Date: 21.10.2017 / Article Rating: 5 / Votes: 597
Cheapcustomwritingservice.conajans.com #Essay on responsibility of students

Recent Posts

Home >> Uncategorized >> Essay on responsibility of students

Essay on responsibility of students

Mar/Fri/2018 | Uncategorized





The responsibility of students at school | Teen Opinion Essay on study

Essay on responsibility of students

Write my essay -
The responsibility of students at school | Teen Opinion Essay on study

For Boston University applicants: A little essay advice. You only have two essays to write, one short and one long, on the Boston University application.#0160; In fact, the short essay is essay, only 5-6 sentences (which really qualifies more as a paragraph than it does a short essay).#0160; It#39;s important to make the most of that limited opportunity to help the BU admissions committee get to time know you better.#0160; So here are some tips to help you do that. Essay Of Students? In five or six sentences, tell us how you first became interested in BU and what steps you have taken to learn more about us. I#39;m not sure I can adequately describe just how many responses the BU admissions committee is on homework, likely to read that are some version of, I first became interested in Boston University when I read about it in a college guidebook.#0160; The combination of of students, great academics in large city seemed like the perfect combination for me.#0160; The more I researched the school, the gmo essay for and against, more I liked it.#0160; I also visited the essay on responsibility, campus last summer. At Collegewise, we teach our students a concept we call Own your story.#0160; To own your story means that you#39;ve written something that nobody else applying to college could have written (or at how to focus on homework the very least, that thousands of other kids would absolutely not have written).

The person who wrote the response above doesn#39;t own that story.#0160; Any kid applying to essay on responsibility of students Boston University could have written it.#0160; Believe me, a lot of them will.#0160; And they#39;ll torture the old man with essay, admissions committee because of on responsibility, it.#0160; But compare that response to this one: In April of my junior year, my high school counselor told me, Kevin, you#39;re an interesting kid.#0160; Why are you applying to such uninteresting colleges?#0160; I asked her what she thought would be a good choice for me, and a very old man enormous wings prompt, the first school she named was Boston University.#0160; I#39;ve visited your website obsessively, probably once a day at least for the last six months.#0160; I#39;ve read about all the classes I would take as a communications major.#0160; And last summer, I took a three-hour road trip with my friend in my #39;93 Corolla just so we could take a tour of BU.#0160; The chances that another student will write an identical response are zero.#0160; This student owns his story.#0160; So the essay on responsibility of students, most important thing you need to do in focus on homework this response, even though it#39;s only 5-6 sentences long, is to own your story.#0160; Be very specific.#0160; Whether you read a guidebook or talked to your friends or visited the school or went to a college fair, share the essay of students, details about how you learned and followed up with BU, and do so in a way that no other applicant will be able to do.#0160; What about the long essay? Here#39;s the against, prompt: This section of the application gives you an opportunity to present yourself in a way that grades and test scores cannot. The Board of Admissions uses your essay to determine your ability to organize thoughts and essay on responsibility of students, express yourself clearly. Accordingly, we ask that you prepare this work entirely on your own. In an essay of shorter, no more than 500 words, please select three words that describe you best and tell us how you will use these qualities/characteristics to essay of students contribute fully to time the BU community.

A lot of students are going to pick three words that make them sound impressive, like diligent, determined and on responsibility, trustworthy and then struggle to fill the rest of the essay with descriptions of how they#39;ll use these traits in college.#0160; That#39;s hard to research do, because they didn#39;t pick words that actually described themselves; they just picked words that sounded good.#0160; So they don#39;t necessarily have any stories to relate that show these traits in on responsibility action (or if they do, it#39;s what the admissions committee knows already, like, I am very committed to my academics). There are no right or wrong answers to this question.#0160; The three words are just a vehicle for you to shorter time share more about yourself and help the admissions committee get to know you better.#0160; The best way to tackle this question is to essay on responsibility work backwards.#0160; Don#39;t even think about the old man enormous wings essay, three words just yet.#0160; Instead, think about how you will contribute to the BU community. Contributing to essay on responsibility of students a college community means participating, engaging, doing more than just going to class and then sitting in essay linking phrases your room playing video games.#0160; So think about what kind of college kid you expect yourself to be.#0160; How do you envision yourself spending your time in and out of on responsibility, class?#0160; What parts of with essay prompt, college are you most excited about?#0160; When you ask yourself those questions, you#39;ll start to get a picture of yourself in college.#0160; For example, you might envision, I#39;m excited to finally start learning more about on responsibility of students, writing.#0160; I#39;ve been saying forever that I like to write, but in research college I#39;m going to actually have professors teach me how to be great at it.#0160; I can#39;t wait for that to essay on responsibility of students happen. Or#8230; My favorite times in high school have been Friday nights playing acoustic guitar with my friends.#0160; I really hope I get to how to do that a lot in on responsibility of students college.#0160; I#39;m going to set a goal for myself to find other musicians whose idea of a good time is to stay up late, teach each other songs, and linking, enjoy making music together. Or#8230; I can#39;t remember the essay of students, last time I wasn#39;t on gmo essay against an athletic team.#0160; And while I#39;m never going to be a good enough baseball player to play at the college level, one of the things I#39;m really excited about is to play a lot of different sports and to have some of them just be purely for essay of students fun, like pick-up basketball games, or co-ed intramural volleyball, or even just a weekend softball game with my friends.#0160; I might even try broom ball.#0160; I like the camaraderie of essay phrases, playing sports with friends and I think that#39;s how I#39;ll be spending a lot of essay on responsibility of students, my time in college.#0160; Contributing in old man essay college means becoming an essay, engaged member of the campus community.#0160; So, that#39;s step one.#0160; Think about how you#39;ll make those contributions.

Now, take the next step backwards and think about your experiences in these areas so far.#0160; What stories do you have that illustrate yourself doing these things, or exemplifying these traits?#0160; Be specific and own the stories.#0160; Review your answers and ask yourself which ones really make up who you are.#0160; The writer, musician and find research, athlete above make it pretty clear that they#39;re going to find some way to do these things wherever they are, and that they spent a lot of time doing these things in high school.#0160; Those stories are part of who they are, and they are the types of on responsibility, examples you should be looking for in your own life. This is on homework, important, because the prompt specifically asks for on responsibility three words that best describe you.#0160; It#39;s not always clear what words best describe you, but if you sometimes like to write, or just occasionally strum a guitar, or play basketball with your brother every now and essay, then , those aren#39;t necessarily experiences that are defining for you, and the associated words probably aren#39;t good choices. #0160; Now, you#39;ve identified how you#39;ll contribute, and you#39;ve found some stories from your current life that illustrate those themes.#0160; So now, ask yourself what three words you could use to sum these experiences or traits up.#0160; For example, our sample applicants above could be communicative, musical and athletic. Do an honesty check when you pick the on responsibility, words.#0160; If musical isn#39;t really a word you would use to define yourself, is this experience or trait really an important part of paper warming, who you are?#0160; If it isn#39;t, pick a different story.#0160; And if it is, just pick a different word. #0160; The best college essays start with a lot of on responsibility, thought, not so much about what would sound good, but rather, about what you#39;d really like to essay linking phrases say. Start there with these essays, and you#39;ll be submitting a much stronger application to BU. Note:#0160; Before you follow our tips, we recommend you read our How to guide here: Download HowToUse30Guides. And if you have other questions about essays, applications, interviews or financial aid, visit our online store.#0160; We’ve got books, videos and downloadable guides to of students help you.#0160; Or you could speak with one of our online college counselors. thanks so much for this. i really needed it. Warming? i had no idea to start and now im on my way to finishing it. again, thank you. This page helped me get into BU #128578; Nice job! Very, very nicely done! Thanks for the help.

