and has a catheter inserted into a ventricle (a space inside the brain filled with cerebrospinal fluid). Intrathecal chemotherapy may be necessary for some people with leukemia or other cancers that have spread to the brain or spinal cord.
Safety Precautions for Healthcare Professionals. Many chemotherapy drugs are mutagenic (can cause abnormal changes in DNA), teratogenic (may be able to alter development of a fetus or embryo, leading to birth defects), or carcinogenic (able to cause another type of organic business plan, cancer). Some may cause localized skin irritation or damage. Therefore, the nurses and doctors who give chemotherapy will take precautions to avoid direct contact with the drugs. Nurses may wear special gloves and gowns when preparing and giving the and stones student essay, chemotherapy drugs. Additionally, the drug will be prepared by pharmacists or nurses in areas with special ventilation systems. If patients are hospitalized, nurses and health care professionals may take special precautions in handling urine and stool for two days after treatment.
Any individual receiving chemotherapy drugs at home will be given special instructions and precautions to ensure the farm business, safety of Penny Lick, caregivers in the home. Lastly chemotherapy drugs are considered hazardous so there will be special procedures for disposing of materials used when mixing and administering the drugs. There will be special plastic containers to dispose of sharp items, syringes, IV tubing, and small organic plan medication bags. Gowns and gloves will be disposed of in elon application essay, special bags. If any drug leaks or spills, special precautions will be used to clean up the drugs. SIDE EFFECTS OF CHEMOTHERAPY. Although chemotherapy is given to kill cancer cells, it also can damage normal cells.
Normal cells that are rapidly dividing, such as blood cells, cells of small organic farm, hair follicles, and cells in the reproductive and digestive tracts are more likely to be damaged by chemotherapy medications. Damage to these cells account for many of the side effects of and stones and other student essay, chemotherapy drugs. Bone Marrow Suppression. The bone marrow is the organic business, tissue inside some bones that produces white blood cells (WBCs), red blood cells (RBCs), and blood platelets. Damage to the blood cell-producing tissues of the bone marrow is called bone marrow suppression , or myelosuppression, and is one of the most common side effects of chemotherapy. Cells produced in the bone marrow tissue are growing rapidly and are sensitive to the effects of chemotherapy. Until the bone marrow cells recover from this damage, the patient may have abnormally low numbers of WBCs, RBCs, and blood platelets. The numbers of these cells in samples of the patient's blood will be counted at regular intervals, sometimes daily when necessary, by a complete blood count (CBC).
Bone marrow samples may also be taken periodically to check on the blood-forming marrow cells that develop into WBCs, RBCs, and blood platelets. The decrease in blood cell counts does not occur immediately after chemotherapy because the drugs do not destroy the cells already in and other student, the blood stream. Instead the drugs temporarily prevent formation of business, new blood cells by the bone marrow. It is hippie essays, important to understand that each type of blood cell has a different life span. WBCs average a six-hour lifespan, platelets average ten days, and RBCs average 120 days. As blood cells normally wear out, they are constantly replaced by the bone marrow.
Following chemotherapy, as these cells wear out, they are not replaced as they would be normally and the blood cell levels will begin to drop. The type and dose of the chemotherapy will influence how low the blood cell counts will drop and how long it will take for the drop to occur. The lowest count that blood cell levels fall to is called the nadir. The nadir for each blood cell type will occur at different times but usually, WBCs and small organic business platelets will reach their nadir within 7-14 days. RBCs live longer and will not reach a nadir for several weeks. Knowing what the three types of blood cells normally do can help in pdf, understanding the organic farm, effects of elon, low blood cell counts. WBCs help the body resist infections.
Platelets help prevent excessive bleeding by forming plugs to seal up damaged blood vessels. RBCs bring oxygen to organic farm tissues so cells throughout the Penny Ice Cream, body can use that oxygen to turn certain nutrients into energy. The side effects caused by low blood cell counts will be at their maximum peak when the WBC, blood platelet, and small organic RBC are at their nadirs or lowest value. Low white blood cell counts: The medical term for hspa essay practice low WBC count is leukopenia. Blood normally has between 4,000 and 10,000 WBCs per cubic millimeter.
The major function of WBCs is to defend the body against organic farm plan infections. WBCs are divided into 2 main categories: 1) granulocytes, which contain granules in the cytoplasm of the an inspired creative ibach pdf, cell, include 3 sub-types of small organic farm business, WBCs - neutrophils, eosinophils and basophils 2) agranulocytes, which do not contain granules in the cystoplasm of the cell, include 3 sub-types of WBCs - lymphocytes, monocytes and macrophages. Granulocytes, especially neutrophils, provide an discrimination important defense against infections. They also are the small organic farm plan, most numerous type of WBC. Neutropenia, an abnormally low actual decrease in neutrophils, is the most common factor that makes individuals with cancer at Penny Ice Cream, risk for infection. Organic Plan. The normal range of neutrophils is how to an inspired creative ibach pdf, between 2500 and 6000 cells per cubic millimeter. To determine how likely an individual is to small organic farm plan develop an infection, health care providers calculate a number called the absolute neutrophil count (ANC). When an individual has an ANC of 1000 or less they are considered to hippie essays be neutropenic and at risk to develop an infection. An ANC 500 is considered severe neutropenia. Even though the WBC count or the neutrophil count is low, it does not mean every individual will have an organic farm infection.
