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Sensory ability in the narwhal tooth organ system. Correspondence to: Martin T. Nweeia, Harvard School of Dental Medicine, Department of Restorative Dentistry and Biomaterial Sciences, 188 Longwood Ave., Boston, MA. Creative Mfa Programs Carolina! E-mail: Martin_nweeia@hsdm.harvard.edu. Delta Dental of Wisconsin, P.O. Box 828, Stevens Point, WI Search for business plan sample more papers by this author. Orthopaedic Research Center, Boston Children's Hospital, 300 Longwood Ave., Boston, MA Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Harvard Medical School, 25 Shattuck Street, Boston, MA Department of Developmental Biology, Harvard School of Dental Medicine, 188 Longwood Ave., Boston, MA Search for more papers by this author. Carlson School of creative writing mfa programs Management, University of Minnesota, 321 19th Ave. S., Minneapolis, MN Search for more papers by this author. Arctic Research Division, Fisheries and Oceans Canada, 501 University Crescent, Winnipeg, MB, Canada Search for more papers by this author. Freshwater Institute, Fisheries and Oceans Canada, 501 University Crescent, Winnipeg, Canada Search for more papers by this author. Freshwater Institute, Fisheries and Oceans Canada, 501 University Crescent, Winnipeg, Canada Search for more papers by this author.
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Animal Care : Animal Protocol, 04384. Creative Carolina! Office of essay about our planet Research Subject Protection, Harvard Medical School. The erupted tusk of the narwhal exhibits sensory ability. The hypothesized sensory pathway begins with ocean water entering through cementum channels to a network of patent dentinal tubules extending from the dentinocementum junction to the inner pulpal wall. Circumpulpal sensory structures then signal pulpal nerves terminating near the creative writing, base of the tusk. The maxillary division of the i write, fifth cranial nerve then transmits this sensory information to the brain. This sensory pathway was first described in published results of patent dentinal tubules, and evidence from dissection of tusk nerve connection via the maxillary division of the fifth cranial nerve to the brain. New evidence presented here indicates that the patent dentinal tubules communicate with open channels through a porous cementum from the ocean environment. The ability of creative writing mfa programs in north carolina pulpal tissue to sars research react to external stimuli is supported by immunohistochemical detection of neuronal markers in the pulp and gene expression of pulpal sensory nerve tissue. Final confirmation of writing in north sensory ability is demonstrated by how do i write format, significant changes in heart rate when alternating solutions of high-salt and creative mfa programs carolina, fresh water are exposed to the external tusk surface.
Additional supporting information for function includes new observations of writing a restaurant plan dentinal tubule networks evident in unerupted tusks, female erupted tusks, and vestigial teeth. New findings of sexual foraging divergence documented by stable isotope and fatty acid results add to the discussion of the functional significance of the narwhal tusk. The combined evidence suggests multiple tusk functions may have driven the tooth organ system's evolutionary development and writing mfa programs carolina, persistence. Anat Rec, 297:599617, 2014. Analyst! 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
The functional significance of the erupted narwhal tusk has been the subject of conjecture and theory since the writings of Albertus Magnus in 1495 (Magnus, 1495). It has been thought to creative carolina serve as an acoustic probe (Best, 1981; Reeves and sars research, Mitchell, 1981), possibly associated with sound transmission (Ford and Fisher, 1978; Best, unpublished B.Sc. Thesis, University of British Columbia, 1972); a thermal regulator (Dow and Hollenberg, 1977); a swimming rudder (Kingsley and Ramsay, 1988); a breathing organ; a spear for hunting or finding food (Vibe, 1950; Harrison and creative, King, 1965; Ellis, 1980; Bruemmer, 1993); an aggressive weapon in interspecific fighting (Brown, 1868; Beddard, 1900; Lowe, 1906; Geist et al., 1960) or self-defense against predators (Buckland, 1882; Gray, 1889: Freuchen, 1935); and on responsibility, a tool used for breaking the ice (Scoresby, 1820; Tomlin, 1967), digging (Freuchen, 1935; Pederson, 1960; Newman, 1971), or resting on ice (Porsild, 1918). Many studies describe the tusk as a secondary sexual characteristic used in aggressive encounters or intraspecific display (Lowe, 1906; Norman and Fraser, 1949; Miller, 1955; Silverman, 1979) associated with tusk fracture and head scarring (Porsild, 1922; Silverman and Dunbar, 1980), and to establish social hierarchy amongst males (Scoresby, 1820; Hartwig, 1874; Mansfield et al., 1975; Silverman and Dunbar, 1980; Gerson and creative writing mfa programs in north carolina, Hickie, 1985). Examining the narwhal tooth organ system through a multidisciplinary approach that combines studies of for teller position anatomy, morphology, histology, neurophysiology, genetics, and diet gives a more comprehensive view of its functional significance and highlights sensory ability as an added functional attribute. Narwhal teeth have unusual anatomical features. Among them are (1) a sinistral spiral morphology (Worm, 1655; Scoresby, 1823); (2) an extreme degree of tooth asymmetry in creative in north, males, with a single left tusk expression and embedded right tusk (Sonnini and Buffon, 1804; Home, 1813); (3) an extreme expression of sexual dimorphism, with the male having an erupted left canine tusk reaching 2.6 m and the female commonly with right and left embedded tusks, often less than 33 cm (Sonnini and Buffon, 1804; Home, 1813); (4) a unique form of tooth asymmetry in a double-tusked expression, since the morphology of the spiral remains sinistral for both left and right antemeres, and the left tusk is often slightly longer than the right (Worm, 1655; Sonnini and Buffon, 1804; Home, 1813); (5) a horizontal direction of eruption in both erupted and unerupted tusk forms (Linné et al., 1792: Egede and essay, Wood, 1818); and (6) perforation of the tooth through the creative writing carolina, upper lip (Hampe, 1737; Brisson, 1756; Crantz, 1767; Donndorff, 1792).
Though narwhal teeth share many anatomical characteristics with other tusked animals including a lack of enamel (Ishiyama, 1987), the presence of cementum, dentin, pulpal tissue and their associated structures (Seltzer and Bender, 2002; Berkovitz et al., 2002), and the presence of the maxillary division of the fifth cranial nerve associated with tooth innervation (Nweeia et al., 2009), they have many distinguishing features. Research Paper! Among them are a cementum layer overlying over the erupted canine (Nweeia et al., 2012) tusk, a patent network of dentinal tubules through the full thickness of creative writing mfa programs dentin (Nweeia et al., 2009; Boyde, 1980; Locke, 2008), and pulpal soft tissues, extending the full length of the how do i write in apa format, tooth, diminishing only in mfa programs, diameter with age (Pederson, 1931; Dow and Hollenberg, 1977; Nweeia et al., 2009). Initial scanning electron micrographs of the erupted male narwhal tusk reveal patent dentinal tubules that extend the full thickness of the dentin and writing a restaurant business plan sample, correspond to creative carolina lumina on the tusk surface. The tubules radiating outward from the dentin-pulpal wall are similar to those of humans and other mammals in diameter, though the competitive intelligence, spacing is three to five times wider. Limited scanning electron microscopy (SEM) has been completed for other odontocetes, but suggests dentinal tubules are well occluded within the erupted portion of the dentinal layer for most odontocetes (Boyde, 1980). Creative Writing! In cases where the dentinal tubules are patent through the full dentinal layer, such as the writing a restaurant business plan sample, sperm whale ( Physeter macrocephalus ) (Boyde, 1980; Locke, 2008), they are covered by an enamel layer (Loch et al., 2012). Creative Writing Mfa Programs In North Carolina! Dentinal tubules have been described for other marine mammals, including the intelligence, rough-toothed dolphin ( Steno bredanensis ) (Miyazaki, 1977), pantropical spotted dolphin ( Stenella attenuata ) (Myrick, 1980), grey seal ( Halichoerus grypus ) (Hewer, 1964), hooded seal ( Cystophora cristata ) (Mohr, 1966) harbor porpoise ( Phoecoena phoecoena ) (Perrin and Myrick, 1980), short-beaked dolphin ( Delphinus delphis ) (Gurevich et al., 1980), bottlenose dolphin ( Tursiops truncatus ), and pilot whale ( Globicephala melaena ) (Boyde, 1980; Locke, 2008), and the walrus ( Odobenus rosmarus ), hippopotamus ( Hippopotamus amphibious ), and killer whale ( Orcinus orca ) (Locke, 2008). Open tubules are associated with sensory ability in mammals (Cuenin et al., 1991; Johnson and Brännström, 1974; Panapoulos et al., 1983), though normally expressed only in pathologic conditions for most other mammals. Studies of writing nerve-associated tissue in intelligence letter, the pulp of odontocete teeth are limited, though helpful in understanding function (Holland, 1994). Sensory innervation of mammalian teeth includes small myelinated A fibers and a majority of unmyelinated C sensory fibers (Seltzer and Bender, 2002).
The A fibers are associated with dentin and creative writing in north, the odontoblastic layer (Kimberly and cover for teller, Byers, 1988; Ikeda et al., 1997), while the C fibers are more uniform, though more densely populated in peripulpal areas and along blood vessels (Wakisaka et al., 1987; Hildebrand et al., 1995). Both A and creative writing in north carolina, C fibers contain the neuropeptide calcitonin gene-related peptide, or CGRP (Silverman and Kruger, 1987; Fristad et al., 1994). In addition, C fibers contain the neuropeptide substance P (Casasco et al., 1990; Wakisaka, 1990). The presence of sensory-associated genes in sars research, the pulp is an indicator for sensory function in mammalian teeth. Though there is writing carolina, a lack of genomic information for the narwhal, techniques are available to measure the gene expression profiles using a universal array platform to de novo sequencing that are informative to identify sensory-associated genes associated with the sars, pulp (Velculescu et al., 1995; Unneberg, 2003; Roth et al., 2004). Other techniques using sequenced genomes of marine mammals similar to the narwhal as well as humans are also useful.
Evolutionary patterns of mammalian tooth anatomy and in north carolina, morphology are driven by essay about earth, diet (Anapol and creative writing mfa programs in north carolina, Lee, 1994; Jernvall et al. 1996; Teaford and Ungar, 2000; Evans et al., 2007; Thewissen et al., 2007; Lucas et al., 2008). Thus, comparing the of students, foraging habits of male and female narwhals can potentially provide useful information about the erupted male tusk. Previous dietary studies comparing male and female narwhals from the in north carolina, Baffin Bay population have found no difference in stomach contents between the sexes (Finley and Gibb, 1982; Laidre and Heide-Jørgensen, 2005); however, smaller sample size of female narwhals has limited these analyses, and stomach contents can be biased since they only provide information on the most recent meal from a specific foraging area. Stable isotope and essay on responsibility, fatty acid analyses provide long-term integrated dietary information to investigate if dietary differences exist between male and female narwhals in writing mfa programs in north carolina, the Baffin Bay population. Both techniques investigate chemical signals in animal tissues which have incorporated isotopic and fatty acid values from their prey over various time frames, depending on the tissue. The nitrogen stable isotope (δ 15 N) provides information on an organism's trophic level, while the competitive intelligence letter, carbon stable isotope (δ 13 C) provides information on the animal's spatial foraging location, benthic versus pelagic or inshore versus offshore (Peterson and Fry, 1987; Crawford et al., 2008; Newsome et al., 2010). Fatty acids are transferred relatively unmodified from creative writing in north carolina prey tissues to i write in apa predator tissues, and thus can also be used to determine and compare diet among groups of creative writing mfa programs in north carolina organisms (Iverson et al., 2004). Both analyses have been successfully used to investigate diet in marine mammals (Iverson et al., 2004; Newsome et al., 2010) including walruses ( Odobenus rosmarus ) (Dehn et al., 2007), bowhead ( Balaena mysticetus ), and gray ( Eschrichtius robustus ) whales, and the narwhal's closest relative, the beluga whale ( Delphinapterus leucas ) (Horstmann-Dehn et al., 2012). When the two analyses are used together and provide complementary results they can verify and confirm dietary interpretations, as was done in determining the primary prey for the beluga whale as arctic cod (Loseto et al., 2008, 2009) and for the bottlenose whale as Gonatus (Hooker et al., 2001).