This was very useful. We help students find and on responsibility, get accepted to the colleges that are right for them. Research Paper On Global? If the U Fits: Expert Advice on Finding the Right College and Getting Accepted. Story Finders: How Counselors and of students, Teachers Can Help Students Write Better College Essays (Without Helping Too Much) Kevin McMullin is the founder and president of Collegewise and a very old man prompt, the author of essay of students, If the U Fits: Expert Advice on old man with enormous Finding the Right College and Getting Accepted. Essay Of Students? This is his blog.

He also speaks at find research high schools and conferences to spread the word about saner, smarter college planning. To receive these posts by email, enter your email address below.

Write My Essay Online for Cheap -
How to Be a Responsible Student (with Pictures) - wikiHow

2300-320-7 - Intramural Research Training Award (IRTA) Program Automated Fellowship Payment System. Remove: NIH Manual 2300-320-7 dated 8/1/03. Insert: NIH Manual 2300-320-7 dated 2/24/09. PLEASE NOTE: For information on: For information on content of essay of students this chapter, contact the issuing office listed above. NIH Manual System, contact the Division of on global Management Support, OMA on on responsibility, 301-496-4606, or enter this url: http://oma.od.nih.gov/public/MS/manualchapters/Pages/default.aspx.

This chapter transmits the NIH policy on research paper on global warming, the use of the NIH Intramural Research Training Award (IRTA) Program. IRTA Traineeships are established for the principal benefit of the participant and to provide opportunities for developmental training and essay practical research experience in a variety of disciplines related to find research, biomedical research, medical library research and related fields. Essay On Responsibility Of Students! Traineeships are designed to provide research training “for which fellowship support is not provided under Section 487 of the Public Health Services (PHS) Act, and which is not residency training of shorter essays physicians or other health professionals.” Training must be carried out at essay on responsibility, a facility of the NIH, but may be supplemented by additional training acquired at another institution which is found by essays time the Director to be directly related to the purpose of the traineeship and necessary to its successful completion. Training outside of on responsibility NIH must not comprise a majority of the on global warming, training. The IRTA Program encourages the participation of individuals from groups who are underrepresented in biomedical research: women, persons with disabilities, and individuals of diverse ethnic and racial backgrounds. Service is a by-product of the IRTA Program unlike Research and Clinical Fellowships where service is a dominant part of the training objective. Of Students! NOTE: Trainees may not independently engage in patient care activities (any clinically-related activity MUST explicitly be under the direct supervision and control of an NIH employee), be assigned official supervisory responsibilities, or sign documents on behalf of the Government (e.g., requisitions). (1) The Director, NIH, may conduct and support research training for which fellowship support is not provided under Section 487 of the time, PHS Act and on responsibility of students which is not residency training of physicians or other health professionals [42 U.S.C. 282(b)(13)]; (2) the Directors of the gmo essay for and, national research institutes may conduct and support research training for which fellowship support is not provided under Section 487, and which is not residency training of physicians or other health professionals [42 U.S.C. 284(b)(1)(C)]; (3) the National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine, OD, NIH, may conduct research training as described in 42 U.S.C.

287c-21(a); (4) the National Library of Medicine (NLM) may conduct research training as described in 42 U.S.C. 286b-3 (NLM Traineeships limited to Post-baccalaureate students only); (5) the National Center on Minority Health and essay on responsibility Health Disparities, OD, NIH, may conduct research training as described in 42 U.S.C. 287c-31. (6) 42 CFR Part 63, Public Health Service Regulations re: Traineeships. See Appendix 10 (Delegations of wings Authority) Approval by the Deputy Director Intramural Research ( DDIR) is on responsibility of students, required for all exceptions to program provisions. Requests for exceptions to paper warming, program provisions must be fully justified in writing, describing the on responsibility, nature and basis for the exception. Trainees are not Federal employees, are subject to time, the availability of of students space, funds, and preceptors’ time, and are limited by the number of training assignments available within participating Institutes or Centers (IC). Traineeships are contingent upon submission of find research papers acceptable proof of U.S. Essay On Responsibility! citizenship or resident alien status, and a medical evaluation if applicable.

In addition, trainees must meet the requirements of one of the categories specified below: G. Duration of Program Traineeship Programs. Time spent on a Traineeship program within any IC counts toward the total Traineeship duration, regardless of the focus on homework, number of essay of students Traineeships granted by different ICs. The duration of the how to, award period and the original termination date will be extended due to periods (4-12 months) of excused absence without stipend. On Responsibility Of Students! All renewals must be in writing and on homework include beginning and termination dates. 1 to 3 year (2-3 year Traineeships must be processed in 1 year increments.)

1 month to 2 years (2 year Traineeships must be processed in 1 year increments.) 2 years (2 year Traineeships must be processed in 1 year increments.) 1 month to 1 year. Traineeships of less than 1 month or greater than 1 year may not be authorized. 1 or 2-year increments. 1-month to 1-year increments. 1-month to 1-year increments. May return for summer and on responsibility other traineeship periods for as long as trainee remains a student in good standing. A terminal Traineeship period not to exceed 3 months is permitted. Trainees do not incur a service payback obligation.

Provided they meet eligibility requirements, trainees may be considered for, but are not entitled to, employment or other training appointments at the NIH. The automated Fellowship Payment System (FPS) is programmed for full-time schedules. For full-time schedules less than one year in duration, the system will calculate the correct amount of phrases pro-rated funds to obligate. However, for part-time schedules, ICs must compute the percent of time and enter the annual prorated stipend in the Fellowship Payment stipend screen. Scheduling policy for the different Traineeship programs is as follows: NOTE: Part-time schedules of less than 32 hours per week may affect eligibility for health insurance offered by the Foundation for Advanced Education in the Sciences (FAES) or other health plans. NOTE: Part-time schedules of less than 32 hours per week may affect eligibility for health insurance offered by the Foundation for Advanced Education in the Sciences (FAES) or other health plans.

Stipends are established based on on responsibility, relevant research experience or completed education level. Stipend ranges and/or fixed stipend levels are periodically reviewed by the Office of Intramural Research (OIR) in consultation with the for and, NIH Board of Scientific Directors. On Responsibility! See appendices for detailed information. Stipends are established based on 5 or fewer years of relevant postdoctoralresearch experience and up to 2 additional years of experience not oriented towards research (i.e., clinical training for physicians). NOTE: Stipend level must be prorated based on training schedule. Stipends are established based on a very enormous wings essay prompt, the number of years of postbaccalaureate education completed upon activation of Traineeship. NOTE: Stipend level must be prorated based on training schedule. Postbaccalaureate education completed upon activation of Traineeship can only include postbaccalaureate training in of students an NIH laboratory or relevant professional medical or graduate school enrollment. NOTE: Stipend level must be prorated based on research papers, training schedule. Stipends are established based on essay of students, the degree and amount of relevant experience at activation of Traineeship.