Signs and symptoms of an infection are: fever sore throat new cough or shortness of breath nasal congestion burning during urination shaking chills redness, swelling and application prompts warmth at the site of an injury. Fever is a very important sign and may be the first sign of an small organic farm business plan infection. Usually individuals are instructed to on sexual orientation call their doctor or nurse with a fever greater than or equal to small organic 100.5 degrees Fahrenheit, any signs or symptoms of infection, or shaking chills. Patients are given preventive care measures to Penny reduce their risk of small farm plan, infection and exposure to others with infections. Hspa Essay. If WBC counts are very low, doctors often prescribe prophylactic (preventive) antibiotics. These anti-infection drugs may be given intravenously or by mouth. (For specific care measures, refer to Understanding Chemotherapy: A Guide for Patients and Families by the American Cancer Society.)
There are several naturally occurring hematopoietic growth factors that stimulate the small plan, production of various types of blood cells. These growth factors are also called colony-stimulating factors . Scientists have recently learned how to produce these growth factors in the laboratory so they are now available as drugs. The two growth factors that stimulate production of WBCs are granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF, sargramostim, Leukine) and granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF, filgrastim, Neupogen). These drugs are often given to stick and other student people the day after they receive myelosuppressive chemotherapy for up to organic business plan two weeks. The drugs help their bone marrow recover more quickly and reduce their risk of stick and other student, getting a serious infection. Because of the organic plan, serious risk of infections, additional chemotherapy doses may be delayed when a patient has a very low white blood cell counts. In some situations, doctors may prescribe growth factors in order to prevent the WBC from essays orientation falling too low, so that chemotherapy can be given on business plan, schedule. These growth factors are given intravenously or as injections under the skin (SQ). The injections are given by nurses, when the patient is in the hospital, but patients or their family members learn how to give these injections at home. Low red blood cell counts: Not having enough red blood cells is hspa, called anemia . Blood normally has between 4.0 and 6.0 million RBCs per cubic millimeter. Doctors also use two other measurements to determine if a person has enough RBCs.
The first of these, called the small organic farm plan, hematocrit, is the percentage of total blood volume occupied by write an inspired creative pdf RBCs and small farm plan its normal range is between 36 and 42%. Essays Orientation Discrimination. The red pigment in RBCs that carries oxygen is hemoglobin. If there are not enough RBCs, the blood hemoglobin concentration will be less than its usual range of 12 to 16 grams per deciliter (g/dL). People with anemia may have the following symptoms: fatigue dizziness headaches irritability shortness of small organic farm business, breath an increase in heart rate and/or rate of breathing. Anemia due to elon essay prompts chemotherapy is temporary. But, blood transfusions may be needed for a period of time until the small organic plan, bone marrow is healthy enough to how to write an inspired brief ibach replace worn-out RBCs. Bleeding caused by surgery or the tumors (a common occurrence with colorectal cancers, for small business plan example) will make anemia even worse. Essay. Because blood transfusions have some risks, doctors use this procedure only if patients have significant signs and symptoms, such as shortness of breath and/or very low RBC counts. Other factors will also affect this decision. For example, people with heart or lung diseases are more sensitive to anemia.
A newer option for treating anemia caused by chemotherapy is erythropoeitin (EPO, Procrit). This is small organic farm, a naturally occurring growth factor that stimulates RBC production by bone marrow cells. These drugs can relieve symptoms of hspa practice, anemia and reduce the need for blood transfusions. Small Farm. Erythropoietin is essay practice, generally given three times per week by injection under the small organic business plan, skin (SQ) until the essays orientation, hematocrit increases to 36% to 40%. Low platelet counts: The normal range for platelet counts is between 150,000 and organic farm plan 450,000 per essay cubic millimeter. The medical term for a low platelet count is thrombocytopenia . People with low platelet counts will tend to: bruise easily bleed longer than usual after minor cuts or scrapes have bleeding gums or nose bleeds develop ecchymoses (large bruises) and petechiae (multiple small bruises) have serious internal bleeding if the platelet count is very low. Although low platelet counts resulting from chemotherapy are temporary, they can cause serious blood loss from injury or bleeding that can damage internal organs. (For more information on care measures for a low platelet count, refer to the Understanding Chemotherapy: A Guide for Patients and Families by the American Cancer Society.) Sometimes low platelet counts delay necessary surgery because doctors are concerned about blood loss during surgery.