Brännström's theory of essay our planet earth dental sensitivity is the creative writing, most widely accepted mammalian model to explain this sensory ability and on responsibility of students, function for teeth. Changes to the interstitial fluid flow within dentinal tubules changes the conformation of odontoblastic cells connected to writing mfa programs in north a pulpal nerve plexus which sends signals of sensory perception to competitive analyst cover letter the brain (Brännström, 1966). Creative Writing Mfa Programs In North! This theory explains the known ability of teeth to sense environmental stimuli, and essay our planet earth, supports the evolutionary descriptions of tooth precursors as sensory organs (Lumsden, 1987). Human and other mammalian teeth are known to be capable of sensing external stimuli (Anderson, 1968; Haegerstam, 1976; Byers and creative writing mfa programs in north carolina, Dong, 1983; Byers, 1984; Balam et al., 2005) such as temperature (Yamada et al., 1968; Jyväsjärvi and Kniffki, 1987; Ahn et al., 2012), pressure (Mengel et al., 1992), proprioception (Hassanali, 1997; Catania and Remple, 2002; Ozer et al., 2002), osmotic gradients, galvanic potential (Ramirez and about our planet, Vanegas, 1989; Heyeraas et al., 1994), nocioception (Hu et al., 1978; Lisney, 1983; Narhi et al., 1984; Shigenaga et al., 1986; Byers et al., 1988; Iwata et al., 1998; Kawarada et al., 1999; Andrew and Matthews, 2000), and percussion (Ogawa et al., 2002; Watanabe et al., 2003). Sensory nerve fibers and associated nerve bundles are also found in the pulp of other toothed animals (Pischinger and Stockinger, 1968; Weissengruber et al., 2005). This sensory ability serves many different functions, such as protecting teeth against environmental insults and responding to age-related and pathological conditions (Hildebrand et al., 1995). Because narwhals expose these open tubules during normal function, they are capable of sensing one or more of writing mfa programs these variables. The erupted male narwhal tusk exhibits sensory ability based on how do i write format physiologic response of creative writing mfa programs in north carolina changing heart rate associated with tusk exposure to alternating solutions of fresh and salt water, and the presence of sensory nerve-associated structures. A complete model of i write format tusk sensory function, from stimulus introduction to brain perception, is the primary objective of creative writing mfa programs in north this investigation. In vivo testing of this model to verify physiologic response to an introduced stimulus helps to sars research paper confirm sensory ability.
Demonstration of this model includes: (1) an anatomical description of open channels in a porous cementum layer covering the erupted tusk; (2) further and more complete imaging of a dentinal tubule network in various expressions of the narwhal tooth organ system, including the creative writing mfa programs in north, male erupted tusk, male and female unerupted tusks, and vestigial teeth in both sexes; (3) evidence of sensory-associated cells and plan sample, tissue in the narwhal pulp and circumpulpal dentin; (4) detection of writing in north sensory-associated genes and antigens in the narwhal tusk pulp; (5) published findings of nerve connection at the base of the erupted tusk and sars paper, continued connection to the maxillary division of the fifth cranial nerve to the brain; and (6) new results associating physiologic heart response in response to sensory stimuli of alternating fresh and high-salt water solutions introduced to the tusk. An intact, erupted tusk (“A”) including pulp tissuetaken from a male narwhal in 2003, 48 km from mfa programs in north carolina Pond Inlet, Baffin Island, in the eastern portion of Eclipse Sound, 24 km southwest of intelligence analyst cover letter Cape Graham Moore, Bylot Island [72N 36′ 53.1″, 75W 37′ 56.4]was sawn in the field into 54 consecutive cross-sections measuring 3550 mm in axial length. Overall erupted tusk length was 218.4 cm, with diameter increasing from 14.8 mm at the tip to 57.4 mm at the base (Fig. Writing Carolina! 1A). Segments were fixed in 70% ethanol. Sars Research Paper! Segment A-12 was processed to examine neuronal structures at the pulpal-dentin interface. The midpoint of segment A-12 was located 45.7 cm from the tusk tip, with a 2.78 cm mean outer diameter and 0.87 cm mean pulp diameter. Segment A-12 was secondarily fixed in 10% neutral buffered formalin, decalcified in EDTA, post-fixed in formalin, and paraffin embedded. Ten-micron-thick sections were mounted on SuperFrost slides for immunohistochemistry. (1A, top ): Sections A-12 and A-42 used in SEM dentinal tubule analysis and creative in north carolina, surface imaging of cementum, taken from an sars erupted male narwhal tusk; (1B, bottom ): Pulp sections used in immunohistochemistry analysis. An intact dental pulp was extracted from a narwhal tusk harvested near redundant text Kakiat Point, Arctic Bay, Baffin Island, in carolina, 2003 [72N 40′ 51.2″, 86W 41′ 16.9″].
The pulp was fixed in 70% ethanol for with experience 2 months, then suspended in 10% neutral buffered formalin at 4C under 20 g of tension to maintain extension. Overall dimensions of the heavily vascularized dark red pulp were: length, 142.2 cm; diameters 0.3 cm (tip), 1.5 cm (mid), and 4.8 cm (base/apical tusk). The pulp base was bulbous and calcified. Ten-micron-thick paraffin sections were prepared from creative writing mfa programs in north carolina four separate segments of the pulp (C, 1.7 cm from pulp tip; F, 15.8 cm; I, 51.4 cm; and L, 90.8 cm). Segment L represented the i write format, pulp tissue at mfa programs in north carolina the approximate base of the erupted tusk that would be exposed to seawater (Fig. 1B). A fetus was also collected and head dissected into separate maxilla and mandible sections and stored in RNAlater ® solution (Life Technologies, Carlsbad, CA) and kept in ice until laboratory arrival. Tissue samples were brought under CITES Export Permits CA03FO1000005, CA05F01Q004, X0704-132/06, CA08F01Q0002, CA09F0W10001 and import permits 04US015415/9, 04US082589/9, 06US015415/9, US NMFS permits 932-1489-04 and 764-1703-00, and DFO transport permits A 02089, A 016505, 18469, 17378.
Examination of channels through a porous cementum layer and a dentinal tubule network patent through the full thickness of dentin was completed after sections were prepared. Samples for SEM were sectioned using a water-cooled diamond saw, and polished with a series of abrasives through 4000 grit with silicon carbide abrasive paper using a rotating metallography table. The surfaces were then cleaned to remove surface debris, using a mild HCl acid etch followed by rinsing in dilute sodium hypochlorite. The cleaned sections were then washed and competitive, dried in creative carolina, a vacuum desiccator and gold-sputter coated for our planet earth SEM observation. Samples for cementum examination were prepared by creative mfa programs in north carolina, taking cross-sections of tusk segment A-42 sawn at 0.9-mm thickness with a precision low-speed water-cooled saw. Surface imaging of cementum was performed at 50× objective magnification using a Keyence super resolution digital microscope model VHX-S90BE, equipped with a VH-Z20R/Z20W lens and variable illumination adapter VH-K20. Reagents for immunohistochemistry of neuronal markers included calcitonin gene-related peptide antibody (anti-CGRP, ab81887, abcam), 200kD neurofilament heavy antibody (ab17126, abcam), substance P antibody (#20064, Immunostar), and isolectin IB4-AlexaFluor 488 conjugate (Molecular Probes, Invitrogen). Essay! While specific for the indicated antigens in one or more mammalian species, none of creative writing mfa programs these antibodies had previously been tested in narwhals, thereby precluding inference from competitive intelligence analyst letter negative findings. Writing Mfa Programs In North! Sections were processed by microwave antigen retrieval for 15 min in citrate buffer solution, pH 6.0 (Antigen Unmasking Solution #H-3300 Vector Laboratories, Burlingame, CA).
Antibody localization involved peroxidase coupling and competitive intelligence analyst cover, red color development with 3-amino-9-ethylcarbazole (ABC kit and ImmPACT AEC Peroxidase Substrate kit, #SK-4206, Vector Laboratories). Primary antibodies were diluted 1/50 to 1/1000 for incubation and writing, were omitted for negative control sections; all sections were counterstained with aqueous hematoxylin. Intelligence Analyst! Slides were imaged by light microscopy with a Nikon Eclipse 80i at objective magnifications of 4× to 60× (oil). Since the narwhal has not been sequenced, a query of keywords “tooth” and “nerve” for creative mfa programs in north carolina the Tursiops truncatus genome was performed using the Ensembl database. The genes NGFR, DLX2, TFAP2A, and GLI3were the only ones that resulted from the search. Primers were created for all four using the i write a essay, Roche Universal Primer Design software, though the QRT-PCR assay for GLI3 failed. Another approach to mfa programs carolina identifying additional sensory genes was based on the human genome: FAM134B and WNK1 (formerly HSN2) genes have been shown to be involved in how do i write, hereditary sensory neuropathy type II, which has a pathology for the reduction or loss of the sensory perception of pain, temperature and touch (Kurth, 2010). These genes were cross-referenced to the Tursiops truncatus genome, and to our surprise, based on the Ensembl database search, there was a sequence similarity for these two genes.
The narwhal pulp tissue was stored in DNAgard (Biomatrica, San Diego, CA) and writing mfa programs carolina, the control samples (muscle tissue around the competitive cover letter, blow-hole and gingiva from the inner portion of the mandible) were placed in RNAlater solution following the respective company protocol within 15 min of access to a fetus collected at creative writing in north carolina Kakiat Point, then all samples were stored at −20C until arrival at in apa HC-LITT, where they were stored at −80C. Sections of writing mfa programs carolina these pulp and control samples were obtained from multiple regions and weighed prior to homogenization. The Covaris t-PREP™ and S220 Focused-ultrasonicator (Covaris, Woburn, MA) were used to analyst cover homogenize the creative in north carolina, pulp and control samples. Prior to Adaptive Focused Acoustics™ on how do i write a essay in apa the S220 instrument, 250 μL of Qiagen Buffer RLT (Qiagen, Valencia, CA) was added to the samples. After processing, 750 μL of creative writing in north carolina TRIzol LS was added to extract the RNA from the samples using the standard three-step phenol/chloroform extraction method according to the manufacturer's instructions and prior to on responsibility of students making cDNA. cDNA was synthesized from 1.5 µg of total RNA for each sample using Roche reverse transcriptase. All assays were prepared using standard conditions in a master mix solution without any effort at assay optimization. For each data point, there were three replicates. The sensory and housekeeping genes were designed based on writing mfa programs the Tursiops truncatus and Stenella coeruleoalba genomes, respectively.
The Ensembl database (http://uswest.ensembl.org) was utilized to project transcripts involved in sars, sensory nerve functions by in north, using the closest relative of the narwhal whose genome had been sequenced ( Tursiops truncatus http://uswest.ensembl.org/Tursiops_truncatus/Info/Index [Database version: 71.1]) (Hubbard et al., 2002; Flicek et al., 2012). The gene accession numbers were used in intelligence analyst cover letter, designing the creative mfa programs in north carolina, primers for the housekeeping genes (Spinsanti et al., 2006). The Roche Universal ProbeLibrary probes and target-specific PCR primers were selected using the ProbeFinder Assay Design software (https://qpcr.probefinder.com/organism.jsp, “Other organism” selection) (Rozen and Skaletsky, 2002; Kuo et al., 2006). Please refer to Table 1 for primer sequences. The primers were used to confirm relative changes in mRNA levels by letter for teller position, QRT-PCR using the creative writing in north, Roche 480 LightCycler. Reactions were performed in microliter reaction volumes for writing sample six genes, using 1 μL of cDNA under the following conditions: 95C for 10 min, followed by 45 cycles of 95C for 10 s and 60C for 30 s (Kuo et al., 2006). Expression data for the sensory genes were normalized relative to creative writing mfa programs in north the housekeeping genes (Murphy et al., 2003; Khimani et al., 2005). Raw data were obtained and analyst, analyzed using the creative carolina, SBI software (System BioSciences, Mountain View, CA). Business Sample! The comparative C T method (ΔΔ C t) was chosen to further calculate the relative expressions between the different groups. Carbon (δ 13 C) and nitrogen (δ 15 N) stable isotope analyses were performed on male ( n = 91) and mfa programs carolina, female ( n = 91) narwhal skin samples collected by Inuit hunters in the Canadian High Arctic from 1982 to on responsibility of students 2009. Narwhal skin subsections of approximately 0.5 g were freeze-dried, lipid-extracted, and creative writing mfa programs carolina, analyzed at the University of Windsor for stable isotopes.
Burning of paper fossil fuels emits anthropogenic CO 2 that is writing mfa programs in north carolina, depleted in a essay in apa, 13 C, resulting in increasingly depleted C animal tissue signals over the industrial period: this pattern is known as the Suess effect (Sonnerup et al., 1999). Carbon values were corrected to account for creative writing mfa programs in north this depletion by calculating the atmospheric carbon value ( C atm ) in 1982 (the oldest sample included in paper, the analysis) using δ 13 C atm = −6.429 to 0.0060 exp (0.0217[ t −1740]), where t is the year (Feng, 1998). Atmospheric δ 13 C atm was calculated for creative mfa programs each year samples were collected, and the difference between that value and the 1982 δ 13 C atm was subtracted from the measured δ 13 C to sars paper obtain a corrected carbon value. For the analysis of creative in north carolina fatty acids, blubber samples from female ( n = 56) and male ( n = 56) narwhals harvested near the community of Pond Inlet, Nunavut, Canada were used. Lipids were extracted from narwhal blubber samples for fatty acid analysis using the modified Folch procedure (Folch et al., 1957; Budge et al., 2006) and converted to fatty acid methyl esters (FAME). FAME were analyzed using the Agilent Technologies 7890A GC system. T-tests were used to of students test for differences in δ 13 C and δ 15 N between male and female narwhals.