NOTE: Stipend level must be prorated based on training schedule. Stipends are established based on the amount of education completed upon activation of Traineeship. NOTE: Stipend level must be prorated based on essay linking phrases, training schedule. A stipend increase of up to $2,000 per annum may be granted based on growth, development, and essay on responsibility of students accomplishments, but where warranted, increments can be larger, provided they do not exceed the appropriate stipend range (Appendix 1). Linking Phrases! ICs may approve a one-time merit-based exceptional stipend increase of one stipend step level at on responsibility of students, the time of renewal for 10 percent of its trainees, e.g., a trainee with one year of postdoctoral experience could be paid a stipend within the range for the two-year experience level. A stipend increase to the next higher level in Appendix 2 may be granted per annum, based on progress in academic studies and/or the essays time, training assignment, for each year the essay on responsibility, trainee remains in the program . A stipend increase to the next higher level in Appendix 3 may be granted, if the award is a very with enormous essay prompt, renewed for second (and final) year in the program. A stipend increase to the next higher level in Appendix 4 may be granted per annum based on progress in academic studies and/or training assignment, for each year the trainee remains in the program. Eligible for the next higher stipend increase (Appendix 5) based on the amount of education completed. An additional allowance of up to $10,000 may be added to the initial stipend level of postdoctoral trainees for previous training or equivalent experience in one of the following specialty categories: Engineer (electrical, chemical, mechanical, biomedical);

Computational Biologist: (informatics, information technology); Chemist (analytical, physical, organic, and inorganic); IC Competitive Fellowship, e.g., Kety Fellowship in NIMH; or. Fellow entering the fifth year, for essay of students, whom the IC wishes to provide a merit-based stipend higher than the find papers, top of the on responsibility of students, range for the fifth year. Stipends are paid in arrears on a 30-day monthly basis. All trainees are strongly encouraged to research paper on global, immediately establish (or correct) an electronic file transfer in on responsibility the NIH Administrative Database (ADB) via the Automated Clearinghouse (ACH) Vendor miscellaneous payment enrollment form in the ADB vendor database. An automatic $2,000 advance will be provided for trainees after activation. An amount less than $2,000 may be provided after activation, based on hardship as determined and how to on homework approved by the IC Scientific Director prior to the award start date that is entered into the FPS. Any advance payment will reduce the essay, annual stipend payment.

The remainder of the stipend balance will be paid in arrears in 12 equal monthly amounts. Research! Subsequent monthly stipend payments, for those that have ACH, are direct-deposited, usually within the first 5 business days of essay on responsibility each month. Trainees who do not have established electronic file transfers to their bank accounts will receive stipend payments by check on or about the find papers, 10th business day of each month. If the trainee leaves within 12 months of the initiation of the award, the final check may NOT be for the 1/12th amount because it will have been offset by essay the balance of the advance. The trainee may owe money to NIH if the gmo essay for and, time served does not offset the essay on responsibility of students, balance of the advance. A personal check covering a stipend overpayment must be hand-carried to the Office of Financial Management “Fellowship Payment Office” with a copy of the FPS-generated termination notice. Any un-recovered overpayment will be treated as a debt owed to papers, the U.S.

Government. Stipends will be made in essay of students equal monthly payments. Stipend payments will be certified monthly and authorized in the FPS by on homework the IC Designated Program officials between the essay of students, 20th - 25th of the month so the Office of Financial Management (OFM) may authorize payments each month. Against! If the IC does not certify and authorize payment for a trainee, no stipend payment will be issued for essay on responsibility, that month until certification is received. Supplemental funding should be granted to Trainees who wish to come to NIH for a period of find research papers research training under the auspices of traineeships or grants awarded by outside (non-Federal) organizations or institutions, when the funding provided is insufficient to support the Trainees during research training in NIH laboratories. Supplemental Funding should be granted: ONLY to Trainees who have already been approved for or currently receive outside (non-Federal) support; ONLY to Trainees NOT receiving support under the National Research Service Award (NRSA) Program; ONLY to Trainees that have NO employment relationship with the on responsibility of students, outside (non-Federal) sponsor: other issues, e.g., potential conflict of interest, intellectual property, etc., must also be addressed. The amount of the NIH IRTA supplement will be determined on a case-by-case basis and will vary depending on the level of support provided by the outside (non-Federal) sponsor. The supplement will be fixed at paper on global, such a rate that the combined level of support will match the on responsibility, stipend rate for gmo essay, a similarly qualified Trainee.

Supplemental funding that would result in a combined amount from NIH and the outside (non-Federal) sponsor that is either less than or in excess of the authorized stipend rate for essay of students, the relevant trainee level and Traineeship program may not be approved. Supplemental funding must be terminated when outside (non-Federal) support ceases. An IC cannot provide a supplement solely to provide health insurance coverage – a stipend of at paper, least $1 per year must also be authorized. Applicants may apply directly to a specific Principal Investigator or may apply online at the NIH Office of on responsibility of students Intramural Training and Education (OITE) website. Old Man With Essay! Designated IC Program Administrative Officials receiving application documents should determine candidate's eligibility.

Traineeship preceptors and on responsibility of students Laboratory/Branch Chiefs will review applications, evaluate and recommend candidates, and develop individualized training plans for linking, approval by the IC Scientific Director or delegated approving official. Candidates may not be excluded from consideration or evaluation on the basis of race, color, religion, gender, disability, age, national origin, political affiliation or any other non-merit factor. Appropriate documentation should be routed through the designated IC Program Administrative Officials. Curriculum Vitae (CV), bibliography (if applicable), 3 letters of reference, applicant's statement of research goals, official copy of transcript. In addition, applicant must provide official copy of essay on responsibility doctoral degree and brief summary of doctoral dissertation (if applicable). CV, bibliography (if applicable), 3 letters of reference emphasizing research potential, applicant's statement of research paper on global warming research goals, official copy of undergraduate, graduate, and/or medical school transcript.

Verification from the university that the applicant is in of students good academic standing; is enrolled in a doctoral degree program; and that the school is agreeable to the student's participation is focus on homework, required. CV, bibliography (if applicable), 3 letters of reference emphasizing potential, applicant's statement of research goals, and official copy of undergraduate school transcript. Applications must be made online at essay of students, http://www.training.nih.gov/student/pre-irta/previewpostbac.asp. Resume or CV, 2 letters of against reference, statement of career goals, and official copy of undergraduate transcript. Applications must be made online at on responsibility of students, http://www.training.nih.gov/student/pre-irta/previewtechnical.asp. Resume or CV, 2 letters of reference, official copy of school transcript, letter from school verifying academic standing, information on honors and achievements, and shorter time statement of interest in biomedical research. Applications must be made online at of students, http://www.training.nih.gov/student/sip/ The principal responsibility rests with training preceptor; other assistance is shorter, available from IC Lab/Branch Chiefs and Scientific Director. The NIH Office of Intramural Training and Education Career Services Center and NIH Work/Life Center staff are available for career counseling. All trainees may receive training or tuition assistance to the extent that it is directly related to the NIH research experience.

Individual Development Plans (IDPs) are required for all trainees and they must complete all NIH mandatory training. When Trainees will be working with animals, exposed to hazardous situations, or in contact with patients, ICs are responsible for assuring that Trainees receive instruction, as appropriate, including but not limited to, safety, use of equipment, handling hazardous materials, patient privacy, human subject protections and proper animal care and treatment. Trainees may not engage independently in any patient care activities. Any clinically related activities MUST be explicitly under the direct supervision and control of an NIH employee. A rotation in a science policy office, generally only essay of students one rotation of three months or less, is permitted when such activity can be justified as an integral part of the NIH research experience. All training, regardless of duration or type, must be documented in how to on homework the training plan and/or other appropriate administrative training databases and should be offered to all similarly situated trainees, regardless of whether they receive supplemental or sole NIH funding. In addition to the above: ICs are expected to fund training directly related to the purpose of the Traineeship, generally consisting of essay of students two courses per essay phrases, year at an accredited academic institution. In addition, trainees are expected to on responsibility of students, attend one FAES BIO-TRAC course or equivalent per each 6-month period and other seminar series designated by the IC.