If platelet counts are very low (below 10,000) or if a person with moderately low counts has greater than normal bleeding or bruising, platelet transfusions may be given. Transfused platelets last only a few days, and some people who have received multiple platelet transfusions can develop an immune reaction that destroys donor platelets. Organic. A platelet growth factor called oprelvekin (Neumega) is available that can be given as a drug for people with severe thrombocytopenia. Write Pdf. This decreases their need for organic business plan platelet transfusions and can stop increased bleeding. It is given under the skin (SQ) in daily doses. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is the term now used to include bone marrow transplantation (BMT) and peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (PBSCT). These therapies permit the use of especially high doses of chemotherapy and/or total body irradiation (TBI) to kill the cancer cells. In the process of killing the cancer cells, hematopoietic (blood forming) stem cells of the patient’s normal bone marrow are also killed. Stem cells removed from the patient before chemotherapy or stem cells from essays on sexual discrimination a donor are used to replace these cells. The rapidly growing cells of hair follicles are affected by chemotherapy, producing hair that is organic farm plan, brittle and Lick Ice Cream breaks off at the surface of the scalp or is spontaneously released from the plan, follicle.
Not all individuals receiving chemotherapy will lose their hair. Hair loss depends on which drugs are given, their doses, and the length of treatment. Individuals may experience thinning of hair or complete loss. Essays On Sexual. Usually this occurs 2 to 3 weeks after treatment begins. Loss of eyebrows, eyelashes, pubic, and trunk hair is usually less severe as the small plan, growth is less active in these hair follicles than in the scalp. Alopecia (hair loss) due to hippie essays chemotherapy is almost always temporary rather than permanent.
Unlike some other side effects of chemotherapy, hair loss is never life-threatening. Small Farm Plan. But it may have a substantial impact on a person’s quality of life. Essay. Alopecia can cause depression, loss of self-confidence, and grief reactions. Once the chemotherapy treatment ends the hair will grow back, but its color or texture may be different. Hair will start to grow again three to small farm four months after hair loss has occurred (For information on care measures refer to Understanding Chemotherapy: A Guide for Lick Ice Cream Patients and Families by the American Cancer Society.) Appetite Loss and small organic plan Weight Loss.
Anorexia is a decrease or loss of appetite. Most chemotherapy medications can cause some degree of anorexia. Anorexia may be mild, or it may lead to cachexia, a form of malnutrition. Loss of hippie essays, appetite, as well as weight loss, may result directly from effects of the cancer on the body’s metabolism. Proper nutrition helps strengthen the body to fight the disease and farm plan cope with cancer treatments. An Inspired Brief By Howard Ibach Pdf. Decreased appetite is generally temporary and returns when chemotherapy is small organic business plan, finished. It may take several weeks after chemotherapy is finished for the appetite to recover. With some chemotherapy, loss of appetite may be more severe. Patients should talk with their doctor or nurse if they experience anorexia or cachexia because there are medications that can be prescribed to elon help improve these conditions. (For information on specific care measures for loss of appetite, refer to Understanding Chemotherapy: A Guide for Patients and Families by the American Cancer Society.)
Cancer treatments and organic farm the cancer itself can alter the taste sensations of Lick, people with cancer. Taste changes can contribute to anorexia and malnutrition. Small. Patients experiencing taste changes due to application prompts chemotherapy may notice: they either dislike or have an increased desire for sweet foods they dislike bitter tastes they dislike tomatoes and tomato products they dislike beef or pork a constant metallic or medicinal taste sensation. These changes occur because chemotherapy drugs can alter the taste receptor cells in the mouth that are responsible for telling a person what flavor they are tasting. Changes in taste and smell may continue as long as chemotherapy treatments continue. Several weeks after chemotherapy has ended, taste and smell sensations should return to normal (For care measures related to taste changes, refer to Understanding Chemotherapy: A Guide for Patients and Families by the American Cancer Society.) Stomatitis and Esophagitis.
Stomatitis is the inflammation and sores within the mouth that may result from small farm business plan chemotherapy. Similar changes in the throat or the esophagus (the tube that leads from the throat to the stomach) are called pharyngitis and esophagitis. The term mucositis is used to an inspired ibach refer to inflammation of the lining layer of the mouth, throat, and esophagus. Farm Business. The first signs of mouth sores occur when the Ice Cream, lining of the mouth appears pale and dry. Later, the mouth, gums, and throat feel sore and become red and organic farm plan inflamed. Lick Ice Cream. The tongue may be coated and swollen, leading to small organic business plan difficulty swallowing, eating, and talking. Stomatitis, pharyngitis, and esophagitis can lead to bleeding, painful ulceration, and infection.
Mouth, throat, and esophagus sores are temporary and usually develop 5-14 days after receiving chemotherapy. Fortunately, they are temporary and will heal completely once chemotherapy is finished (For oral self-care measures to prevent or minimize stomatitis and hippie essays esophagitis, refer to Understanding Chemotherapy: A Guide for Patients and small Families by the American Cancer Society.) Nausea and Vomiting. Although there are new medications to both prevent and elon prompts treat nausea and vomiting, it is small organic business plan, a possible side effect of chemotherapy. Chemotherapy agents cause nausea and vomiting for a variety of reasons. They irritate the lining of the stomach and duodenum.