Fatty acid values were converted to percentages, divided by the mean of the sample, and log-transformed (Kenkel, 2006). A principal component analysis, which included 33 dietary fatty acids (Iverson et al., 2004), was followed by a multivariate ANOVA on writing the first five principal components (cumulatively describing over 70% of the writing a restaurant business sample, data) to creative writing mfa programs carolina determine if males and females differed significantly in their fatty acid values. All statistical analyses were conducted using JMP 7.0.1. Alternating high-salt (41 ppt) and fresh-water solutions were used as stimuli to test the physiologic response of the narwhal tusk to environmental sensory stimuli. Selection of the letter for teller position with experience, stimulus was based on the potential relevance and importance of salt ions to creative the narwhal's ocean environment. A tusk jacket was constructed from a 10.2 cm diameter by 45.0 cm length clear acrylic tube with a 0.64 cm wall thickness, which was cut in half longitudinally and hinged on one seam to facilitate immediate closure at the other seam.
At each end a 5.7 cm wide by 3.8 cm thick piece of open-celled foam was glued to the inner surface of the tube, with an overall diameter of 10.2 cm and an inner open diameter of 2.8 cm, to form a centering gasket around the competitive analyst, tusk at the tube ends. A one-way hose valve was fastened to the center of the mfa programs in north, tusk jacket, and Versilic Formulation SPX-70 I.B. tubing connected the writing a restaurant business, jacket to creative writing mfa programs in north carolina an MSR 6-L Dromedary solution storage bag. Quick-connect valves allowed easy exchange of solution storage bags filled with fresh-water or high-salt solutions. The Midmark Holter IQ electrocardiograph (ECG) with a five-lead montage and on responsibility of students, eight-second data averaging was used for mfa programs carolina the six male narwhal samples tested in intelligence analyst, Tremblay Sound (TS) near the writing mfa programs, base of the Alpha River outside Pond Inlet [72N 21′ 38″, 81W 05′ 59″], two each in years 2010, 2011, and 2012. Heart rate response was selected as a physiologic indicator, since sudden increases in salt ion concentrations would presumably be interpreted by narwhals as a sign that ice entrapment was threatening. Thus, during the introduction of high-salt solutions narwhal heart rate was expected to rise due to paper physiologic response to rapid ice formation; conversely, heart rate was expected to fall during the introduction of fresh water, as this stimulus is associated with the creative carolina, waters of summer inlets where ice is melting and there are fresh-water run-offs. The narwhals were captured from land-based camps using an letter position anchored net set perpendicular to the shore, and after capture brought to creative writing in north shore using standard techniques established for tagging (Dietz et al., 2001, 2008). After the narwhals were stabilized, subdermal electrodes were inserted in a five-lead montage. Electrode leads for ECG data collection were Grass Technologies subdermal Model F-E7 right-angled, 10 mm, 30-gage monopolar needles with 244 cm lead wires. A Restaurant Plan Sample! IQ Manager software with real-time signal collection was used with the Holter IQ. Eight-second interval averages were used in the final analysis.
Solutions of creative writing 41 ppt salt-water were made by sars paper, adding Instant Ocean™ saltwater synthetic salt crystals to inlet brackish sea water (1822 ppt); salt concentration was confirmed using the Omega CDH-287 meter. Fresh-water solutions were gathered from creative carolina nearby glacial run-off streams that were used as drinking water. McCormick red and green food coloring dyes were added (10 drops/gallon) to identify the two different solutions, and to verify the clearing of essay about our planet one solution in the tusk jacket and displacement by the alternating solution. The two dye colors were interchanged between high-salt and carolina, fresh-water solutions to eliminate the possibility of food coloring sensitivity as another variable detected by the tusk, or color dispersion observed by the animal. The ECG was turned on after electrode attachment. Of Students! After a few minutes of heart monitoring, the tusk jacket was attached at mfa programs carolina or near the essay about earth, base of the in north, tusk, and letter for teller experience, alternating solutions of high-salt and fresh water were injected into the tusk jacket. Temperature of these stored solutions was kept at ambient sea water level by creative writing in north, keeping them in Dromedary™ bags submerged in nearby seawater. Time periods for the solution injections were varied between animals to account for research any effect on changes in heart rate response linked to capture time. Heart rate was monitored continuously during the solution exchange and dwell times until all experiments were completed. The Midmark Holter IQ™ instrument allowed real-time heart rate data to be stored and creative writing mfa programs in north, later segmented into 8-s averaging for the sample of six male narwhals.
The data recording was electronically marked at essay of students the beginning of each stimulus period to writing in north carolina provide an business plan accurate association of recorded heart rate to stimulus. The five-lead montage provided a manageable configuration of electrodes for creative mfa programs carolina field use, and very few interruptions in data were experienced due to displacement of the subdermal electrodes. An ideal heart beat wave form was identified to correlate with data recording and analysis (Fig. 2). Animal health and i write in apa, safety is creative writing mfa programs, always the primary concern, and all experiments cease and the animal is released at the first sign of overt stress when indicated by essay on responsibility, the monitoring veterinarian. Fortunately, none of the animals exhibited problems requiring early release, and most experiments, tagging, and specimen collections were completed within 30 min.
Experiments and research were conducted under Canadian Department of Fisheries and creative writing mfa programs in north, Oceans' Animal Care Committee permits FWI-ACC-20082009-007 and FWI-ACC-2008-2009-008 and our planet earth, Animal Use Protocol permits FWI-ACC-2009-024, FWI-ACC-2010-008, FWI-ACC-2011-016, and FWI-ACC-2012-009. Writing In North Carolina! Research protocol was established in the United States under the Harvard Medical Area Standing Committee on Animals, Animal Experimentation Protocol 04384. The Hunters and cover position with, Trappers Organization (HTO) in Pond Inlet, Nunavut voted to approve these research protocols in TS. A generalized least squares split-plot nested analysis was chosen to account for the unbalanced experimental design where there was variation in writing mfa programs, the length of the stimulus periods, and there was a reasonable likelihood that residuals would correlate between stimuli within each individual animal. Statistical analysis on the six animals captured at sars paper TS was done with whales and water treatments as the creative mfa programs in north carolina, primary fixed factors and split-plots nested within whales and water treatments, to our planet determine parameter estimates and creative mfa programs carolina, the significance levels of the fixed factors and essay about our planet earth, factor interactions, fitting the writing, model: µ + W i + T j + (WT) ij k + ε ijkl + γ (ij). This model included both split-plot and random error to account for the unbalanced experimental design where treatment intervals were not equal in length or number.
The model also accounted for the assumption that residuals would be correlated within each individual animal. No attempt was made to identify or exclude outliers in the data, although a few data points appeared to writing a restaurant business plan sample be potential outliers. Tukey Honest Significant Difference (HSD) simultaneous confidence intervals were generated at 95% to evaluate the sizes of the differences among the whales' mean heart rates. A Student's t 95% confidence interval estimate was constructed to creative mfa programs in north evaluate the size of the difference between treatment mean heart rates. Statistical analyses were conducted using JMP Pro 10.0.0. Results confirmed multiple indicators that support the hypothesis of competitive intelligence a sensory pathway in the erupted narwhal tusk. Scanning electron micrographs of patent dentinal tubule networks provide evidence of the pathway for sensory conduction in multiple forms of narwhal tooth expression, including both male and creative carolina, female erupted tusks, unerupted tusks, and writing business, vestigial teeth (Fig. 3). Narwhal electrocardiogram wave components from TS sample Whale 3. P wave = atrial depolarization. PR interval = time interval between onset of atrial depolarization and onset of ventricular depolarization. Creative Writing In North Carolina! QRS complex = depolarization of ventricles, consisting of the about earth, Q, R, and writing mfa programs in north carolina, S waves.
QT interval = time interval between onset of ventricular depolarization and end of competitive ventricular repolarization. RR interval = time interval between 2 QRS complexes. T wave = ventricular repolarization. Creative Mfa Programs Carolina! ST segment plus = ventricular myocardial depolarization. U wave = relaxation of ventricles.
Organized and essay, open channels were observed in tusk cross-sections, providing direct communication between the outer cementum surface of the tusk and the dentin-cementum interface (Fig. Mfa Programs In North Carolina! 4). The average channel diameter is 31 ± 14 (S.D.) μm, and the open areas comprise about essay about our planet, 0.5% of the cementum. This sinusoidal channel network appears to surround bundles of creative in north carolina Sharpey's fibers, and research, represents a possible pathway for sea water conduction through the cementum layer to the underlying dentin. Scanning electron micrographs at 1000× showing dentinal tubule orifices for ( A ) male unerupted tusk and ( B ) female erupted tusk and at mfa programs carolina 500× showing polished dentin sections of ( C ) adult male tusk (inner third polished and sars research paper, etched), ( D ) adult female tusk and ( E ) unerupted tusk. (Orientation of micrographs B-D, pulpal surface to the left and outer surface to the right). Creative Writing Mfa Programs Carolina! Scale bars = 10 microns.
Putative nerve fibers in narwhal pulp and dentin were identified by immunohistochemical detection of research paper neuronal markers. CGRP and substance P are neuropeptides expressed by neurons in dental pulp with important roles in physiology and pathology (Caviedes-Bucheli et al., 2006). CGRP+ fibers were found localized to peripheral pulp (Fig. 5), and while few were surrounded by connective tissue or adjacent to vessels, most were typically within 100 μm of the pulp margin. This outermost pulpal region borders the writing carolina, odontoblast layer. Antibody to 200 kD neurofilament heavy chain, another neuronal marker reported in human dental pulp (Henry et al., 2012), failed to localize to any structures in letter position experience, narwhal pulp (not shown). Organized channels traverse the full thickness of narwhal cementum. Scale bars = 500 microns. Left panel: numerous channels (white arrows) averaging 31 ± 14 µm in diameter are observed throughout the cementum layer in creative in north, this cross-section of tusk specimen A-42 (see Fig. 1). The sinusoidal channel shape results in a segmented appearance in the image plane.
The outer surface of the tusk (black arrow) is 6.3 mm from the of students, cementum-dentin boundary at writing mfa programs in north the right margin of this panel. Right panel: rotated image showing the cementum-dentin boundary where the fluid-filled dentinal tubules are in close proximity to the channels. Sharpey's fibers (S) that anchored the erupting tusk to alveolar bone during development appear as dark, hypomineralized collagen bundles. Substance P was clearly present in the peripheral pulp (Fig. 5). We observed extensive tracts of red substance P+ granules with diameters of 0.52 μm (Fig. 6, panels A, B, D). Substance P+ granules were found in four pulp segments representing the cover position with experience, major linear dimensions of the pulp from tip to base of the erupted tusk (C, 1.7 cm from creative writing mfa programs carolina pulp tip; F, 15.8 cm; I, 51.4 cm; and L, 90.8 cm). Research Paper! In all pulp segments (where cross-sectional dimensions ranged from 0.4 to 15 mm), the creative writing in north, substance P+ neurons were largely restricted to the outermost 200 μm of circumpulpal tissue in closest proximity to the odontoblast cell bodies. Consistent staining of small discrete loci always at the pulp periphery and in the exact same positions through consecutive serial sections help to confirm the accuracy and essay on responsibility of students, precision of the mfa programs carolina, technique. The granule distribution and size is suggestive of how do i write parallel, oriented dendrites or peripheral processes of sensory neurons, which are similar to the boutons en passant (beads on a string) morphology of substance P+ neurons in the CNS (Behan et al., 1993).
The substance P+ granules provide strong evidence of peripheral innervation with potential for nociceptive transmission of excitatory impulses to in north carolina the CNS. Cover Letter With! Other roles could involve substance P-mediated regulation of pulpal blood flow and mfa programs carolina, extravasation and other responses to i write format inflammation. Substance P, a peptide product of the Tachykinin 1/TAC1 gene, acts on its receptor NK1R (Tachykinin receptor 1/TACR1) expressed by creative mfa programs, neurons and business plan sample, endothelial cells. Substance P released from in north carolina pulpal sensory nerves during experimental tooth pain is implicated in essay, nociceptive pain transmission (Avellán et al., 2008) as well as inflammatory responses to pain, including increased pulpal blood flow (Kim, 1990). CGRP immunostaining (red color) of putative nerve fibers (white arrows) in peripheral zone of narwhal pulp adjacent to creative writing circumpulpal dentin. Sars Research Paper! Panel APulp Segment F; panel BSegment L, upper left arrow is margin of writing mfa programs carolina large artery with smooth muscle wall; panel CSegment F; panel DSegment L. Control sections with primary antibody omitted showed no red reaction product. Scale bars = 20 microns. We examined substance P expression in the layers of odontoblasts, predentin, and dentin immediately adjacent to the peripheral pulp tissue. Odontoblasts were not evident at the pulp surface (Figs. 4A and 6B) because they remained attached to the circumpulpal dentin when the intact pulp was forcibly withdrawn from the tusk.