Travel cost to NIH for trainee, dependents, movement of household goods, and temporary storage of prompt household goods not to exceed (NTE) $3,000 is permitted at essay of students, the discretion of the IC; no allowance for return travel is paper on global warming, authorized. Payment of travel to scientific meetings or training at a remote site is at the discretion of the IC and is subject to availability of funds. IRTA trainees may accept payment only on an “In Kind” basis to cover travel and per essay, diem expenses from an outside entity while attending an “official duty” type event for the purpose of teaching, speaking or writing (such as presenting a paper at a scientific meeting), provided there is no conflict of interest in essays the source of the funds. No honorarium, or compensation for services rendered, may be accepted. Reimbursement must be from essay on responsibility of students nonfederal funds. IRTA trainees must request, and receive, advance approval, in writing, from the IC Scientific Director in order to accept outside travel reimbursement. The HHS Form 348 is not to be used since Postdoctoral Trainees are not Government employees. However, IC administrative staff, on behalf of an IRTA Trainee, must complete an Acceptance Letter and essays a Certification Checklist indicating that the funding source is non-federal.

For additional information, see NIH Manual 1500, Chapter 08-00(F)(3)). When a separate travel allowance is available through an outside sponsor, at its discretion, an IC will supplement that allowance only to the extent that outside funding is insufficient to pay authorized travel costs. A personal check covering a travel advance overpayment must be hand-carried to of students, the Cashier’s Office attached to a copy of the travel voucher. Any un-recovered overpayment will be treated as a debt owed the U.S. Government. Use the FPS to paper warming, process terminations of all trainees immediately. Termination of the on responsibility of students, traineeship may be made prior to specific expiration date for scientific or other forms of misconduct or failure to comply with terms of the traineeship or to carry out or satisfy the a very old man with prompt, purpose for which it was made. All termination proposals for cause must be in on responsibility of students writing and provide the trainee with an opportunity to make a reply before a decision is rendered. In the case of personal incompatibility or any unforeseen programmatic circumstances, and absent any conduct issues, the IC should arrange for transfer of the trainee to another laboratory.

Fiscal considerations should not be the basis for early termination within the NIH Intramural Research Program. Trainees must reimburse Office of Financial Management (OFM), NIH for any and for and all stipend overpayments prior to OFM clearance. Essay Of Students! A personal check must be hand-carried to how to, the OFM “Fellowship Payment Office” with a copy of the FPS-generated termination notice. Any un-recovered overpayment will be treated as a debt owed the U.S. Government. In addition, if the on responsibility, Foundation for Advanced Education in the Sciences (FAES) (301-496-8063) is handling the trainee’s health insurance, it must be provided a “Notification of Termination” form, obtained from the IC’s Administrative Officer.

The FPS-generated “Notification of Termination” form must be hand-carried to research, FAES, which will provide advice and on responsibility of students answer questions on Consolidated Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act (C.O.B.R.A.) benefits. The form must be signed by an FAES representative before the end of the month in which the fellowship is terminated to avoid overpayment. If a trainee is transferring to another IC within NIH, the losing IC must indicate this in time the FPS module and notify the gaining IC. The gaining IC must accept and retrieve the trainee’s record. The effective date of essay on responsibility transfer must be the first day after the on homework, original award has ended or the first day of the subsequent month.

Trainees, because they are not employees, do not earn annual or sick leave. However, they may be excused for: 1) Federal holidays, 2) illness, 3) personal emergencies, and essay of students 4) vacations when awards are for more than 90 days. For vacations, trainees receive a minimum of two weeks excused absence per for and, year and the number of days should be prorated for Traineeships of essay 90 days or less. Preceptors may exercise discretion in granting additional short absences (less than a week per year) as they deem appropriate. More extended absences must be approved by how to focus on homework the IC Scientific Director. Eight weeks of excused absence will be granted for on responsibility of students, the birth or adoption of a child or other family health care.

In addition, ICs must excuse absences to on homework, accommodate a trainee’s military obligations, e.g. active duty, active duty training, and inactive duty training Not to Exceed (NTE) six weeks per year. Z. Essay Of Students! Excused Absence without Stipend. Absence without stipend may be approved by the preceptor with concurrence from the respective IC Scientific Director and OIR. Through the gmo essay, FPS, the IC must enter the effective date to temporarily stop payment and must reactivate the award in essay on responsibility the FPS to resume payment. For absences of 4-12 months, the gmo essay against, appointment clock will be extended to reflect the period of the absence without stipend. Absence without stipend for greater than 12 months will require a new appointment upon return. FAES Elected Health Insurance: Should a trainee with FAES health insurance plan to on responsibility, be absent without stipend for shorter time, less than 3 months, FAES requires the trainee to maintain continuous health insurance coverage. Specifically, trainees must personally complete a Consolidated Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1985 (C.O.B.R.A.) Application through FAES and begin to pay health insurance coverage premiums on the 1st day of the on responsibility of students, month following the start date of the unpaid absence and continue to research paper, pay for any month when trainee is on responsibility of students, not in a pay status on the first day of the month.

For example, if the trainee is absent without stipend effective June 15th through August 15th, the paper warming, trainee must pay health insurance premiums beginning July 1st (1st day of the month following the start date of unpaid absence) and pay the premium for the month of August (any month when trainee is not in a pay status on essay of students, the first day of the month) Should the trainee plan to be absent without stipend for more than 3 months, the trainee may choose to with enormous wings essay prompt, stop coverage and not pay the premium. Upon return to NIH, the trainee may then re-enroll as a new subscriber. Should the trainee prefer to continue health insurance coverage during this period of absence, the trainee must complete a C.O.B.R.A. application through FAES. Generally, C.O.B.R.A. coverage is limited to 18 months. Regardless of total time spent in unpaid absence, respective ICs must provide to FAES written notification generated from the FPS to on responsibility of students, include start and end date of unpaid absence. In addition, upon trainee’s return, ICs must provide a written notification generated from the FPS to FAES and OFM. All trainees may use the paper on global warming, Occupational Medical Service for injuries sustained and emergency care on the training assignment. Workers' compensation and benefits under the on responsibility, Federal Employees Compensation Act, 5 U.S.C. 8101(1)(B) may be applicable in the event of a work-related injury.

All trainees must have adequate health insurance coverage to receive training in NIH facilities. Gmo Essay Against! This requirement may be satisfied by of students a policy held either in the Trainee's name or in another's name with the Trainee identified as a family member. Verification of health insurance enrollment is required. An approved plan of health insurance is available through the Foundation for Advanced Education in the Sciences (FAES). FAES coverage requires that Trainees be on a training schedule of at least 32 hours per week and a minimum duration of 90 days. Should trainees elect FAES health insurance, they are responsible for enrolling in a very old man enormous wings essay FAES health insurance within the on responsibility, first 30 days of the award. Health insurance enrollment will be effective the date the trainee meets with FAES and find all required forms are signed. Essay On Responsibility! Enrollment data that reflects the FAES effective date must be entered into the FPS . Linking Phrases! Trainees must maintain an essay on responsibility, existing policy or purchase a personal policy until they have met with FAES and elected health insurance. Funds for individual or family FAES' fee-for-service Preferred Provider Option health insurance are provided to FAES by the sponsoring IC at the direction of the trainee. For a non-FAES policy, NIH will pay or reimburse for a policy issued in the Trainee's name in shorter essays time an amount not to exceed that of the FAES' fee-for-service Preferred Provider Option, individual or family coverage, as appropriate.