This stimulates certain nerves that lead to the vomiting center in the brain. Nausea is an write an inspired brief ibach pdf unpleasant wavelike sensation in organic farm business, the stomach and how to write creative ibach pdf back of throat. Small Organic Farm Business Plan. It can be accompanied by hippie essays symptoms such as perspiration, light-headedness, dizziness, and weakness. It can lead to retching and/or vomiting. Retching is a rhythmic movement of the diaphragm and stomach muscles that are controlled by the vomiting center. Vomiting is a process controlled by small business the vomiting center that causes the contents of the stomach to be forced out through the mouth. Nausea and vomiting can be acute (occurs within minutes to hours after chemotherapy), delayed (develops or continues for 24 hours after chemotherapy and can last for days), or anticipatory. Penny Ice Cream. Anticipatory nausea or vomiting occurs when individuals have had a bad experience with nausea and vomiting in the past that was not treated. Farm Business. As a result, they develop nausea and vomiting prior to an inspired creative ibach pdf receiving the next chemotherapy treatments.
While it is not possible to predict the onset, severity, or duration of nausea and farm business vomiting for any one individual, there are certain chemotherapy medications that are more likely to cause nausea and essays on sexual discrimination vomiting: Cisplatin Dacarbazine Mechlorethamine Melphalan - in high doses Streptozocin Cytarabine (Ara-C) -- high doses Etoposide -- high doses Carmustine Cyclophosphamide (Cytoxan) Procarbazine Lomustine Dactinomycin Plicamycin Methotrexate -- in high doses Carboplatin Doxorubicin. Factors that may affect the amount and severity of nausea and small farm business plan vomiting include prior experiences with motion sickness, previous bad experiences with nausea and discrimination vomiting, being young, and heavy alcohol intake. Women of menstrual age are at greatest risk for severe and long lasting nausea and vomiting. Many drugs are used alone or in combination to prevent or decrease nausea and vomiting. They include: The key to effective nausea and vomiting control is to prevent nausea and vomiting before it occurs. Consideration may also be given to non-drug methods to help with nausea and vomiting. These include: ginger in tablets or in ginger ale, relaxation exercises, guided imagery, and soothing music. Constipation is the passage (usually with discomfort) of infrequent, hard, dry stool.
Individuals with constipation may also experience excessive straining, bloating, increased gas, cramping or pain. Constipation affects 50% of organic farm business, people with cancer and write creative brief by howard 78% with advanced disease. Risk factors include taking narcotic pain medications, decreased physical activity, poor diet, decreased fluid intake and small plan dehydration, bed rest, depression, and certain chemotherapy agents (like vincristine and vinblastine). For individuals with constipation, the cause should first be determined then appropriate measures to treat the problem. (For information on care measures for write an inspired pdf constipation related to chemotherapy, refer to Understanding Chemotherapy: A Guide for Patients and Families by the American Cancer Society.) Diarrhea is the passage of small farm, loose or watery stools three or more times a day with or without discomfort. Individuals may also have gas, cramping, and bloating. Diarrhea occurs in 75% of individuals who receive chemotherapy because of the damage to the rapidly dividing cells in the digestive (gastrointestinal) tract. The amount and duration of diarrhea depends on which drugs are given, the elon application, drug dose, and length of treatment. Some drugs that cause diarrhea are: 5-fluorouracil, methotrexate, docetaxel, and small organic business actinomycin-D.
Other causes of diarrhea or factors that can add to the severity include: 1) having a stomach tumor 2) receiving both radiation and chemotherapy, 3) and being lactose intolerant. Elon Application Essay Prompts. Diarrhea can be serious and become life-threatening if dehydration, malnutrition, and electrolyte imbalances occur. Small Farm. It is and stones, important to small organic farm plan report any diarrhea to your doctor or nurse. Keep a record of the number of times you have diarrhea, the amount, and the appearance and give this information to your doctor. (For information on care measures for diarrhea, refer to elon application Understanding Chemotherapy: A Guide for Patients and Families by the American Cancer Society.) Fatigue is a common side effect of cancer and chemotherapy. It is felt as weariness, weakness, lack of small farm, energy, and Penny Ice Cream decreased ability for physical and mental work. Some individuals report difficulty thinking, forgetfulness, and the inability to concentrate.
Fatigue experienced by a person with cancer is different from the fatigue of everyday life. It is unrelated to activity and is not resolved with rest or sleep. Fatigue can be prolonged and affect the small organic, individual’s quality of life. (For information about care measures for fatigue, refer to Understanding Chemotherapy: A Guide for Patients and Families by Lick the American Cancer Society.) Certain chemotherapy drugs can damage the heart. Small Plan. The most common ones are daunorubicin and stick and stones student doxorubicin (Adriamycin). This occurs in small organic, 10% of the individuals who receive these drugs and usually involves changes to the heart muscles. Individuals may feel puffy, short of breath, dizzy, have erratic heartbeats, a dry cough, or notice swelling of the ankles. Individuals who have had past radiation to stick and stones and other student essay the mid-chest area, existing heart problems, uncontrolled high blood pressure, and those who smoke will be at higher risk for heart damage.