Sections from i write a essay format Segment A-12 of a tusk containing its pulp faithfully preserved this interface (Fig. In North! 6DF). There is research, evidence of writing carolina substance P+ nerve fiber adjacent to odontoblast cell bodies, and further evidence of substance P+ fibers in close proximity to odontoblastic processes in earth, the zone of dentinal tubules (Fig. 6EF). Creative Writing Mfa Programs Carolina! This anatomical association supports the possibility of odontoblast-initiated sensory transmission in on responsibility of students, the narwhal tusk. Substance P immunostaining (red color) of writing carolina putative nerve fibers in narwhal pulp and dentin. Panel A, pulp segment L showing abundant red SP+ granules at cover position with pulp periphery (arrow); panel B, segment I showing linear arrays of SP+ granules near pulp periphery (arrows); panel C, segment C showing small cluster (arrow) of red SP+ granules at pulp periphery; panel D, segment I showing SP+ nerve fiber (arrow) adjacent to large artery with smooth muscle wall (sm); panel E, tusk segment A12 showing SP+ nerve (n) in peripheral pulp adjacent to odontoblast cell bodies (o) and mfa programs carolina, dentin (d) with characteristic dentinal tubules (t); panel F, tusk segment A12 showing linear arrays of SP+ granules (arrows) in odontoblast (o) layer of essay about our planet dentin approximately 200 microns from the peripheral pulp. Scale bars = 100 microns (A, B, D, E) and 10 microns (C, F). Top : Fold-change of writing in north carolina sensory genes when compared to muscle tissue. Bottom: Fold-change of sensory genes when compared to mandibular soft tissue.
All the i write a essay format, genes were normalized using the housekeeping genes (GAPDH, RPL4, RPS18, and writing mfa programs in north carolina, YWHAZ). The gene expression profiles for sample sensory genes were calculated based on writing fold-change. Letter For Teller With! DLX2, FAM134B, NGFR, and writing mfa programs in north, TFAP2A genes were highly expressed in the pulpal tissue when compared to both muscle and mandibular soft tissues (Fig. 7). When compared with pulpal tissue, the plan sample, fold-change ranged from 1.64 (for FAM134B) to 21.03 (for DLX2), and three of the genes that had a fold-change greater than 16.5 when compared to muscle were highly expressed. Since the writing mfa programs carolina, mandibular soft tissue might contain sensory nerves the gene expression profiles were not as significant, and these genes had fold-changes greater than 2.5. The gene expression profile of WNK1 was marginally higher in pulpal tissue compared to muscle tissue, and slightly down-regulated when compared to essay our planet mandibular soft tissue (Hubbard et al., 2002; Kurth, 2010; Flicek et al., 2012). On the other hand, NGF was the only gene that was down-regulated compared with both muscle and mandibular soft tissue; thus, the expression was higher in writing in north carolina, both muscle and mandibular soft tissue than in the pulp. Carbon and nitrogen stable isotope values and dietary fatty acid percentages are both biomarkers that provide an i write indication of diet. Biomarkers were significantly different between male and creative mfa programs in north, female narwhals from the Baffin Bay (High Arctic) population, suggesting the sexes may have different foraging habits.
Carbon and nitrogen stable isotope data were normally distributed, as described by normal quantile plots, and variances were homogenous (Levene's test: Carbon, F 1, 432 = 0.433, P = 0. 51; Nitrogen, F 1, 432 = 0.28, P = 0.60). Male narwhals ( n = 278) had significantly higher δ 13 C ( t -test: t = 4.82, P 0.0001) and on responsibility, δ 15 N ( t -test: t = 3.5, P = 0.0004) values compared to female narwhals ( n = 156). A multivariate ANOVA on the first five fatty acid principal components found there was also a significant difference between male and female narwhals (MANOVA: F 5, 106 = 2.42, P = 0.041, n = 56). Writing In North Carolina! This significant difference between stable isotope and fatty acid values for male and female narwhals supported divergent sexual foraging habits.
A plot of the actual versus predicted heart rates indicated that there may have been a few observations that were outliers, but these observations were not eliminated from the data set of how do i write a essay in apa format six male narwhals from TS (Table 2) since they had little impact on writing mfa programs in north the overall analysis. A summary of fit of the actual and a restaurant business plan sample, predicted heart rates resulted in an R 2 value of 0.87. A test of the fixed effects indicated that the difference among the whales was statistically significant ( P 0.0001) and that the treatment difference (high-salt versus fresh-water exposure) was significant ( P = 0.0008); however, there was no significant two-way interaction between the whales and creative mfa programs in north, treatment ( P = 0.36). A plot of the residuals showed a random pattern around zero, indicating that the assumption of equal variances was likely met. The Tukey HSD set of confidence intervals of the differences (Table 3, bottom) indicated that there was no difference in the estimated mean heart rates between whales 1 and writing, 2, whales 1 and 3, and creative writing, whales 2, 5 and 6 at the 95% confidence level. Essay Of Students! Whale 4 was significantly different from all others. The least squares means differences in writing, Student's t test of the essay, salt and fresh-water treatment conditions (Table 3, top) resulted in creative writing mfa programs, an overall mean estimated heart rate of about our planet earth 60.42 bpm for the 41 ppt salt-water stimulus and an estimated 52.56 bpm for the fresh-water stimulus (Table 4), and these were significantly different ( P = 0.0008). The estimated difference between the two means, with 95% confidence, was 7.86 bpm. The least squares means analysis of the writing in north, whale-treatment interaction had a P -value of our planet 0.36, indicating that all such confidence intervals of mfa programs in north mean differences would overlap. These results demonstrated a significant and repeatable difference in heart rate, with higher heart rate being associated with the 41 ppt salt-water exposure and lower heart rate with the fresh-water exposure (Fig. 8).
This change in heart rate occurred in all six animals, though there were differences in writing sample, the heart rates measured between the writing mfa programs in north carolina, different animals. The magnitude of change for the salt stimulus mean was between 3.7 and 12.0 beats per writing plan sample minute. Mean heart rate measured for each of the writing mfa programs in north, six male narwhals while the tusk is stimulated with either 41 ppt salt water or fresh water. Sensory model of the erupted male narwhal tusk showing, from bottom left, the introduction of water gradients penetrating cementum channels connected to patent dentinal tubules through the full thickness of the dentinal layer, connecting to odontoblastic processes and cells at the base of the essay on responsibility, tubules and at the periphery of the pulp, which stimulate nerve tissue connecting the creative writing mfa programs carolina, base of essay about tusk tissue to the maxillary branch of the fifth cranial nerve to the brain. Also pictured at the bottom right are pulp peripheral nerve-associated substance P and CGRP. Human and other mammalian teeth have sensory function and exhibit a highly adapted ability to sense variables including temperature, ion concentration gradients, physical pressure during loading, and proprioceptive position. It is therefore reasonable to expect that this function of dentition is also found in the narwhal.
Anatomic form and physiologic field results are consistent with Brännström's hydrodynamic theory of teeth, the most widely accepted theory of sensory and pain perception associated with exposed dentinal tubules (Brännström, 1966, 1967). Creative Writing Mfa Programs! The theory hypothesizes that interstitial fluid within these tubules can be influenced by cover letter with experience, variables of temperature, pressure, hydration status, and electrochemical and in north carolina, osmotic gradients. Solutions introduced at the tusk surface have the effect of penetrating a porous cementum outer layer through a series of open and about our planet, organized channels that create fluid flow within the dentinal tubules, outward during the exposure to high-salt solutions and inward after exposure to fresh water. Mechanical effects on odontoblastic processes within these tubules, and close associations of odontoblasts with nerve endings in the outer layer of creative writing in north carolina pulpal tissue (Fig. On Responsibility Of Students! 9), are involved in the initiation of sensory perception.
Direct exposure to creative mfa programs carolina the environment of the patent dentinal tubule network in narwhals is how do i write a essay format, unusual. Creative Mfa Programs In North Carolina! In contrast, the beluga ( Delphinapterus leucas )the closest relative to the narwhalexhibits the more characteristic occluded dentinal tubules within the dentin layer, preventing any fluid conduction from the enamel-covered tooth surface to the ocean environment (Sergeant, 1959 and 1973). Primer sequences used in QRT-PCR experiments lists the Roche Universal Probe number and corresponding forward, reverse and amplicon sequences for sars research paper the Universal Probe Library reactions. Writing Mfa Programs In North! The sensory and about our planet earth, housekeeping genes were designed using the Tursiops truncatus and creative writing mfa programs carolina, Stenella coeruleoalba genomes, respectively. Tubules are present in all mammalian dentin and serve to supply the physiologic fluids that maintain the integrity of collagen that forms the with experience, collagen fibril network within dentin (Pashley, 1996; Kinney et al., 2003). Creative Mfa Programs In North Carolina! It is well known that in human root-canal-treated teeth, where the pulpal tissue has been removed and thus the internal supply of physiologic fluid, the dentin becomes more brittle and loses elasticity over time (Jameson et al., 1993; Papa et al., 1994). This same physiologic function of maintaining collagen toughness within narwhal dentin would be even more critical at the high bending stresses experienced within a tusk. Tensile stresses are greatest near the i write a essay format, base and on the surface of a cantilevered beam, such as a narwhal tusk. Tissues with very high fracture toughness, such as the highly fibrous and collagenous dentin of the tusk, are best designed to creative in north respond to essay about our planet these stresses without fracturing. This tubular tusk structure of toughened dentin is creative writing mfa programs carolina, a wonderful example of evolutionary engineering, where environmental demands have resulted in letter experience, optimized organ design.
This explains the high density of tubules observed and the fact that narwhal tusks maintain a pulpal vascular network for creative writing carolina nearly their entire length. The unique feature of narwhal tusk dentin, however, is the frequent and normal communication of these tubules with the essay, exposed surface of the tusk. In other mammalian teeth, surface layers of creative mfa programs carolina enamel or cementum occlude tubules, and occluded tubules frequently occur within the dentin layer, so that exposure of a restaurant business plan tubules only occurs as a result of damage or pathology. Creative Writing Mfa Programs! The narwhal tusk has no surface enamel layer (Ishiyama, 1987), and the cementum observed on the surface is highly porous with a network of our planet earth open and organized channels surrounding abundant Sharpey's fiber bundles of hypomineralized collagen, thus providing the writing mfa programs carolina, patent communication needed to sense surface stimuli. Dissection and competitive intelligence cover letter, imaging of male and female narwhal heads reveal connection of the maxillary division of the fifth cranial nerve from the brain to the tusk. This connection is supported by intracranial dissections, tusk alveolar examination, and visible pathways of nerve conduction observed by dissection and radiographic imaging (Tyler, 2006; Nweeia et al., 2009). Narwhal pulp has been reported to creative writing mfa programs in north have features similar to other mammals (Dow and Hollenberg, 1977).
Nerve-associated tissue discovered in narwhal pulpal tissue (Figs. 4 and 5) also provides evidence that the Brännström hydrodynamic theory of sensory function could apply to the narwhal tusk. Transmission of dental sensory or nociceptive (pain) signals to the CNS involves Aδ and writing business plan sample, C-type fibers. Rapid, sharp pain is associated with Aδ fibers, while dull, radiating pain typically involves C-type fibers, depending on the type of stimulus. The Aδ fibers account for writing mfa programs the sensitivity of about dentin, whereas C-type fibers are activated only creative if external stimuli reach the pulp proper (Narhi et al., 1992).
Hydrodynamic sensory perception in the narwhal tusk is supported by our findings of extensive innervation and expression of substance P, a known nociceptive neurotransmitter, in the peripheral region of the pulp. The close apposition of on responsibility odontoblasts and substance P+ fibers is consistent with odontoblast-dependent sensory transmission initiated by fluid flow in dentinal tubules. Recent reports of mechano-sensitive ion channels such as TRPV14 and TREK-1 in writing mfa programs in north carolina, odontoblast membranes, and PC1 and PC2 associated with the odontoblast primary cilia (Magloire et al., 2009, 2010), provide possible additional mechanisms for sars paper odontoblast-mediated sensory transmission. Significant presence and writing mfa programs in north, detection of a set of sensory-related genes in the pulp (including DLX2, FAM134B, NGFR, TFAP2A, and NGF), either highly expressed or less expressed relative to competitive intelligence cover letter control samples of muscle and mfa programs, mandibular soft tissue, suggest a genetic basis for sensory function. The results of cover letter for teller experience stable isotope and creative writing mfa programs in north carolina, fatty acid analyses suggest sexual foraging differences that may relate to additional functional attributes of the tusk. Stable isotope values in large mammal tissues can reflect the previous year's diet (Sponheimer et al., 2006), whereas fatty acids in competitive cover, blubber have turnover rates on the order of creative writing mfa programs in north 1.53 months (Nordstrom et al., 2008). The majority of our samples were collected in July and analyst letter, August.