Alternatively, NIH will reimburse for any additional health insurance cost, if incurred, as a result of being covered under a spouse's plan and identified as a family member in an amount not to exceed the essay on responsibility, cost of the FAES' fee-for-service Preferred Provider Option. Sufficient documentation verifying health insurance coverage and documenting health insurance costs are required when using a non-FAES policy. When the outside sponsor provides insufficient funding for the purchase of health insurance coverage, the focus on homework, IC may provide supplemental funding to on responsibility of students, permit the purchase of a policy equivalent in cost to how to focus on homework, the FAES' fee-for-service Preferred Provider Option, individual or family coverage, as appropriate. An IC cannot provide a supplement solely to provide health insurance coverage – a stipend of at least $1 per on responsibility, year must also be authorized, even when the outside funding is greater than the applicable stipend. See Section Z, “Excused Absence without Stipend” if applicable. In cases where: 1) the duration of the Traineeship is less than 90 days and; 2) the personal purchase of a Health Insurance Policy would result in undue financial hardship for the student, the IC may pay the total associated cost. Trainees are not employees and therefore not eligible for Federal retirement benefits. Stipends are subject to Federal, state, and local income taxes; however, NIH does not withhold taxes from the Trainees' stipends.

The OFM annually prepares and sends appropriate income information to the IRS and to Trainees. Trainees may be required to file quarterly estimated Federal and State income tax returns. Since interpretation and implementation of the tax laws are the responsibility of the linking, Internal Revenue Services (IRS) and essay of students courts, Trainees should consult their local IRS office and/or tax advisor if they have questions about the applicability of the current tax code to research, the taxability of of students Traineeships, the proper steps to gmo essay for and against, be taken regarding tax obligations, and concerns regarding their own situations. Trainees are likely to be eligible for coverage under the Federal Tort Claims Act (28 U.S.C. 2671 et seq.) for damages or injuries that arise from of students actions occurring within the scope of how to on homework their assignment and while under the on responsibility of students, direct control and supervision of a Federal employee. However, the ultimate decision on issues of liability is made on a case-by-case basis by the courts. Should claims arise from the actions of Trainees acting within the scope of their assignments under the direct control and supervision of a federal employee, NIH would ask that they be defended by the Department of Justice as if they were Federal employees. Outside employment for Trainees must be approved in paper accordance with NIH Ethics Office policies http://ethics.od.nih.gov/. The NIH Office of essay on responsibility Intramural Training and Education will periodically evaluate the IRTA Program for representation of women, minorities, and disabled persons; to assess its relationship with other NIH Traineeship Programs; and to determine whether it is functioning effectively and accomplishing the purpose for which it was designed.

The results of find these evaluations and any recommendations for changes to the Program will be presented to the Office of Intramural Research (OIR), NIH, and the NIH Board of Scientific Directors (SD) for consideration. OIR will periodically review stipend ranges and/or schedules in consultation with the NIH Board of Scientific Directors. Recommended adjustments by OIR and the SD subcommittee on trainee stipends will be submitted to the Scientific Directors for review and concurrence and then to the Director, NIH for final approval. The publication and presentation of scientific research by Trainees are governed by on responsibility the same policies as applied to other scientists, either employed by or in training at NIH, as described in NIH Manual 1183 “NIH Publications and Audiovisuals: Preparation, Review, Approval, and Distribution.” Trainees, like employees and gmo essay against others working at NIH, are bound by all provisions of Executive Order 10096, as amended, 45 C.F.R. Part 7 and any orders, rules, regulations or policies issued thereunder for inventions conceived or first actually reduced to practice while at the NIH, as well as by HHS Technology Transfer Procedure Manual, Chapter 203.1, NIH Procedures Related to Disposition of Rights in Inventions by Non-Employees Working at NIH, Receiving NIH Intramural Training Support or Working On-Site under Research Collaborationshttp://ottintranet.od.nih.gov/Policy/203-1-Procedure.pdf (NIH-Access only). Trainees will disclose promptly, to the appropriate NIH officials, all inventions which they conceive or first actually reduce to essay on responsibility, practice during their assignment, and will sign and execute all papers necessary for a very old man enormous prompt, conveying to essay, the government the rights to which it is entitled by virtue of Executive Order 10096, as amended. Records must be maintained in accordance with Privacy Act System Notice: 09-25-0158, Administration: Records of Applicants and Awardees of the NIH IRTA Program, HHS/NIH/OD/OIR/OITE (Office of Intramural Training Education) for 5 years. AK.

Retention and Disposal of essay phrases Records. Records Retention and Disposal: All records (e-mail and non-e-mail) pertaining to this chapter must be retained and disposed of essay under the authority of the NIH Manual Chapter 1743, Keeping and Destroying Records, Appendix 1, NIH Records Control Schedule, Section 2300 Personnel, 320 Staff Fellowship Programs (all items that apply). NIH e-mail messages: NIH e-mail messages (messages, including attachments, that are created on the NIH computer systems or transmitted over the NIH networks) that are evidence of the activities of the agency or have informational value are considered Federal records. These records must be maintained in accordance with current NIH Records Management guidelines. Contact your IC Records Officer for additional information. All e-mail messages are considered Government property, and paper if requested for of students, a legitimate Government purpose, must be provided to the requester.

Employees' supervisors, the focus, NIH staff conducting official reviews or investigations, and essay of students the Office of Inspector General may request access to or copies of the shorter, e-mail messages. E-mail messages must also be provided to the Congressional Oversight Committees, if requested, and are subject to the Freedom of Information Act requests. Since most e-mail systems have back-up files that are retained for significant periods of time, e-mail messages and attachments are likely to be retrievable from a back-up file after they have been deleted from an individual's computer. The back-up files are subject to the same requests as the original messages. The purpose of essay of students this manual issuance is to provide policies and procedures for the implementation of the NIH Intramural Research Training Program. The Office responsible for internal controls relative to this manual issuance is the Office of Intramural Research (OIR).

Through this issuance the for and, OIR is accountable for the method used to essay on responsibility of students, ensure that internal controls are implemented and working. Frequency of linking Review: Periodic review of the essay on responsibility, fellowship process will be completed to old man enormous, determine if ICs are in compliance with policy. On Responsibility Of Students! Reviews will be conducted every 3-5 years. Method of Review: The OIR will initiate and lead reviews consisting of focus on homework a random sampling of fellowship files/documentation using a checklist that will monitor the ICs’ compliance with various important aspects of the policy. Review reports are sent to the Deputy Director for Intramural Research and to the Deputy Director for Management, NIH. Reports should indicate that controls are in place and working well or indicate any internal internal control issues that should be brought to on responsibility, the attention of the report recipient (s). Questions on how to against, obtain these forms should be directed to the designated IC Program Administrative Officials. Fellowship Request (FPS-generated) Fellowship Activation (FPS-generated) Election of essay Health Insurance Choice 1, 2, or 3 (FPS-generated) Absence without stipend and reactivation (FPS-generated) These documents (or copies) (in printed paper version) should be retained by the ICs as official system records for the IRTA Program.

Fellowship Termination Notice (FPS-generated) Since all IRTA Traineeships are considered awards for training and paper on global not wages for service or employment, neither Social Security nor Medicare is deducted from stipends. Although definitive determinations regarding Social Security obligations and coverage must be made by essay on responsibility of students the Internal Revenue Service and the courts, it is the opinion of the NIH Legal Advisor that Trainees are not self-employed but in training for phrases, purposes of coverage under the on responsibility of students, Social Security Act and therefore, can not make Social Security or Medicare payments on their own behalf. Trainees are encouraged to discuss this with their tax advisors. * If you require a 508 compliant PDF version of a chapter please contact manuals@od.nih.gov.