An assessment of a patient’s heart function will be done before chemotherapy is started to small assure that there are no major problems. During the time of the treatments, heart function is hspa, checked to assure that no changes have occurred. Organic Farm. Tests such as an hspa persuasive essay electrocardiogram (ECG) or an small business plan echocardiogram are done to document any changes in heart function. The chemotherapy drug will be stopped to prevent further permanent damage. Individuals should notify their doctor or nurse if they notice changes in their heart rhythm, weight gain, or fluid retention. Nervous System Changes. Some chemotherapy drugs can cause direct or indirect changes in the central nervous system (brain and spinal cord) , the hspa persuasive essay, cranial nerve, or peripheral nerves.
The cranial nerves are connected directly to the brain and are important for movement and touch sensation of the small organic farm business, head, face, and neck. Cranial nerves are also important for special senses of hippie essays, vision, hearing, taste, and smell. Peripheral nerves are nerves that lead to and from the rest of the body and are important in movement, touch sensation, and regulating activities of some internal organs. Side effects that are the result of nerve damage caused by chemotherapy can occur soon after chemotherapy or years later. Changes involving the central nervous system include stiff neck, headache, nausea and vomiting, lethargy, fever, and small organic plan confusion. One of the Penny, most commonly used drugs that causes peripheral nervous system changes is vincristine. It causes damage to organic plan the nerves. Individuals may then experience numbness, or tingling or decreased sensation in their hands or feet.
This may make them feel clumsy and cause difficulty in daily activities such as opening jars or squeezing toothpaste tubes. If the chemotherapy is discrimination, decreased or stopped, the symptoms will usually decrease or disappear. However, there are times when the damage is permanent. Damage to small the cranial nerves may cause visual difficulties (like blurred vision or double vision), increased sensitivity to odors, hearing loss or ringing in the ears, and dry mouth. Other nervous system changes may include depression, lethargy, sleepiness, and seizures. It is possible for some chemotherapy drugs, such as bleomycin, to cause irreversible damage to Ice Cream the lungs. The likelihood of this occurring is increased if the patient receives radiation to the chest in addition to small farm plan chemotherapy. Age seems to be an important factor in the development of lung damage. For example, individuals over 70 years old have three times the risk of developing lung problems from the drug bleomycin. Lung damage may result in symptoms such as shortness of breath, a nonproductive (dry) cough, and possibly fever. If the chemotherapy drug is stopped, the lung tissue can regenerate.
Since early lung changes may not show up on write an inspired creative brief, a chest x-ray, tests such as pulmonary function tests and small organic farm business plan arterial blood gases, may be performed. Damage To Reproductive Tissues. Reproductive and and stones student sexual problems can occur after receiving chemotherapy. These include temporary or permanent sterility (the inability to have children), irregular menses, lack of menstruation, premature menopause, change in libido (desire for sex), and small organic business painful intercourse. Which, if any, reproductive problems develop depends on the age of the individual when treated, the dose and persuasive practice duration of the chemotherapy, and organic farm plan the chemotherapy drug(s) that are given.
Issues of reproduction and sexuality are important because they have implications for patient’s futures. Temporary or permanent sterility may occur due to the effect of and stones and other student, chemotherapy drugs on sperm and ova. Some drugs can cause a decrease in the number of viable sperm in men or the lack of ovulation in women. Freezing sperm prior to chemotherapy is one option for men who wish to later father children later in life. Women over 30 years of age are less likely to small organic farm business regain ovarian function. While it is possible to hippie essays conceive during chemotherapy, the toxicity of small organic farm business plan, some drugs may cause birth defects. Therefore, it is suggested that all men and women take precautions and use some type of and stones essay, birth control if they are sexually active. Chemotherapy may significantly change a woman’s menstrual cycle.
Menstruation may stop or become irregular. These irregularities will continue until the drug is organic, stopped. Painful intercourse may occur for some men and women because some drugs cause a decrease in the moisture of the hippie essays, mucous membranes in the penis and vagina. This is usually temporary. (For care measures, please refer to small plan Understanding Chemotherapy: A Guide for Patients and Families by the American Cancer Society.) The liver is the organ that metabolizes, or breaks down, most of the chemotherapy drugs that enter the hspa, body. Unfortunately, some drugs can cause liver damage. Signs of organic business plan, liver damage include a yellow coloring of to the skin and the whites of the hspa persuasive essay practice, eyes, fatigue, and pain under the lower part of the right ribs or right upper abdomen. Small Organic Farm. Blood tests will be necessary to monitor for possible liver damage. Hspa Persuasive Practice. Factors that may increase the likelihood of liver toxicity include increased age and patients who have had hepatitis. Drugs that can cause liver damage include methotrexate, cytarabine (Ara-C), high-dose cisplatin, high-dose cyclophosphamide (Cytoxan), vincristine, vinblastine, and small doxorubicin (Adriamycin).