Thus, fatty acid signatures would reflect dietary habits during the late spring to mfa programs in north early summer period, which may be after the breeding season in either mid-April (Best and essay about our planet earth, Fisher, 1974) or May-June (Heide-Jørgensen and Garde, 2011). Writing Mfa Programs In North! Fatty acid values varied between males and intelligence analyst letter, females, although much less strongly than stable isotopes, which may suggest males and females are foraging more similarly during the mating season or that both sexes limit feeding at this time. While more evidence is certainly needed, there remains the possibility that tusk sensory function could play a role in locating food sources. Physiologic data from six live-captured male narwhals suggest statistically significant sensory perception to high-salt and fresh-water solutions (Fig. Writing Mfa Programs In North Carolina! 7). It is interesting to note that Whale 1 presented with one-third of its tusk broken off. Results indicate this tusk damage compromised the ability to distinguish between high-salt and freshwater solutions. Whale 2 also presented with a broken tusk, but only a minor 23 cm loss of length, and thus sensation of salinity was only a restaurant plan sample slightly compromised when compared to Whales 36. An established sensory pathway has thus been discovered from the external ocean environment through porous cementum, penetrating patent tubules conducting fluid shifts to sensory cells in creative writing in north, the pulp, and transfer to letter experience the maxillary division of the fifth cranial nerve which connects to the base of the brain.
This anatomic model (Fig. 9), combined with field experiments showing sensitivity to high salinity gradients and creative mfa programs carolina, associated increases in physiological heart rate response, show that the how do a essay in apa format, narwhal tusk organ has sensory ability. This is an organ with the writing in north carolina, ability to sense characteristics of its external environment. More common associations of tooth sensitivity to their environment are linked to protection. Teeth sense stimuli that signal a threat to their function or integrity and the animal responds in a normal “fight or flight” reaction to avoid or neutralize the stimulus. Such stimuli are often episodic, appearing when the threat is present and not as a normal part of the tooth's environment. The narwhal is the only example documented where teeth are shown to competitive intelligence cover letter have the ability to constantly sense environmental stimuli that would not necessarily be considered a threat.
Unusual tusk microanatomy provides a unique means of assessing the mfa programs, whale's environment by what appears to be their normal and commonly employed mechanism. The dentinal tubule network in the embedded (unerupted) tusk antemere opens the possibility that it may serve as a “reference tusk,” bathed in physiological fluid and how do a essay format, used as a set point for sensing “high” versus “low” salinity by creative, the erupted “sensory tusk.” Tested sensitivities to high-salt and fresh-water solutions suggest that these dentinal tubules may also sense changes in temperature, pressure, hydration status, and/or electrochemical and osmotic gradients. Further examination may likely reveal other variables that can be sensed and interpreted, according to Brännström's hydrodynamic theory, by this extraordinary tooth organ system. Future experiments that test additional stimuli would provide a better understanding of the our planet, broader capability of this sensory organ system. Creative Writing Mfa Programs Carolina! The current evidence suggests that the tusk may have a multitude of specific and essay of students, perhaps interacting functions. Its microanatomy and sensory ability compellingly point to function as a sensory organ system.
Although erupted tusks may present in both sexes, they are mostly found in males and thus are more likely associated with sexual selection. The microanatomy of the female tusk reveals a similar dentinal tubule network. Creative In North! However, their gross morphology of a more dense proportion of research paper hard tissue with a very limited pulpal canal suggests that they may not have the same sensory ability. Other gross morphological differences in erupted female tusks, which are present in approximately 15% of the population (Roberge and Dunn, 1990), have also been documented (Clark, 1871; Pederson, 1931). Creative Carolina! No field experiments were conducted on females with tusks, as none were part of the how do a essay format, sample caught during this investigation. The use of creative writing mfa programs in north teeth in intrasexual selection or “male-to-male rivalry” and competition amongst odontocetes has been documented in the literature, and may have relevance to narwhal tusk function.
New evidence of sensory ability suggests that intersexual selection or “mate choice” should be considered as a mechanism for a restaurant sexual selection. Several hypotheses can be suggested for “mate choice” based on in north carolina the sensory ability of the erupted male tusk. The first is that the tusk might detect waters where females in estrus may be gathered or attracted. A second is that the tusk could also detect waters where females are foraging, as observed from fatty acid and stable isotope results. As an expression of intelligence analyst cover fitness, a third hypothesis is that some males may be better able to find sources of foods needed for newborn calves. Creative Writing In North! The results of in apa stable isotope and fatty acid analyses suggest sexual foraging differences that may relate to creative in north additional functional attributes of the tusk. Tusk sensory ability as a retained function from an evolutionary precursor is letter for teller experience, a fourth hypothesis; a fifth is that the tusk is a currently evolving sensory organ. Creative Writing In North Carolina! Differences in tooth position and morphology suggest other functions such as species recognition, as they do in other odontocetes (MacLeod, 2000). Since behaviors linked to mating are difficult to collect throughout the year, and writing business, a significant time period from late October to March can be forbidding due to weather and ocean conditions including moving pack ice within Baffin Bay in the early spring (Mansfield et al., 1975), observations of narwhal behavior will continue to be difficult to gather.
Such observations may be essential, however, for writing mfa programs a more complete understanding of the significance of tusk sensory function. Thanks are extended to the National Science Foundation Offices of Polar Programs and Integrative and Organismal Systems, elders and hunters from the High Arctic communities of how do i write in apa format Nunavut, Canada and northwestern Greenland, and the Arctic field teams and The National Geographic Society. calcitonin gene-related peptide. fatty acid methyl esters. honest significant difference. hunters and trappers organization. scanning electron microscopy. Copyright 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. narwhal; tusk; Monodon monoceros ; tusk functional significance; Brännström hydrodynamic theory; tooth gene expression; pulp tissue; tusk histology. Issue online: 18 March 2014 Version of record online: 18 March 2014 Manuscript Accepted: 15 January 2014 Manuscript Received: 8 November 2013. Ahn DK , Doutova EA , McNaughton K , Light AR , Narhi M , Maixner W . 2012 . Functional properties of tooth pulp neurons responding to thermal stimulation . J Dent Res 91 : 401 406 . CrossRef | CAS | Web of Science® Times Cited: 2 Anapol F , S. Lee . Creative Writing Carolina! 1994 . Morphological adaptation to diet in platyrrhine primates . Am J Phys Anthropol 94 : 239 261 . Wiley Online Library | PubMed | CAS | Web of Science® Times Cited: 62 Anderson DJ . 1968 . Studies on competitive intelligence sensory mechanisms in teeth . Ann R Coll Surg Engl 43 : 331 340 . PubMed | CAS Andrew D , Matthews B . 2000 . Mfa Programs In North Carolina! Displacement of the contents of research paper dentinal tubules and sensory transduction in writing mfa programs carolina, intradental nerves of the cat . J Physiol 529 ( Pt 3 ): 791 802 . Essay! Wiley Online Library | CAS | Web of Science® Times Cited: 33 Avellán NL , Sorsa T , Tervahartiala T , Forster C , Kemppainen P . Writing In North! 2008 . Experimental tooth pain elevates substance P and matrix metalloproteinase-8 levels in on responsibility, human gingival crevice fluid . Acta Odontol Scad 66 : 18 22 . CrossRef | PubMed | CAS | Web of Science® Times Cited: 4 Balam TA , Yamashiro T , Zheng L , Murshid Ahmed S , Fujiyoshi Y , Takano-Yamamoto T . 2005 . Writing Mfa Programs Carolina! Experimental tooth movement upregulates preproenkephalin mRNA in the rat trigeminal nucleus caudalis and oralis . Brain Res 1036 : 196 201 . CrossRef | PubMed | CAS | Web of Science® Times Cited: 8 Beddard FE . 1900 . A book of research whales . New York : Putnam and Sons.
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From the William Norton Bullard Collection. Mansfield AW , Smith TG , Beck B . 1975 . The Narwhal (Monodon monoceros ) in essay our planet, Eastern Canadian Waters . J Fish Res Board Can 32 : 1041 1046 . CrossRef Mengel MK , Jyväsjärvi E , Kniffki KD . Writing In North! 1992 . Identification and sars research, characterization of afferent periodontal C fibres in the cat . Pain 48 : 413 420 . Mfa Programs In North! CrossRef | PubMed | CAS | Web of Science® Times Cited: 13 Miller RS . 1955 . A survey of the sars research paper, mammals of creative writing mfa programs carolina Bylot Island, Northwest Territories . How Do I Write In Apa Format! Arctic 8 : 167 176 . Creative Writing Mfa Programs Carolina! CrossRef Miyazaki N . 1980 . Preliminary note on age determination and growth of the rough-toothed dolphin, Steno bredanensis , off the Pacific Coast of essay Japan. Report of the International Whaling Commission (Special Issue 3), Cambridge, p. 171 179 . Mohr E . 1966 . Bemerkungën über Cystophora cristata und über Walross Luftsäcke . Zool Gart (Leipsig) 32 : 28 35 . Writing Mfa Programs Carolina! Murphy RM , Watt KK , Cameron-Smith D , et al. In Apa! 2003 . Effects of creatine supplementation on housekeeping genes in human skeletal muscle using real-time RT-PCR . Writing Mfa Programs In North Carolina! Physiol Genom 12 : 163 174 . Our Planet! CrossRef | PubMed | CAS | Web of Science® Times Cited: 61 Myrick AC Jr . 1980 . Examination of creative writing mfa programs carolina layered tissues of odontocetes for sars research paper age determination using polarized light microscopy. Report of the International Whaling Commission (Special Issue 3), Cambridge, p.105 112 . Narhi M , Hirvonen T , Huopaniemi T . 1984 . The function of carolina intradental nerves in relation to the sensations induced by dental stimulation. Acupuncture and Electrotherapeutics Research , Oxford (Elmsford, NY ); Pergamon Press, 9 : 107 113 . Web of Science® Times Cited: 2 Narhi M , Jyväsjärvi E , Virtanen A , Huopaniemi T , Ngassapa D , Hirvonen T . 1992 . Research! Role of intradental A-and C-type nerve fibers in writing carolina, dental pain mechanisms . Proc Fin Dent Soc 88 ( Suppl 1 ): 507 516 . Newman MA . 1971 . Capturing Narwhals for cover letter for teller with the Vancouver Public Aquarium, 1970 . Polar Rec 15 : 922 923 . CrossRef Newsome SD , Clementz MT , Koch PL . Creative Writing In North Carolina! 2010 . Using stable isotope biogeochemistry to essay of students study marine mammal ecology . Marine Mammal Sci 26 : 509 572 . CAS | Web of Science® Times Cited: 118 Nordstrom CA , Wilson LJ , Iverson SJ , Tollit DJ . 2008 . Creative In North! Evaluating quantitative fatty acid signature analysis (QFASA) using harbour seals Phoca vitulina richardi in captive feeding studies . Marine Ecol Prog Ser 360 : 245 . CrossRef | Web of Science® Times Cited: 31 Norman JR , Fraser FC . 1949 . Field book of giant fishes, whales and dolphins . New York : G. P. Putnam's Sons. Nweeia MT , Eichmiller FC , Nutarak C , Eidelman N , Giuseppetti et al. I Write A Essay In Apa Format! 2009 . Considerations of Anatomy, Morphology, Evolution and Function for creative writing mfa programs Dentition in Narwhal Anatomy. In Smithsonian at the Poles . Research! In: Krupnik I , Lang MA , Miller SE , editors.
Washington, D.C .: Smithsonian Institution Scholarly Press. p. 227 228 , 233234, 238. Nweeia MT , Eichmiller FC , Nutarak C , Eidelman N , Giuseppetti AA , Quinn J , Mead JG , K'issuk K , Hauschka PV , Tyler EM , et al. 2012 . Creative Mfa Programs! Vestigial tooth anatomy and tusk nomenclature for Monodon monoceros . Anat Rec 295 : 1006 1016 . Wiley Online Library | Web of Science® Times Cited: 5 Ogawa T , Ishii N , Toda K , Soma K . 2002 . Changes in response properties of sars research periodontal mechanoreceptors during tooth movement in rats . J Med Dent Sci 49 : 95 101 . PubMed Panopoulos P , Gazelius B , Olgart L . 1983 . Responses of feline intradental sensory nerves to hyperosmotic stimulation of creative writing mfa programs carolina dentin . Acta Odontol Scand 41 : 369 375 . CrossRef | PubMed | CAS | Web of Science® Times Cited: 20 Papa J , Cain C , Messer HH . Writing A Restaurant Business Plan! 1994 . Creative In North! Moisture content of writing a restaurant business plan sample vital vs . endodontically treated teeth. Writing Mfa Programs Carolina! Dent Traumatol 10 : 91 93 . Wiley Online Library | PubMed | CAS | Web of Science® Times Cited: 80 Pashley DH . 1996 . Dynamics of the writing business sample, pulpo-dentin complex . Crit Rev Oral Biol Med 7 : 104 133 . CrossRef | PubMed | CAS | Web of writing Science® Times Cited: 181 Pederson A . 1931 . Mammals and birds along the east coast of Greenland. Medd.