Office of Management Assessment, National Institutes of Health, 6011 Executive Blvd., Suite 601, MSC 7669, Rockville, MD 20852.

Essay Writer for All Kinds of Papers -
Write an Essay on Duties and Responsibilities of Students

one minute essay Often, the hardest words to write in essay on responsibility of students, an essay are the opening ones. Research Papers? When you’re doing the first draft, I’d suggest just writing your way through the introduction without worrying too much – you’ll want to come back to of students, it when you’ve got the how to on homework body and on responsibility of students the conclusion of focus, your essay firmly decided upon. But when you’re revising your essay, you should concentrate on making the opening paragraph as strong as possible – the person marking it will inevitably start forming an opinion of your essay’s worth within the essay on responsibility of students first few words. If you want to on homework, go beyond the essay on responsibility standard, rather bland, introduction of essay linking phrases, “In this essay, I am going to…” you might want to try out some of these openings for essay, your essay: My favourite way to start off an essay is with a pithy quote. A Very Old Man Enormous Essay Prompt? I don’t recommend picking one of the hilarious quotes listed on your Facebook profile, though; instead, try to find something as relevant as possible. If you’re writing an English essay, a good opening might be a line from essay on responsibility of students one of the plays or books that you mention in the essay – particularly if that line sets up the find papers angle that you’ll be taking on the question. If you’re studying Politics, a quote from a politician can work very well. Again, make it relevant to essay on responsibility, the essay (if you’re writing about Thatcherite Britian, “There’s no such thing as society” would be fine, but less so if you’re writing about the Middle Ages…)

When you can’t quite find a subject-specific quote that works, a famous proverb or saying (particularly one which might make your tutor smile) could work well. The best source of quotes are the textbooks you’re using, but if you’re still stumped, try: Another good way to open an essay is to define any key terms in the question. This might seem a bit of a bland opening, but it’ll show your tutor or examiner that you know what you’re talking about – and it sets the parameters of the discussion. For example, a word like “ideology” can be very loaded: if it appears in the question, you’ll want to make clear what definition you’ll be using throughout your essay. Try not to spend too long defining terms, though; whilst an indepth discussion of a very with enormous wings essay, one word can be fruitful, doing this for every single word in the question will just indicate that you’re not quite sure what your argument is… Famous example – A.D. Nuttall’s A Common Sky: If you’re feeling brave, you could open your essay with a bang by making a bold statement. (An easy way to do this is to completely disagree with the question or prompt that you’ve been given.) Make sure you can actually pull this one off by on responsibility, constructing a solid argument throughout the rest of the essay that backs up what you say in the introduction – you can use the essay and the conclusion to modify your starting point slightly, but you don’t want to do a complete U-turn. A slight variation on the bold statement would be to take two diametrically opposed points of view (perhaps two critics in your field), find a good snappy quote from each, and start off your essay with both these quotes, one after the other.

Famous example – Jean Jacques Rousseau’s The Social Contract. Depending on how formal an essay you’re writing, you might be able to open with an linking phrases anecdote. This could be from your own life, or a brief story or parable that you’re quoting. It can be an on responsibility of students effective way to draw the reader into how to, your essay and, if you’re writing an essay on responsibility of students essay for focus on homework, a competition or for a wide audience, it can be attention-grabbing. If you do choose to use this opener, be careful not to waffle, and be particularly wary when you’re writing about yourself! Three sentences is probably the maximum you should spend on any anecdote.

Famous example – George Orwell’s The Lion and the Unicorn. Essay titles are often statements rather than questions, like “Politics today is essay on responsibility, dominated by pragmatic concerns, not ideological ones. Discuss.” If you have a title like this, try starting off by posing your own question. In this case, I might start with “Has politics ever been free from essays pragmatic concerns?” and use the essay to argue that ideology and pragmatical considerations have always both been part of the political landscape. Using a question as the start of your essay can help give you focus and direction, particularly if the essay on responsibility of students title is broad or doesn’t automatically lead you towards a strong line of essays, argument. Famous example – Friedrich Nietzsche’s preface to essay of students, Beyond Good and for and against Evil: If you’re not quite ready to write the opening lines of your essay yet, try some of these articles…

Fifty Orwell Essays from Project Gutenburg. Essay Of Students? Orwell is a fantastic, easy-to-read yet profound essayist who writes very engagingly. Ten minute research – if you’re putting off starting your essay, get going here. Got a great way to start an essay? Ever tried out what you thought was a great way only for research papers, your tutor to essay on responsibility, scribble red-pen comments in how to focus on homework, the margin? Let us know in the comments… Hello to every one out here, Am here to share the unexpected miracle that happened to essay on responsibility of students, me,My name is FIDELIA WAYNE I. can’t believe my genital herpes is really cured, oh is by this time last year I start feeling bad about find research my life,

I feel pain everyday of my life am very happy now that am really cured I couldn’t have done this on my own. I was. searching the internet about this sickness last 3months when I found about great doctor unuigbe the man that kept. his words. I wrote Dr unuigbe email about essay my problem, immediately I get a reply from him asking me to fill a form. which I immediately did and research papers send back to him after some minutes he reply me that he have work on my cure that I. need to provide some materials, which can enable him to work on my cure which I did on essay on responsibility the next day of it, after.

some hours he inform me that he has gotten the things needed for research, the preparation of the herbal medication that. will cure my GENITAL HERPES VIRUS. After he finish preparing the medication, he send it to me and essay on responsibility also gave me. instructions on how i will be taking the medication. How To On Homework? I did exactly as instructed and behold, after 4 Weeks my. GENITAL HERPES VIRUS got cured.

I cant believe I was negative a big thanks to him, am very happy now with my. family. Of Students? you can also get your self cured too from this sickness by contacting him through his email. Hi to shorter, every one, it’s actually a fastidious for. me to go to see this web site, it includes valuable Information. Great weblog right here! Also your website lots up fast! What web host. are you using?

Can I am getting your affiliate link on your host? I want my web site loaded up as fast as yours lol. Appreciating the commitment you put into your blog and essay detailed information you provide. It’s great to come across a blog every once in a while. that isn’t the same old rehashed information. Excellent read! I’ve saved your site and I’m adding your RSS feeds to. my Google account. Always start at an edge and finish at an opposite edge. Since office buildings are many feet high they need.

some expert staff and required material and on homework tools in essay, order to. execute the cleansing process. For instance, dish soap can not. only be used for washing dishes but also for gmo essay for and, cleaning your laundry. Hey there I am so excited I found your web site, I really. found you by on responsibility of students, error, while I was lookingg on Digg for something else, Nonetheless I am here now and would just like to linking phrases, say tanks a lot for a remarkable. post and a all rround exciting blog (I also love the. theme/design), I don’t have time to look over it. all at the momeent but I have bookmarked it and of students also added your RSS feeds, so when I have time I will be back to shorter essays time, read mych more,

Please doo keep up the great work. (A broadband connection will deliver superior. audio and video quality). These games require you first to essay on responsibility of students, download an emulator and then the game. After you have master it then move on to another one. Pretty!

This was an extremely wonderful post. Thanks for supplying this info. It’s really very difficult in this active life to listen news. on TV, therefore I simply use world wide web for. that purpose, and get the most up-to-date news. This is essays, understandable when you look at how many millions of. individuals search home business ideas forr nurses (squeezepage2000.wordpress.com) these sort of jokbs on a daily basis.

Valuable info. Essay On Responsibility Of Students? Fortunate me I discovered your sitte by essay linking, accident, and essay on responsibility I’m shocked why this coincidence did. not happened earlier! I bookmarked it. Hi there, just became aware of your blog through Google, and found that it is focus, truly informative. I am gonna watch out. for brussels. I will be grateful if you continue this in future.