Most often the liver damage is temporary and resolves a few weeks after the drug is stopped. Kidney and hippie essays Urinary System Damage. Many of the breakdown products of organic farm plan, chemotherapy drugs are excreted through the kidneys. These drug byproducts can damage the kidneys, ureters, and bladder. Individuals with a previous history of kidney problems will be at a higher risk for kidney damage. Certain chemotherapy drugs such as cisplatin, high-dose methotrexate, ifosfamide, and streptozocin are more likely to cause kidney and urinary damage than other medications. Signs and symptoms may include headache, pain in the lower back, fatigue, weakness, nausea, vomiting, increased blood pressure, increased rate of breathing, change in pattern of urination, change in hippie essays, color of urine, need to urgently urinate, and swelling or puffiness of the body. Blood tests to measure kidney function are done regularly to watch for any changes. Long-term Side Effects of Chemotherapy. For many people with cancer, chemotherapy is the best option for small organic farm plan controlling their disease.
However, these individuals may be faced with long-term side effects related to the chemotherapy treatments. Side effects related to specific chemotherapy drugs can continue after the treatment is completed. These effects can progress and become chronic or new side effects may occur. Long-term side effects depend on the specific drugs received and whether the patient received other treatments such as radiation therapy. As previously mentioned, certain chemotherapy drugs may cause permanent damage to the body’s organs. If the essay, damage is detected during treatment, the drug will be discontinued. However, some of the side effects may remain. Damage to some organs and systems, such as the small business, reproductive system, may not be apparent until after chemotherapy is on sexual orientation discrimination, finished. When young children receive chemotherapy for cancer treatment, it may affect their growth and their ability to learn.
Several factors affect long-term side effects, including the age of the patient, the specific drugs that are given, the dosage and length of treatment, and small organic business if chemotherapy is persuasive essay, used along with other types of treatment such as radiation. Nervous system changes can develop months or years after treatment. Individuals may show signs of fatigue, personality changes, sleepiness, impaired memory, shortened attention span, or seizures. Hearing loss or tinnitus (ringing in the ears) can be long-term side effects of some drugs. Small Organic Business. Long-term side effects of nerve damage can include numbness, tingling, or prickling sensations in the hands and feet. Until the Penny Ice Cream, immune function returns to normal, individuals are at small farm plan, increased risk for bacterial and and stones and other student essay viral infections, such as pneumonia and business plan shingles. Hemorrhagic cystitis (blood in hspa, the urine), a side-effect of cyclophosphamide and farm business plan ifosfamide, can continue for some time after the drug is stopped, and Ice Cream symptoms may become worse.
Development of a second cancer is farm business plan, a great concern for cancer survivors. Secondary cancers can include Hodgkin’s disease and essay prompts non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma, leukemias, and some solid tumors. Follow up care after all treatment is business plan, completed is an ibach essential component of cancer care for all cancer survivors. WHAT QUESTIONS SHOULD I ASK MY DOCTORS AND NURSES ABOUT CHEMOTHERAPY? Specific information about organic plan, chemotherapy for patients and families can also be obtained from your doctors and nurses. The doctor will decide on the appropriate chemotherapy plan based on the medical history, type of cancer, extent of cancer, current state of health, and current research. Questions you may want to ask your doctor or nurses may include: What chemotherapy medications will I be given? How will I take these drugs (by mouth or through a vein)? How frequently will I need to take chemotherapy?
How long will I be receiving chemotherapy treatments? What side effects might I experience? What activities should I do or not do to hspa essay take care of myself? What long-term effects might I expect? How can I contact you after office hours if I have signs or symptoms that you need to small business know about?
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Depth Analysis of the Movie “Crash” Essay Sample. This paper will provide a broad analysis of the movie “Crash”, and yet a specific picture of visual narrative techniques and audio techniques. The categories contributing to organic farm plan, the nucleus and major movie components are theatrical elements, cinematography, editing, and sound. The Academy Award winning movie Crash is a story about hippie essays society’s controversial subjects projected in an “in your face” depiction of lives that in business plan some way or another, cross. Depth Analysis of the Movie “Crash” The over-all theme of the film is racism, which is dealt with honestly, brutally, and without justification. This 2006 release from Emmy award-winning writer/producer.
Paul Haggis is focused around two unsettling car accidents, a disturbing carjacking, vicious unprovoked workplace vandalism, and the suspicious killing of one police officer by another. The R rated, post 911 drama and action movie is staged against the backdrop of a racist Los Angeles justice system and Los Angles Police Department (Haggis, 2005). The storyline begins in medias res with the event of the title, a front to an inspired creative brief by howard, rear crash on Mulholland Drive. The movie then starts over, backtracking 48 hours explaining how everyone arrived at that crash site. According to Jean-Luc Goddard, “A story should have a beginning, middle, and an end…but not necessarily in that order.”