Gronland 77:343506 (original in German). Fish Res Bd Can Transl Ser 1206: 412 417 . Perrin WF , Myrick AC, Jr. , Editors. 1980 . Age Determination of toothed whales and sars paper, sirenians. International Whaling Commission, Report of the Workshop, p. 34 35 . Peterson BJ , Fry B . Creative Writing! 1987 . Stable isotopes in ecosystem studies . Ann Rev Ecol Syst 18 : 293 320 . How Do I Write In Apa Format! CrossRef | Web of Science® Times Cited: 2560 Pischinger A , Stockinger L . 1968 . Die Nerven der menschlichen Zahnpulpa . Zeitschrift für Zellforschung und Mikroskopische Anatomie. Mfa Programs In North! 89 : 44 61 . CrossRef | PubMed | CAS | Web of Science® Times Cited: 16 Porsild MP . 1918 . On “Savssats”: a crowding of arctic animals at our planet holes in creative carolina, the sea ice . The Geographical Review, Vol. VI, No. 3 (September) . Writing Sample! Porsild MP . 1922 . Scattered observations on the narwhal . J Mammal 3 : No. 1 , p 8 . CrossRef Ramirez F , Vanegas H . Mfa Programs In North Carolina! 1989 . Tooth pulp stimulation advances both medullary off-cell pause and tail flick . Neurosci Lett 100 : 1 3 , 153156.
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Quintessence Publishing Co., Inc., Illinois. Essay Of Students! Sergeant DE . 1959 . Age determination in odontocete whales from dentinal growth layers . Creative Writing Mfa Programs In North Carolina! Norsk Hvalfangst Tid. On Responsibility Of Students! 6 : 275 277 . Sergeant DE . 1973 . Biology of white whales (Delphinapterus leucas) in Western Hudson Bay . J Fish Res Board Can 30 : 1070 1071 . CrossRef Silverman HB . 1979 . Social organization and behavior of the narwhal, Monodon monoceros L . in Lancaster Sound, Pond Inlet, and in north carolina, Tremblay Sound, Northwest Territories. Essay About Our Planet Earth! M.Sc. thesis, McGill University, Montreal. Silverman HB and Dunbar MJ . 1980 . In North Carolina! Aggressive tusk use by the Narwhal ( Monodon monoceros L.) . Cover With Experience! Nature 284 : 57 . CrossRef | Web of Science® Times Cited: 43 | ADS Silverman J , Kruger L . 1987 . An interpretation of creative writing carolina dental innervation based on the pattern of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP)-immunoreactive thin sensory axons . Somatosensory Motor Res 5 : 157 175 . CrossRef | PubMed | CAS | Web of writing a restaurant plan sample Science® Times Cited: 143 Sonnini DMCNS , Buffon L . Creative Mfa Programs Carolina! 1804 . Histoire naturelle générale et particulière des cétacés.
Paris. (Note: pages 227253 are section of interest). Sars Research! Spinsanti G , Panti C , Lazzeri E , Marsili L , Casini S , Frati F , Fossi CM . 2006 . Selection of reference genes for quantitative RT-PCR studies in striped dolphin ( Stenella coeruleoalba ) skin biopsies . BMC Mol Biol 7 : 32 . CrossRef | PubMed | CAS | Web of Science® Times Cited: 51 Sponheimer M , Passey BH , de Ruiter DJ , Guatelli-Steinberg D , Cerling TE , Lee-Thorp JA . 2006 . Turnover of stable carbon isotopes in writing mfa programs carolina, the muscle, liver, and breath CO 2 of alpacas ( Lama pacos ) . Rapid Commun Mass Spect 20 : 1395 . Wiley Online Library | PubMed | CAS | Web of Science® Times Cited: 47 Teaford MF , Ungar PS . 2000 . Diet and the evolution of the earliest human ancestors . Proc Natl Acad Sci 97 : 13506 13511 . CrossRef | PubMed | CAS | Web of Science® Times Cited: 149 | ADS Thewissen JGM , Cooper LN , Clementz MT , Bajpai S , Tiwari BN . 2007 . Sars! Whales originated from mfa programs in north aquatic artiodactyls in the Eocene epoch of India . Nature 450 : 1190 1195 . CrossRef | PubMed | CAS | Web of Science® Times Cited: 86 | ADS Tomlin AG . 1967 . Sars! Mammals of the U.S.S.R. Volume 9. Creative Writing In North! Cetacea. Jerusalem: Israel Program for Scientific Translation. Tyler EM . 2006 . Visualization of the dental anatomy of the narwhal Monodon monoceros . A thesis submitted to about our planet the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine . p 36 . Unneberg P . Creative Carolina! 2003 . A Restaurant Plan Sample! Transcript identification by analysis of short sequence tags influence of tag length, restriction site and creative carolina, transcript database . Essay! Nucleic Acid Res 31 : 2217 2226 . Creative Mfa Programs In North Carolina! CrossRef | PubMed | CAS | Web of Science® Times Cited: 11 Velculescu VE , Zhang L , Vogelstein B , Kinzler KW . 1995 . Serial analysis of gene expression. Science ( New York, NY ) 270 : 484 487 . Web of cover letter for teller position experience Science® Times Cited: 2877 Vibe C . Carolina! 1950 . The marine mammals and marine fauna in the Thule District (N.W. Greenland) with observations on ice conditions in 1939, 1940, and 1941 . A Essay In Apa Format! Meddelelser om Grønland , 150 : 117 . Wakisaka S , Ichikawa H , Hishikawa S , Matsuo S , Takano Y , Akai M . 1987 . The distribution and origin of caltionin gene-related peptide containing nerve fibers in writing mfa programs carolina, the feline dental pulp . Histochemistry 86 : 585 589 . Business! CrossRef | PubMed | CAS | Web of Science® Times Cited: 73 Wakisaka S . 1990 . Neuropeptides in the dental pulp: distribution, origins and correlation . J Endod 16 : 67 69 . Creative Carolina! CrossRef | PubMed | CAS | Web of Science® Times Cited: 37 Watanabe M , Tanaka E , Suemune S , Satoda T , Maeda N , Uchida T , Tanne K . Research! 2003 . Expression of c-Fos protein in the trigeminal nuclear complex resulting from quantified force application to creative writing carolina the rat molar . J Oral Rehab 30 : 1128 1137 . Wiley Online Library | PubMed | CAS | Web of Science® Times Cited: 11 Weissengruber GE , Egerbacher M , Forstenpointner G . 2005 . Structure and innervation of the sars, tusk pulp in the African elephant . Writing Mfa Programs In North Carolina! J Anat 206 : 387 393 . Wiley Online Library | PubMed | CAS | Web of cover position with experience Science® Times Cited: 4 Worm O . 1655 . Museum Wormianum. Seu, Historia rerum rariorum, tam naturalium, quam artificialium, tam domesticarum, quam exoticarum, quae Hafniae Danorum in aedibus authoris servantur. Creative Writing In North Carolina! Adornata ab Olao Worm. A Restaurant Plan! Lugduni Batavorum, Apud Johannem elsevirium, Acad.
Typograph. Yamada M , Suzuta K , Higuchi H . Creative Mfa Programs! 1968 . Sensitivity of the tooth to about earth thermal stimulation . Japan J Physiol 18 : 310 325 . CrossRef | PubMed | CAS | Web of Science® Times Cited: 9. Articles related to writing in north the one you are viewing. 1 Robert W. Boessenecker , Danielle Fraser , Morgan Churchill , Jonathan H. Essay! Geisler , A toothless dwarf dolphin (Odontoceti: Xenorophidae) points to explosive feeding diversification of modern whales (Neoceti), Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences , 2017 , 284 , 1861, 20170531 CrossRef 2 E.K. Sawyer , D.K.
Sarko , Evolution of Nervous Systems, 2017 , 437 CrossRef 3 W. David Lambert , Eurybelodon shoshanii, an unusual new shovel-tusked gomphothere (Mammalia, Proboscidea) from the late Miocene of Oregon, Journal of creative mfa programs in north Vertebrate Paleontology , 2016 , 36 , 3, e1091352 CrossRef 4 Ecology of North America, 2015 , 259 CrossRef 5 Annalisa Berta , James L. Sumich , Kit M. Kovacs , Marine Mammals, 2015 , 397 CrossRef 6 Kathryn Grandfield , Netta Lev-Tov Chattah , Sabra Djomehri , Naomi Eidelmann , Frederick C Eichmiller , Samuel Webb , P James Schuck , Martin Nweeia , Sunita P Ho , The narwhal (Monodon monoceros) cementumdentin junction: A functionally graded biointerphase, Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part H: Journal of Engineering in Medicine , 2014 , 228 , 8, 754 CrossRef. Copyright 1999 - 2017 John Wiley Sons, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
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Transcript: President Obama's Convention Speech. Transcript of President Obama's acceptance speech at creative in north, the Democratic National Convention, as delivered. Source: Federal News Service: President Obama gives his acceptance speech at the Democratic National Convention in Charlotte, N.C., on about our planet, Thursday. Alex Wong/Getty Images hide caption. President Obama gives his acceptance speech at the Democratic National Convention in Charlotte, N.C., on creative mfa programs in north, Thursday. Alex Wong/Getty Images. PRESIDENT OBAMA: Thank you. (Sustained cheers, applause.) Thank you. Thank you. Thank you so much.
AUDIENCE MEMBERS: Four more years! Four more years! Four more years! AUDIENCE MEMBERS: Four more years! Four more years! Four more years! PRESIDENT OBAMA: Thank you so much. Thank you.
Thank you very much, everybody. (Cheers, applause.) Thank you. Michelle, I love you so much. (Cheers, applause.) A few nights ago, everybody was reminded just what a lucky man I am. (Cheers, applause.) Malia and Sasha, we are so proud of letter you. (Cheers, applause.) And yes, you do have to go to school in the morning. Writing! (Chuckles.) (Laughter, applause.) And Joe Biden, thank you for being the very best vice president I could have ever hoped for — (cheers, applause) — and being a strong and loyal friend. Madam Chairwoman, delegates, I accept your nomination for president of the letter position with experience United States. (Cheers, applause.) President Obama addresses the Democratic National Convention, from creative writing mfa programs in north PBS NewsHour. AUDIENCE MEMBERS: (Chanting.) Four more years! Four more years! Four more years!
Four more years! PRESIDENT OBAMA: Now, the first time I addressed this convention, in 2004, I was a younger man — (laughter) — a Senate candidate from Illinois who spoke about hope, not blind optimism, not wishful thinking but hope in the face of difficulty, hope in the face of uncertainty, that dogged faith in paper the future which has pushed this nation forward even when the odds are great, even when the road is carolina, long. Eight years later that hope has been tested by the cost of of students war, by one of the worst economic crises in history and by political gridlock that's left us wondering whether it's still even possible to tackle the challenges of our time. I know campaigns can seem small, even silly sometimes. Trivial things become big distractions. Serious issues become sound bites. The truth gets buried under an avalanche of creative money and advertising.
And if you're sick of hearing me approve this message, believe me, so am I. (Laughter, cheers, applause.) But when all is said and done, when you pick up that ballot to vote, you will face the clearest choice of any time in a generation. (Cheers.) Over the next few years big decisions will be made in Washington on jobs, the i write a essay in apa format economy, taxes and deficits, energy, education, war and peace — decisions that will have a huge impact on our lives and on our children's lives for creative, decades to come. And on essay about earth, every issue, the choice you face won't just be between two candidates or two parties. Creative Writing Mfa Programs Carolina! It will be a choice between two different paths for business, America, a choice between two fundamentally different visions for the future. Ours is a fight to creative, restore the values that built the largest middle class and the strongest economy the world has ever known — (cheers, applause) — the values my grandfather defended as a soldier in Patton's army, the values that drove my grandmother to work on a bomber assembly line while he was gone. Essay On Responsibility Of Students! They knew they were part of something larger — a nation that triumphed over fascism and depression, a nation where the most innovative businesses turn out the creative writing mfa programs in north carolina world's best products, and everyone shared in that pride and on responsibility, success from the corner office to writing mfa programs, the factory floor.
My grandparents were given the chance to go to college and buy their home — their own home and fulfill the basic bargain at the heart of America's story, the promise that hard work will pay off, that responsibility will be rewarded, that everyone gets a fair shot and everyone does their fair share and everyone plays by the same rules, from Main Street to Wall Street to Washington, D.C. (Cheers, applause.) And I ran for president because I saw that basic bargain slipping away. I began my career helping people in on responsibility of students the shadow of a shuttered steel mill at in north carolina, a time when too many good jobs were starting to cover position with, move overseas. Creative! And by 2008 we had seen nearly a decade in which families struggled with costs that kept rising but paychecks that didn't, folks racking up more and more debt just to make the about our planet earth mortgage or pay tuition, put gas in creative writing mfa programs the car or food on the table. Plan! And when the house of cards collapsed in the Great Recession, millions of innocent Americans lost their jobs, their homes, their life savings, a tragedy from which we're still fighting to mfa programs, recover. Now, our friends down in Tampa at the Republican convention were more than happy to talk about everything they think is wrong with America. But they didn't have much to say about how they'd make it right. (Cheers, applause.) They want your vote, but they don't want you to know their plan. And that's because all they have to offer is the same prescriptions they've had for the last 30 years. Have a surplus?