A lot of people will be benefited from your writing. I’ve learn several just right stuff here. Essay Of Students? Certainly price. bookmarking for for and against, revisiting. Essay Of Students? I surprise how a lot effort you set to make one of these wonderful informative. Hi to all, as I am actually eager of a very old man enormous essay prompt, reading this website’s post to be updated regularly. It carries fastidious information. If you don’t understand how interest rates work, it’s. easy to end up buried under a mountain of debt that is essay, hard to.

pay off. Petersburg in 2008 on one of the a very enormous wings essay prompt messengers, after getting an administrator in the largest electronic securities trading system. 9% pure research chemicals and designer drugs, with heavy discounts, and get them shipped anywhere you want, all in a. legal and highly convenient manner. Most of on responsibility of students, these have pretty simple interfaces, so just look through for the file title or deletion date and. see if it’s there. Mark Robinsson writes for It’s a technology blog about research papers consumer electronics. To make your personal computing safe from on responsibility such unwanted problems, you need to contact AVG support services. Hi there friends, its wonderful piece of old man wings prompt, writing regarding teachingand fully defined, keep it up all the time. It’s amazing in favor of me to have a web site, which is good designed.

for my experience. Essay On Responsibility Of Students? thanks admin. hi!,I really like your writing very much! share we keep up a correspondence more. about your post on AOL? I require an research on global warming expert on this area to resolve. my problem. Maybe that is you! Taking a look ahead. Hello! I realy like your article!

Use good academic papers online and all will be good! Some of the of students ins and research paper on global outs of maximizing the power of on responsibility, your PSP are covered in depth in these tutorials. Generally there appear to shorter essays, be hundreds these web sites of essay, which maintain to consider people. reports within your free app games download of on homework, charge credit history. The Playstation Brew software lets the essay on responsibility PSP run emulators which lets the user run games from older consoles such as the Sega Genesis and the Super Nintendo Entertainment system. At this moment I am going away to how to, do my breakfast, after having my breakfast coming over. again to read other news. VELOCITY: with velocity hack function you can easily develop your rate when you. are transferring to essay on responsibility, decrease. As a matter of fact, one needs to read the Qur’an over time and over again with complete concentration and meditation before one can fully discover its hidden treasures.

You can also imagine situations where you respond the essay way in which you wish to, and so. you can very quickly create in your mind those 10 to papers, 21 occasions which make your desired reaction habitual far more quickly. and easily than would otherwise be the case. , Kull, Brainstorm, Testament, Uncommon Valor, Star Trek 3: The Search for essay on responsibility, Spock, Volunteers, Something Wicked This. Way Comes, Cocoon and The Journey of essays time, Natty Gann. Thanks , I have just been looking for on responsibility of students, info about this subject for ages and yours is the greatest I have came upon phrases, so far. But, what about the bottom line? Are you positive concerning. Lastly, don’t make the error of not hiring an expert estate. Accustomed Information About this by-product.

Purchasing a used or new auto can be quite a difficult process unless you know what you are actually doing. Essay On Responsibility? By teaching yourself about car purchasing prior to visit the focus dealer, you possibly can make points less difficult for on responsibility, yourself. The following tips might help the next shopping trip become more pleasurable. Generally provide a mechanic alongside when looking for a very old man enormous prompt, a fresh automobile. Car merchants are notorious for selling lemons and on responsibility of students you do not want to be their following patient. If you can not obtain a auto mechanic to think about essays automobiles along with you, no less than be sure that you have him evaluate your final selection before buying it. Know your boundaries.

Prior to starting store shopping for essay on responsibility of students, your forthcoming automobile or truck, make a decision how much you can manage to shell out, and stay with it. Don’t forget about to include fascination with your calculations. Find Research Papers? You can expect to on responsibility, shell out time, around twenty percent as a down payment too, so be well prepared. Well before attending a car dealership, know which kind of car you need. Essay? Study each one of enormous essay prompt, you alternatives just before purchasing so you can decide what works well with your budget and loved ones needs. Shop around to determine simply how much you ought to pay for a potential auto. Before signing any contract spend some time to essay on responsibility of students, study each line, such as the small print.

When there is phrases, nearly anything outlined that you just do not understand, do not sign before you receive an essay answer that you understand. Unsavory salesmen are able to use a binding agreement to put in numerous costs that had been not reviewed. If you keep the preceding guidance in your mind the find research very next time that you simply go looking for a auto, you will be prone to get a full deal. Essay On Responsibility Of Students? Buying a auto does not have to on homework, become a head ache. Only use the on responsibility of students ideas with this article and you may receive the automobile you need at a excellent price. Accustomed Message About this offshoot.

Accepted Tidings Upon this issue. General Information Fro this outcome. General Information About this product. Overall Tidings Around this output applying to old man enormous essay, medical school. General Tidings Back this produce sti signs and symptoms. General Tidings Far this product chicago medical school. I have been exploring for essay on responsibility, a little bit for any high quality articles or blog. posts on this kind of space . Exploring in find papers, Yahoo I at last stumbled.

upon this site. Reading this info So i am glad to on responsibility, convey that I’ve a very just. right uncanny feeling I found out exactly what I needed. Gmo Essay For And? I. such a lot indubitably will make sure to essay on responsibility of students, do not overlook this site and give it a.

look on a relentless basis. Global Message Fro this outcome. Non-specific Dope Fro this branch. Thank you a lot for find research papers, sharing this with all of us you really. realize what you’re talking about! Bookmarked.

Kindly also discuss with my web site =). We could have. a hyperlink alternate agreement between us. Set Dope Involving this effect. How Will ObamaCare Affect Me? Inclusive Intelligence About this product std female symptoms. Hi blogger, i must say you have hi quality content here. Essay On Responsibility? Your blog should go. viral. You need initial traffic only.

How to essay, get it? Search for; Mertiso’s tips go viral.

Expert Essay Writers -
How to Be a Responsible Student (with Pictures) - wikiHow

animal essay farm The animals are shocked by this announcement, because they do like the meetings. The animals do not know how to argue back though, so their limited voice has just been completely damped out. During elections for a leader, citizens will need to pick who they are going to vote for. The voters can not make the right decision if they do not even know why they are voting for whom. If the citizens of animal farm had known what napoleon was planning to do, he would not have been elected with such little. They encounter many obstacles from of students amongst the simpler animals, who are afraid of what might happen if Jones was not around to feed them. Also, Moses the essay linking, Raven is always telling the animals about an on responsibility of students, animal’s paradise called Sugarcandy Mountain, where the animals go when they die.

Many of the animals believe in Sugarcandy Mountain, and the pigs have to keep on persuading them that no such place exists. Without any planning, the rebellion happens on Midsummer’s day, just before harvest. Farmer. (Orwell 27) to calm down the perturbed animals. He first calls them “Comrades” (27) and therefore names them as his friends. This sets the mood to a supposedly friendly manner and could help make the animals believe more, since Squealer is allegedly their friend and friends do not lie to one another. Likewise, he cries that they “do not imagine” (27) that the pigs are eating the fruits of the essay phrases, diligent animals’ hard work. This is used to on responsibility confuse the animals and make them start to doubt their belief.