Several life stories intertwine in the following 36 hours involving a collection of seemingly random characters consisting of; a black police detective with a drug rehabbed mother and a thieving younger brother, two car thieves who are constantly theorizing on society and small organic farm, race comparisons, the distracted district attorney and his angry, society wife, a racist veteran cop caring for write brief a sick father at home and his young, idealistic patrol partner, a successful black Hollywood director and his wife who must deal with the racist cop, a Persian-immigrant father who thinks everyone is organic farm plan out to cheat him, and lastly a Hispanic locksmith and stick and stones and other student, his young daughter who is rightfully afraid of bullets. Action shifts between the various characters, whose lives collide with each other in unpredictable ways as each faces his or her own moral dilemma, and tries to cope with the organic consequences of the decisions made or actions taken against elon essay prompts them. Each of the dozen main characters undergoes some type of metamorphosis as the various storylines converge toward a striking, common climax, which succeeds at organic farm plan being both cathartic and unsettling. Theatrical elements play a major role in this film. The film uses a mix of normal imagery to blend and make a remarkable looking appearance. The director uses grain as a visual effect on many pictures in this film. The story begins with a crash, a traffic accident, which turns out to be the hippie essays final collision in the film. Don Cheadle’s character, a police detective, tells his partner that he believes that the narrowness of their lives is what causes fender benders.
He states, “I think we miss that touch so much that we crash into each other just so we can feel something.” This scene makes the viewer examine the small organic business reality of the character, and makes the how to an inspired creative brief by howard viewer question whether there truly are victims and attackers and what can be defined. It also questions our own stereotypes and racism. The film uses scenes that cause instant emotions. For example these emotions of guilt, criminal, bitterness, and heroism are reverent throughout the film. Organic Business. This type of instant emotion is evident in the scene where a white male police officer sexually harasses an African-American woman in hippie essays front of her husband, and in the next scene he risks his own life to save her from a dangerous car accident. There is a scene with a little girl where she does, but does not, get shot. The girl tells her father, “Its okay, Daddy…I’ll protect you”. The theatrical element of this scene is very emotional and represents a pivotal point in the film.
The film “Crash” seems to be about race. But the movie is essentially about our fears of each other. An important part of editing in the film Crash comes from the ensemble cast that seems to understand the material perfectly. The cast is one of the finest and consists of Sandra Bullock, Don Cheadle, Matt Dillon, Jennifer Esposito, William Fichtner, Brendan Fraser, Terrence Howard, Chris “Ludacris” Bridges, Thandie Newton, Ryan Phillippe, Larenz Tate, and Michael Pena. In general, actors act, and small organic, react. They act on Penny Lick Ice Cream, their own, and they react to one another. After Don Cheadle’s monologue in the beginning of the film, it is clear that this film is going to be a deep seated story. Films create movement out of images, time out of movement, and story from the action. The writer/director Paul Haggis has a background in television, and television has multiple stories all interweaving together. His knowledge from television helped in the editing process. In Crash, Paul Haggis had several transitions in the story lines.
He compressed some scenes because if too long, the audience would lose interest in the other stories. The cinematography in the movie adds a tremendous amount of experience to the film. The film follows the lives of several characters that come from different walks of life. It is important for the mood setting of the plot to use different techniques to small farm plan, help the viewer assume the elon role of witness. Small Organic Farm Business Plan. This role is hspa persuasive essay practice essential to the main idea of the film, which is a reflection of us and our natural feelings that at times may be described as racist. Lighting is a very important for organic farm plan any production. In the film there are several different lighting techniques that are used for each situation being portrayed. Low level lighting is used for scenes where the how to brief by howard characters plot their crimes, scenes of sadness and despair. In scenes where crimes are plotted the lighting is low, characters are semi obscured but they are sharp.
In cases of melancholy, sadness and despair the cinematographer uses fading to enhance the atmosphere as well as out-of- zoom parts of the screen to demonstrate the fuzziness of the future (for the character). High-level lighting is used in scenes where people are rich or action occurs. Sharpness, high gloss, contrasting colors, and shiny objects in organic business plan the background are used to demonstrate situations where the characters are wealthy and their surrounding is perfect. When action occurs in the movie there is always good lighting in order to let the viewer absorb all the events. In one scene most characters are set in semi-low lighting and stick, the victim is portrayed as an angel with focused bright lighting and a white dress. In some scenes a bright source of lighting is used to add to the surrealistic telling of the unfolding events. As mentioned above lighting is very important to the mood setting in small organic plan the film. The cinematographer uses different color hues to enhance the experience. Essays On Sexual Orientation Discrimination. The hue of dark green is used when the mother is at small organic farm plan the morgue identifying her son’s body, in and stones and other essay additional to scenes of small organic farm business sadness.
The hue of red is used when there are scenes of warmth. A gray hue is used when events are very rough. In addition to lighting camera setting is hspa essay practice also important to small organic farm business plan, the movie as a whole. In the movie, the and stones essay creators are set on putting a viewer as a participant in the events. The cinematographer used many close-ups to grasp the emotion of the small business plan characters and give the viewer an intimate portrayal he or she would see when witnessing the events. Essays On Sexual Orientation Discrimination. In situations where the witness would be seeing from small farm business a far, the camera is pulled back.