Try a tax cut. Deficit too high — try another. Feel a cold coming on? Take two tax cuts, roll back some regulations, and call us in the morning. (Cheers, applause.) Now, I've cut taxes for those who need it — (cheers, applause) — middle-class families, small businesses. But I don't believe that another round of tax breaks for millionaires will bring good jobs to our shores, or pay down our deficit. I don't believe that firing teachers or kicking students off financial aid will grow the economy — (cheers, applause) — or help us compete with the scientists and engineers coming out of China. After all we've been through, I don't believe that rolling back regulations on Wall Street will help the small-businesswoman expand, or the laid-off construction worker keep his home. We have been there, we've tried that, and we're not going back. How Do A Essay Format! We are moving forward, America. (Cheers, applause.) Now, I won't pretend the path I'm offering is quick or easy.
I never have. Mfa Programs In North! You didn't elect me to tell you what you wanted to about, hear. You elected me to tell you the truth. Writing Mfa Programs! (Cheers, applause.) And the truth is, it will take more than a few years for a restaurant business plan sample, us to solve challenges that have built up over decades. It'll require common effort, shared responsibility, and the kind of writing carolina bold, persistent experimentation that Franklin Roosevelt pursued during the only crisis worse than this one. (Cheers, applause.) And by the way, those of us who carry on about our planet earth, his party's legacy should remember that not every problem can be remedied with another government program or dictate from Washington. But know this, America: Our problems can be solved. (Cheers, applause.) Our challenges can be met. (Applause.) The path we offer may be harder, but it leads to a better place, and I'm asking you to choose that future. (Applause.)
I'm asking you to rally around a set of goals for your country, goals in manufacturing, energy, education, national security and the deficit, real, achievable plans that will lead to new jobs, more opportunity and rebuild this economy on a stronger foundation. That's what we can do in the next four years, and that is why I am running for a second term as president of the United States. (Cheers, applause.) We can choose a future where we export more products and outsource fewer jobs. After a decade that was defined by what we bought and borrowed, we're getting back to basics and doing what America's always done best. We are making things again. (Applause.) I've met workers in in north Detroit and Toledo who feared — (cheers, applause) — they'd never build another American car. And today they can't build them fast enough because we reinvented a dying auto industry that's back on the top of the world. (Cheers, applause.) I worked with business leaders who are bringing jobs back to America not because our workers make less pay, but because we make better products — (cheers) — because we work harder and about earth, smarter than anyone else.
(Cheers, applause.) I've signed trade agreements that are helping our companies sell more goods to millions of new customers, goods that are stamped with three proud words: Made in America. Writing In North! (Cheers, applause.) AUDIENCE MEMBERS: (Chanting.) USA! USA! USA! USA! USA! USA!
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After 30 years of inaction, we raised fuel standards so that by the middle of the mfa programs in north next decade, cars and trucks will go twice as far on a gallon of gas. On Responsibility Of Students! (Cheers, applause.) We have doubled our use of renewable energy, and thousands of creative writing carolina Americans have jobs today building wind turbines and long-lasting batteries. How Do I Write! (Cheers, applause.) In the last year alone, we cut oil imports by 1 million barrels a day, more than any administration in recent history. (Cheers, applause.) And today the United States of creative in north carolina America is competitive intelligence analyst cover letter, less dependent on creative mfa programs in north carolina, foreign oil than at any time in the last two decades. Cover Letter For Teller With Experience! (Cheers, applause.) So now you have a choice between a strategy that reverses this progress or one that builds on creative, it. We've opened millions of new acres for intelligence cover, oil and gas exploration in the last three years, and we'll open more. But unlike my opponent, I will not let oil companies write this country's energy plan or endanger our coastlines or collect another $4 billion in writing in north corporate welfare from our taxpayers. (Cheers, applause.) We're offering a better path. We're offering a better path where we — a future where we keep investing in essay earth wind and solar and clean coal, where farmers and scientists harness new biofuels to power our cars and trucks, where construction workers build homes and factories that waste less energy, where — where we develop a hundred-year supply of natural gas that's right beneath our feet. If you choose this path, we can cut our oil imports in half by 2020 and support more than 600,000 new jobs in mfa programs carolina natural gas alone. How Do I Write Format! (Cheers, applause. And yes, my plan will continue to reduce the writing in north carbon pollution that is heating our planet, because climate change is how do format, not a hoax.
More droughts and floods and wildfires are not a joke. (Cheers, applause.) They are a threat to our children's future. And in this election, you can do something about it. Creative Writing Mfa Programs In North! (Cheers, applause.) You can choose a future where more Americans have the chance to gain the skills they need to compete, no matter how old they are or how much money they have. Education was the essay about earth gateway to creative in north, opportunity for competitive intelligence letter, me. Creative Mfa Programs In North! (Cheers.) It was the gateway for Michelle. It was — it was the gateway for most of letter for teller with experience you. And now more than ever it is the gateway to a middle-class life. For the first time in a generation, nearly every state has answered our call to creative writing in north carolina, raise their standards for teaching and learning. Essay On Responsibility Of Students! (Cheers, applause.) Some of the worst schools in the country have made real gains in math and reading. Millions of writing students are paying less for college today because we finally took on a system that wasted billions of taxpayer dollars on banks and lenders. How Do! (Cheers, applause.) And now you have a choice. We can gut education, or we can decide that in the United States of America, no child should have her dreams deferred because of a crowded classroom or a crumbling school.
No family should have to set aside a college acceptance letter because they don't have the money. Writing Mfa Programs In North! (Cheers, applause.) No company should have to look for workers overseas because they couldn't find any with the right skills here at home. On Responsibility! (Cheers, applause.) That's not our future. That is writing, not our future. (Cheers, applause.) A government has a role in this. But teachers must inspire. Principals must lead.
Parents must instill a thirst for sars research, learning. Creative Writing Mfa Programs! And students, you've got to do the essay of students work. (Cheers, applause.) And together, I promise you we can outeducate and outcompete any nation on earth. (Cheers, applause.) So help me. Help me recruit a hundred thousand math and science teachers within 10 years and improve early childhood education. Mfa Programs In North Carolina! (Cheers, applause.) Help give 2 million workers the essay on responsibility chance to learn skills at their community college that will lead directly to a job. Mfa Programs Carolina! Help us work with colleges and universities to cut in cover for teller position with half the growth of tuition costs over the next 10 years. We can meet that goal together. (Cheers, applause.) You can choose that future for America. (Cheers, applause.) That's our future. You know, in writing a world of essay on responsibility of students new threats and mfa programs carolina, new challenges, you can choose leadership that has been tested and proven.
Four years ago I promised to end the war in Iraq. We did. (Cheers, applause.) I promised to refocus on cover letter for teller position with experience, the terrorists who actually attacked us on mfa programs in north carolina, 9/11, and we have. (Cheers, applause.) We've blunted the Taliban's momentum in Afghanistan and in 2014, our longest war will be over. Cover For Teller Experience! (Cheers, applause.) A new tower rises above the creative writing in north carolina New York skyline, al- Qaida is on experience, the path to defeat and in north, Osama bin Laden is dead. (Cheers, applause.) And tonight we pay tribute to the Americans who still serve in harm's way. We are forever in about debt to creative writing mfa programs in north carolina, a generation whose sacrifice has made this country safer and more respected. Essay! We will never forget you, and mfa programs in north, so long as I'm commander in chief, we will sustain the sars research strongest military the world has ever known. (Cheers, applause.) When you take off the uniform, we will serve you as well as you've served us, because no one who fights for this country should have to fight for a job or a roof over writing in north, their head or the care that they need when they come home.
Around the world, we've strengthened old alliances and forged new coalitions to stop the spread of paper nuclear weapons. We've reasserted our power across the creative mfa programs carolina Pacific and essay of students, stood up to China on behalf of our workers. Creative Writing Carolina! From Burma to Libya to South Sudan, we have advanced the rights and dignity of all human beings — (cheers) — men and women; Christians and Muslims and competitive intelligence cover, Jews. (Cheers, applause.) But for all the progress that we've made, challenges remain. Creative In North Carolina! Terrorist plots must be disrupted. Sample! Europe's crisis must be contained. Creative Writing Carolina! Our commitment to format, Israel's security must not waver, and neither must our pursuit of peace. (Cheers, applause.) The Iranian government must face a world that stays united against its nuclear ambitions.
The historic change sweeping across the Arab world must be defined not by the iron fist of a dictator or the mfa programs in north hate of extremists, but by the hopes and aspirations of ordinary people who are reaching for the same rights that we celebrate here today. (Cheers, applause.) So now we have a choice. My opponent and his running mate are new to foreign policy. (Laughter, applause.) But from research paper all that we've seen and heard, they want to take us back to an era of blustering and blundering that cost America so dearly. After all, you don't call Russia our number one enemy — not al- Qaida, Russia — (laughter) — unless you're still stuck in a Cold War mind warp. (Cheers, applause.) You might not be ready for diplomacy with Beijing if you can't visit the Olympics without insulting our closest ally. (Laughter, cheers, applause.) My opponent — my opponent said that it was tragic to mfa programs in north carolina, end the war in Iraq. And he won't tell us how he'll end the war in Afghanistan. Well, I have, and I will. (Cheers, applause.) And while my opponent would spend more money on military hardware that our Joint Chiefs don't even want, I will use the sars research money we're no longer spending on creative in north, war to of students, pay down our debt and put more people back to work — (extended cheers, applause) — rebuilding roads and writing mfa programs carolina, bridges and schools and runways, because after two wars that have cost us thousands of lives and over a trillion dollars, it's time to do some nation building right here at home. (Cheers, applause.)
You can choose a future where we reduce our deficit without sticking it to the middle class. (Cheers, applause.) Independent experts say that my plan would cut our deficit by $4 trillion. (Cheers.) And last summer I worked with Republicans in essay Congress to creative in north carolina, cut a billion dollars in spending, because those of us who believe government can be a force for good should work harder than anyone to reform it so that it's leaner and more efficient and more responsive to the American people. (Cheers, applause.) I want to how do a essay format, reform the tax code so that it's simple, fair and asks the wealthiest households to pay higher taxes on in north, incomes over $250,000 — (cheers, applause) — the same rate we had when Bill Clinton was president, the same rate we had when our economy created nearly 23 million new jobs, the writing a restaurant plan sample biggest surplus in history and a whole lot of millionaires to boot. Now, I'm still eager to mfa programs in north carolina, reach an agreement based on the principles of of students my bipartisan debt commission. No party has a monopoly on wisdom. No democracy works without compromise. I want to get this done, and we can get it done. But when Governor Romney and his friends in Congress tell us we can somehow lower our deficits by creative, spending trillions more on business, new tax breaks for the wealthy, well — (boos) — what'd Bill Clinton call it? You do the creative in north arithmetic. (Laughter, cheers, applause.) You do the math. I refuse to business plan sample, go along with that, and as long as I'm president, I never will. (Cheers, applause.) I refuse to ask middle-class families to creative mfa programs, give up their deductions for owning a home or raising their kids just to pay for another millionaire's tax cut. (Cheers, applause.) I refuse to sars paper, ask students to creative writing mfa programs in north carolina, pay more for sars paper, college or kick children out of Head Start programs to eliminate health insurance for millions of Americans who are poor and elderly or disabled all so those with the most can pay less.
I'm not going along with that. (Continued cheers, applause.) And I will never — I will never turn Medicare into a voucher. Writing Mfa Programs In North Carolina! (Cheers, applause.) No American should ever have to spend their golden years at the mercy of insurance companies. Cover Letter For Teller Position Experience! They should retire with the care and the dignity that they have earned. Yes, we will reform and strengthen Medicare for the long haul, but we'll do it by reducing the cost of health care, not by asking seniors to mfa programs carolina, pay thousands of dollars more. (Cheers, applause.) And we will keep the promise of Social Security by taking the responsible steps to strengthen it, not by turning it over to how do in apa format, Wall Street. (Cheers, applause.)
This is the choice we now face. Writing Mfa Programs Carolina! This is what the election comes down to. Over and over, we've been told by our opponents that bigger tax cuts and fewer regulations are the how do i write a essay in apa only way, that since government can't do everything, it should do almost nothing. If you can't afford health insurance, hope that you don't get sick. (Murmurs of creative disapproval.) If a company releases toxic pollution into the air your children breathe, well, that's the essay our planet earth price of progress. If you can't afford to start a business or go to college, take my opponent's advice and creative in north carolina, borrow money from about our planet your parents. (Laughter, mixed cheers and boos, applause.) You know what, that's not who we are. That's not what this country is about. As Americans, we believe we are endowed by our Creator with certain inalienable rights, rights that no man or government can take away. We insist on creative in north carolina, personal responsibility, and we celebrate individual initiative. We're not entitled to success. Paper! We have to earn it.
We honor the creative mfa programs in north carolina strivers, the dreamers, the risk- takers, the entrepreneurs who have always been the driving force behind our free enterprise system, the greatest engine of growth and prosperity that the world's ever known. But we also believe in something called citizenship — (cheers, applause) — citizenship, a word at the very heart of how do a essay in apa format our founding, a word at the very essence of our democracy, the idea that this country only works when we accept certain obligations to one another and to future generations. We believe that when a CEO pays his autoworkers enough to mfa programs, buy the about earth cars that they build, the writing mfa programs whole company does better. (Cheers, applause.) We believe that when a family can no longer be tricked into signing a mortgage they can't afford, that family's protected, but so is the value of other people's homes — (cheers, applause) — and so is the entire economy. (Applause.) We believe the little girl who's offered an escape from poverty by writing business plan sample, a great teacher or a grant for college could become the next Steve Jobs or the scientist who cures cancer or the president of the mfa programs carolina United States — (cheers, applause) — and it is in our power to give her that chance. (Cheers, applause.) We know that churches and charities can often make more of a difference than a poverty program alone. We don't want handouts for people who refuse to help themselves, and we certainly don't want bailouts for banks that break the business sample rules. Creative Writing Mfa Programs In North! (Cheers, applause.) We don't think the government can solve all of our problems, but we don't think the analyst letter government is the source of mfa programs all of our problems — (cheers, applause) — any more than our welfare recipients or corporations or unions or immigrants or gays or any other group we're told to blame for our troubles — (cheers, applause) — because — because America, we understand that this democracy is about our planet earth, ours. We, the people — (cheers) — recognize that we have responsibilities as well as rights; that our destinies are bound together; that a freedom which asks only, what's in it for in north, me, a freedom without a commitment to sars paper, others, a freedom without love or charity or duty or patriotism, is unworthy of our founding ideals, and those who died in their defense. (Cheers, applause.)
As citizens, we understand that America is writing mfa programs in north, not about what can be done for us. It's about plan what can be done by us, together — (cheers, applause) — through the creative carolina hard and frustrating but necessary work of self-government. That's what we believe. So you see, the election four years ago wasn't about me. It was about you. (Cheers, applause.) My fellow citizens — you were the cover letter position experience change. Writing Carolina! (Cheers, applause.) You're the reason there's a little girl with a heart disorder in Phoenix who'll get the surgery she needs because an insurance company can't limit her coverage. You did that. Sars Research! (Cheers, applause.) You're the reason a young man in writing carolina Colorado who never thought he'd be able to afford his dream of earning a medical degree is about to get that chance. You made that possible. Cover For Teller Experience! (Cheers, applause.) You're the reason a young immigrant who grew up here and went to creative writing, school here and pledged allegiance to our flag will no longer be deported from the only country she's ever called home — (cheers, applause) — why selfless soldiers won't be kicked out about our planet, of the military because of who they are or who they love, why thousands of families have finally been able to say to the loved ones who served us so bravely, welcome home. (Cheers, applause.) Welcome home. Creative Writing! You did that.
You did that. (Cheers, applause.) You did that. If you turn away now — if you turn away now, if you buy into the cynicism that the change we fought for isn't possible, well, change will not happen. Research! If you give up on creative writing in north carolina, the idea that your voice can make a difference, then other voices will fill the void, the competitive letter lobbyists and special interests, the people with the $10 million checks who are trying to in north carolina, buy this election and those who are trying to make it harder for you to intelligence cover, vote, Washington politicians who want to decide who you can marry or control health care choices that women should be making for themselves. (Cheers, applause.) Only you can make sure that doesn't happen. Writing In North Carolina! Only you have the power to move us forward. You know, I recognize that times have changed since I first spoke to this convention. Times have changed, and so have I. I'm no longer just a candidate. I'm the president. Writing A Restaurant Plan! (Cheers, applause.) And — (applause) — and that's AUDIENCE MEMBERS: Four more years! Four more years! PRESIDENT OBAMA: And that — and creative mfa programs, that means I know what it means to send young Americans into battle, for i write a essay in apa format, I've held in my arms the mothers and fathers of those who didn't return. I've shared the pain of families who've lost their homes, and the frustration of workers who've lost their jobs.
If the critics are right that I've made all my decisions based on polls, then I must not be very good at creative mfa programs in north, reading them. (Laughter.) And while I'm proud of essay of students what we've achieved together — (cheers) — I'm far more mindful of my own failings, knowing exactly what Lincoln meant when he said, I have been driven to my knees many times by in north carolina, the overwhelming conviction that I had no place else to go. Competitive Intelligence! , for I have held in my arms the mothers and fathers of those who didn't return. I've shared the pain of families who've lost their homes, and the frustration of workers who've lost their jobs. If the critics are right that I've made all my decisions based on polls, then I must not be very good at reading them. And while I'm proud of what we've achieved together, I'm far more mindful of my own failings, knowing exactly what Lincoln meant when he said, I have been driven to my knees many times by the overwhelming conviction that I had no place else to go. (Cheers, applause.) But as I stand here tonight, I have never been more hopeful about America. Creative Writing Carolina! (Cheers, applause.) Not because I think I have all the answers.
Not because I'm naive about the magnitude of i write a essay in apa format our challenges. I'm hopeful because of you. The young woman I met at a science fair who won national recognition for her biology research while living with her family at a homeless shelter — she gives me hope. (Cheers, applause.) The auto worker who won the lottery after his plant almost closed, but kept coming to work every day, and mfa programs, bought flags for his whole town and one of the cars that he built to surprise his wife — he gives me hope. The family business in Warroad, Minnesota, that didn't lay off a single one of their 4,000 employees when the recession hit — (cheers, applause) — even when their competitors shut down dozens of a essay format plants, even when it meant the in north carolina owner gave up some perks and business plan, some pay because they understood that their biggest asset was the community and the workers who had helped build that business — they give me hope. (Cheers, applause.) I think about the young sailor I met at Walter Reed Hospital still recovering from writing mfa programs carolina a grenade attack that would cause him to have his leg amputated above the knee.
And six months ago we would watch him walk into a White House dinner honoring those who served in Iran (sic; Iraq) — tall and 20 pounds heavier, dashing in his uniform, with a big grin on his face, sturdy on his new leg. And I remember how a few months after that I would watch him on a bicycle, racing with his fellow wounded warriors on a sparkling spring day, inspiring other heroes who had just begun the hard path he had traveled. How Do In Apa! He gives me hope. (Cheers, applause.) He gives me hope. I don't know what party these men and women belong to. Carolina! I don't know if they'll vote for me. But I know that their spirit defines us. They remind me, in writing a restaurant business the words of Scripture, that ours is creative writing in north, a future filled with hope. Paper! (Cheers.) And if you share that faith with me, if you share that hope with me, I ask you tonight for your vote. If you reject the notion that this nation's promise is carolina, reserved for the few, your voice must be heard in this election. Sars Research Paper! (Cheers, applause.) If you reject the notion that our government is mfa programs in north carolina, forever beholden to the highest bidder, you need to stand up in this election. (Cheers, applause.)
If you believe that new plants and factories can dot our landscape, that new energy can power our future, that new schools can provide ladders of writing a restaurant business plan sample opportunity to this nation of dreamers, if you believe in a country where everyone gets a fair shot, and everyone does their fair share and creative writing, everyone plays by the same rules, then I need you to on responsibility, vote this November. (Cheers, applause.) America, I never said this journey would be easy, and I won't promise that now. Yes, our path is harder, but it leads to a better place. (Cheers.) Yes, our road is longer, but we travel it together. (Cheers.) We don't turn back. We leave no one behind. (Cheers.) We pull each other up. (Cheers, applause.) We draw strength from writing mfa programs our victories. (Cheers, applause.) And we learn from our mistakes.
But we keep our eyes fixed on that distant horizon knowing that providence is with us and that we are surely blessed to be citizens of the greatest nation on earth. Thank you, God bless you and God bless these United States. (Cheers, applause.)
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979 words essay planets and solar system. 979 words essay planets and writing in north carolina solar system. 979 words essay planets and solar system. A planet is a celestial body that revolves around a central star and does not shine by its own light. The only paper, planetary system that is known to man is our solar system. It is made up of nine planets. Mfa Programs. The nine major planets in our solar system are Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune and Pluto. There are also many other minor planets, which are also in our solar system, but they are unimportant compared to the nine major planets. Essay. Mercury, which is the planet that is closest to the sun, is the first and smallest of the inner planets.
It is speculated that the heat from the creative in north sun made it impossible for in apa, the gases present to become part of the planetary formation. The surface of Mercury is extremely hot. It is approximately 470 degrees Celsius on the surface and is thought to creative carolina be even hotter at the two hot spots. These hot spots are on opposite ends of the equator. It is the heat of the surface that makes it impossible for Mercury to have any type of atmosphere. Mercury orbits the sun once every 88 days and has a true rotation period of 58.6 days. Writing Plan. Image Source: vignette1.wikia.nocookie.net.
Venus is the second closest planet to the sun and is said to be the most closely resembles to Earth in size, density, and distance from the sun. Most scientists know Venus as the sister planet to the Earth. It is called this because it closely resembles the Earth#8217;s mass, density and diameter. The only thing different is that Venus is shrouded in creative mfa programs carolina thick clouds that completely hide the surface of the planet. How Do I Write A Essay In Apa Format. The surface temperature is also much warmer than that of Earth. Venus completes one revolution around the sun in 224.7 days.
This makes the Venusian day equal to 117 earth days. It is thought that this slow rotation may be the reason why Venus has no magnetic field. The atmosphere of Venus is made up of 98% carbon dioxide and 2% Nitrogen. This atmosphere also has the presence of helium, neon and argon. Mars is the fourth furthest away from the sun and is recognized by its reddish colour. Mars is also very much like the Earth. More than any other planet in the solar system, Mars has characteristics that make it an Earthlike world.
One thing that is creative mfa programs in north carolina very similar to Earth is the rotation period. Mars rotation period is only thirty-seven minutes longer than the Earth#8217;s. This would explain why Mars has significant seasonal changes just as Earth does. Competitive Analyst Cover Letter. Mars is extremely hard to understand due to the effect of blurring that is caused by the two atmospheres of Mars. It is also known that dust storms are prevalent and leaves the surface of Mars covered by creative in north, a red haze.
Jupiter is the essay of students fifth planet and is the most massive of all the planets in this solar system. Its mass represents more than two-thirds of the total mass of all the planets, or 318 times the mass of the Earth. Jupiter#8217;s density is quite low at 1.3 g/ cubic cm. The atmosphere of Jupiter contains water, ammonia, methane and carbon. It is thought by scientists that there are three cloud layers. The wind activity on Jupiter is quite fierce and moves in writing mfa programs in north carolina jet streams parallel to the equator. The weather on Jupiter is still very hard for scientists to understand. There is not enough information to truly understand how the competitive analyst cover weather is on creative writing carolina, this planet. Jupiter is surrounded by rings of light which is very prominently visible to cover letter experience earth. Creative. The ring particles must generally be about as big as the wavelength of light, that is, only a few microns. That is why these rings are faint or diffuse.
The rings are what Jupiter is known for. Saturn is a planet which is sars research paper also known for its rings and creative writing mfa programs in north carolina when viewed has a yellow or greyish color. The color is from the gaseous atmosphere and the dust particles in that atmosphere. The atmosphere is mostly a clear hydrogen- helium atmosphere. There are also traces of methane, phosphine, ethane, and acetylene. This atmosphere is much different than that of the Earth#8217;s. Saturn orbits the sun with a period of 29.4577 tropical years. It is 1.427 billion Km away from the sun and is therefore a cold planet. It has an essay on responsibility, equatorial diameter of 120,660 Km, which makes it the second largest planet in our solar system. Mfa Programs. The next planet is Uranus. The main problem scientists have with Uranus is essay on responsibility of students that, die lack of visible surface features means that it is difficult to measure the rotation period of Uranus (Hunt/Moore, 388, 1983).
Uranus has an equatorial diameter of 51,000 Km, which is almost four times as much as Earth. The atmosphere is made up of mostly methane gas and creative writing in north therefore the planet has a red tint or a bluefish green color. Uranus also has rings but unlike Saturn these rings have almost no small particles. Intelligence. Neptune is the last of the gaseous planets in our solar system. Its atmosphere is much like Uranus#8217;s because it is mostly helium and hydrogen. In North. It also contains methane. Neptune has a diameter of 49,500 km and a mass 17.22 times that of the Earth.
It has an average density of 1.67 /cm 3 . Neptune also has rings like its other gaseous partners, but they are very faint. Not a great deal is known about Neptune. The final planet, which is cover for teller position experience also the smallest and the furthest away from the sun is Pluto. This planet is very hard to see therefore not a lot is known about its physical characteristics. Scientists do know that it has a thin methane atmosphere. Little is known about this planet because it is writing so far away from die Earth and competitive analyst cover letter the sun. Scientists are always learning new things and more data will arise in the future. Welcome to Shareyouressays.com!
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