This is evident in scenes where the police are surveying the scene of a crime. In scenes where the police action is on-going, the camera switches perspective often to catch all the different emotions and experiences at play. Although it is hard to essays orientation, maintain a complete, indirect-subjective point-of-view, the cinematographer used this view extensively throughout the film. This is a powerful tool to grasp the viewer and small organic, ensure that he or she is an active witness without any controls over the events. This idea of not having control over the events is one of the main ideas of the movie. The characters are simple people like everybody else and and stones and other, are experiencing events that are not out of the organic farm business ordinary.
This technique empowers the viewer to develop a strong identification bond with the characters on the screen and understanding of their decision-making process. Buster Keaton, Charlie Chaplin, Rudolph Valentino, Stan Laurel, and Oliver Hardy are just some of the legendary names from the silent film era. These actors took their vast talents and abilities and applied them to the cinema at a time when sound was nearly fictional. In the late 1920’s Warner Brothers introduced sound to the world of cinema (Altman, 2006). Since this time, sound has played a progressively more important role in today’s films. By listening to available sound, each generation has learned what makes up high-quality sound. In the introduction of the movie Crash, voice-over narration is hippie essays used adequately giving necessary background and placing the action in a chronological perspective.
As actor Don Cheadle begins the small farm business plan narration of the movie, the music and write ibach pdf, sound is in great unison with the narration. Flashback is organic also used as a sound enhancement in the commencement of the movie, connecting the Lick Ice Cream beginning of the farm movie to the end. In the course of the movie, the assorted sounds of the City of Los Angeles can be vividly heard allowing the persuasive essay audience to become involved and get lost in small organic business the storyline of the film. Musical Director, Mark Isham does an astounding job of finding the right variety of music for such a compelling movie. Isham, son of hspa musical parents, is organic plan one of the top Hollywood film composers of Penny Lick Ice Cream today, with a career spanning two decades and over 50 film and TV credits, (IMDB, 2006). Isham contributes superbly in the sound elements of this film. This is reflected generally in the musical score of the organic farm movie. Throughout the movie the music always correlates with the scenes and conversations taking place. This musical score offers both a structural rhythm and stimulates emotional responses. Because Crash is Penny Ice Cream a drama movie filled with numerous crime and action scenes, frequently silence is used as a powerful element of sound effect.
The plot and organic farm plan, issues of this film involves a diversified cast. The wide range of the elon essay prompts music throughout the film properly represents the diversity of this cast. In the course of the movie, the audience will hear various musical melodies that include rap music, Latin music and music from the Middle East. Small Organic Farm Plan. This musical variation symbolizes the how to write an inspired creative by howard ibach melting pot of today’s society as we collide and crash on a regular basis. By using the various film making techniques such as plot, theatrical elements, cinematography, editing, and organic farm business, sound, the writer and producers of Crash were able to convey a dark-rooted fear of society to on sexual discrimination, the viewer. Racism and discrimination are volatile subjects, not only in the United States, but around the world. Most people try to sidestep these topics; however, Paul Higgis gave the world an “in your face” look at society’s fears. Even though Crash is a film about controversial subjects, it is obvious that society enjoyed this depiction of story-telling due to the fact that the movie picked up over 65 film awards and plan, nominations in 2005.
Academy Awards were won for Best Picture, Best Original Screenplay, and Best Editing. These awards rightfully belong to the film according to persuasive essay, some of the most well know film critics. David Denby of New Yorker states that the film is “Breathtakingly intelligent and brazenly alive, with an small farm business, extraordinary cast. Easily the strongest American film since ‘Mystic River’.” Ken Tucker of essays orientation discrimination New York Magazine says that the film is “thrilling and provocative! A film you won’t stop thinking about after the lights come up.” Great films always leave the audience thinking once the story is over. Finally, Ebert and Roper give Crash “two thumbs way up.” Crash is truly a magnificent piece of artistry. (Lions Gate Entertainment, 2005). Altman, R. (2006).
The Sound of Sound – A Brief History of the Reproduction of Sound in Movie Theaters. Small Organic Plan. Retrieved May 27, 2006 from http://www.geocities.com/Hollywood/Academy/4394/altman.html. Haggis, P. And Other. (Producer) Haggis, P. (Director). Organic Farm. (2005). Crash. USA: Lions Gate. IMDB. (2006). Biography for Mark Isham. Retrieved May 26, 2006 from http://www.imdb.com/name/nm0006142/bio.
Lions Gate Entertainment. (2005). The official website crashfilm.com. MovieWeb, Inc. (2006). Discrimination. Crash. Retrieved May 28, 2006 from http://www.movieweb.com/movies/film/41/2841/summary.php. Is this the perfect essay for you? Save time and order Depth Analysis of the Movie “Crash” essay editing for only $13.9 per page.
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