Eventually the principles of Animalism are reduced to one principle: “all animals are equal, but some animals are more equal than others. (Orwell, 1945) ” It is important to a very old man with enormous wings essay prompt note that in Animal Farm Orwell is not attacking the essay, underlying principles of Socialism that are propagated by Karl Marx and Lenin, but rather the perversion of these principles by leaders like Stalin. Although Animal Farm is written as a critique of Stalin era Soviet Union, it could be widely viewed as a critique of any system. reality check after so much narrative about the utopian lifestyle of Animal Farm. The passage does clear up a few questions any inquisitive reader would have about the outside world. I mean, wouldn't you think that the other neighboring farmers might think something's up if one day they see a bunch of pigs supervising horses plow a field? Anyway, Orwell explains, It was lucky that the essay phrases, owners of the two farms which adjoined Animal Farm were on essay on responsibility of students, permanently bad terms. Anyone considering the allegorical. there was a case of the milk disappearing mysteriously. How To On Homework? The pigs were the most intelligent of all the animals, so they hold debates for the other animals and eventually established a study-room for themselves. One of these pigs, Snowball, decided to campaign for essay on responsibility of students economic improvement in the farm. Napoleon, on the other hand, decided to oppose everything Snowball did. Against? Unlike the pigs, not every animal was as clever to memorize the Commandments, so Snowball decided to reduce them into one thought: Four.

Traditional fables are quite short and the animals are not usually given a great deal of character. Although Animal Farm is quite a short book, there is time for George Orwell to develop characters in a manner that makes them appealing (or appalling) to the readers. His greatest success in this area is Boxer, with his mottoes, Napoleon is always right and I will work harder. On the symbolic level, Boxer represents the Russian workers who trusted Stalin and made enormous sacrifices to ensure. Animalism and its purpose of equality. Power was not a part of Old major’s vision. While Snowball is very intelligent and seems to want the best for Animal Farm Napoleon is just power-hungry. Essay On Responsibility? It is clear that Napoleon is jealous of research warming, Snowball, so he begins to plan how to get rid of him. To do this, Napoleon uses the dogs to essay on responsibility chase Snowball off the farm. When they return to him it’s as if they have no regret. Shorter Essays Time? “It was noticed that they wagged their tails to him in the same way as the other dogs had been.

Napoleon uses propaganda, terror and disempowerment of animals in various forms to generate a dystopian society with himself in command. Blind loyalty and of students ignorance of Napoleon's ulterior motives becomes the eventual downfall of how to on homework, Animal Farm's utopian dream. This is made all the essay, more easy by on homework the way in which the animals are peer-pressured into actions that they may not have willingly chosen. The use of the sheep's perpetual chanting of “Four legs good, two legs bad”, worked so well earlier in essay of students, the. where he lyrically describes the dream he had. And another was by saying out loud how horrible and terrible their life under Jones rule is, and how they need to be treated well. He mentioned some of the essay phrases, animals in his speech to connect with and persuade them. This had a powerful effect on the other animals as they show great enthusiasm to Old Major’s dream.

Explain the character Boxer and how he contributes to the stories theme. Boxer, the carthorse, represents the best characteristics. Animal Farm by George Orwell Essay. sleeping in beds. When the animals took over the farm and changed their way of life, they made several Codes or Commandments, which the animals on animal farm would abide to. These commandments were to remain unchanged. However, as the farm developed, the pigs started to essay on responsibility claim more and more power over the rest of the animals.

This included altering certain commandments without letting the rest of the animals know. This was achieved, because the essay linking, majority of the animals (apart from the pigs) have. Each paragraph should first explain the behavior of the character, giving examples from the story. Then each should explain how the behavior contributes to the loss of freedom and equality on on responsibility, Animal Farm. Follow the Leader! ©2000-2003www.beaconlearningcenter.com Rev.9.8.03 Decide on for and against, the order in essay on responsibility, which you want to a very old man enormous essay prompt discuss the two characters. On Responsibility? You may want to emphasize the behavior that you think contributes most to the loss of freedom and equality. Essays? The final point that is discussed in. harder!’ However, Boxer doesn’t see that he is overworking himself, and no matter what Benjamin and Clover try to tell him, he insists that everything will be solved if he works harder.

Also, Boxer is a simple character and, like most of the other animals, doesn’t see that the pigs are taking advantage, and essay on responsibility of students after Snowball is overthrown, Boxer lives by his two mottoes ‘I will work harder’ and ‘Napoleon is always right’. Old Benjamin, an elderly donkey, is unchanged by the rebellion. He still does. Essay on Animal Farm by George Orwell. Cowshed.

Mr. Jones appears back at the farm to take back what was rightfully his, but he was defeated once again. Towards the with enormous essay, end of the summer, news about Animal Farm spread around the on responsibility, town. Mr. Pilkington and Mr. Frederick, the neighboring farm owners, become scared of the thought of seeing their own farm being taken over by their animals. Then these men marched towards Animal Farm. Snowball starts to create a defense and the humans are quickly defeated by the animals. During the battle lives were lost.

Animal Farm by essay linking George Orwell Essay. This phenomenon is not unique to Russia or Animal Farm: it happens throughout the essay on responsibility of students, world. Governments have done similar things to improve their standing by blaming an invisible enemy. The purges and show trials with which Stalin eliminated his enemies and cemented his power mirrors the false confessions and essay executions of animals that Napoleon distrusts after the windmill collapse. Stalin’s tyrannical rule and abandonment of the founding principles of the Russian Revolution are represented by Napoleon’s. On Responsibility? Animal Farm, by George Orwell Essay. theme of George Orwell’s Animal Farm is that excessive power and greed lead to absolute corruption.

The life lesson expressed is that your own personal gain should not place the welfare of the group at risk, but they should work in unison. Orwell demonstrates in his novel that when we lose sight of our original goal we can be consumed by greed and power and abuses the rights and freedom of others. Napoleon exemplifies obsession with power. In the beginning the animals were ruled by a terrible thoughtless. Essay on Allegory used in Animal Farm.

Orwell uses comparison to provide a contrast between Stalin and the Russian working class. The stark growing divergence of their ideals, and for and against the difference between the carefully made plans of Stalin and of students Napoleon and the bling following of the farm animals and the working class, who don’t realize they’re being manipulated until it’s too late. Orwell writes a convincing argument in the favour of education and need for knowledge to gain the upper hand in find papers, this situation. Revolutions that are born. The Role of Propaganda in of students, Animal Farm Essay. assure the other animals that saving all the milk and apples for themselves was not their own choice: “You don’t imagine… that we pigs are doing this in a spirit of selfishness and privilege? Many of us actually dislike milk and apples. Gmo Essay? I dislike them myself.

Our sole object… is to essay preserve our health. Do you know what would happen if we fail our duty? Jones would come back!” By mentioning their recent master as an excuse for keeping the apples and papers milk, Squealer distracts the on responsibility of students, animals from the reality. The Literary Merit of Animal Farm Essay. Orwell gets the desired straightforward plot he is desires, but at the same time loses sight with his original goal of satirizing the actual revolution. Although it is gmo essay for and, never explicitly stated in the book, the events that occur in Animal Farm closely follow those of the Russian communist movement. Many critics can trace every sentence in the book to a date and place in Russia. Jeffrey Meyers, author of three Orwellian biographies, claims that . Though critics have often interpreted. Animal Farm by George Orwell Essay.

News of the rebellion at the Animal Farm, formally known as the Manor Farm, quickly spreads to the rest of the essay on responsibility, animals in England. Soon they even learn the words to the “Beasts of England”. When Mr. Gmo Essay For And Against? Jones hears about this, he gathers some townsmen to help him regain his farm, but the animals successfully defend their new territory. Shortly after, Mollie, a young mare, runs away to work pulling a dogcart for a man that feeds her sugar lumps. As winter comes around, Snowball, one of the pigs, begins. Animal Farm Compare and Contrast Essay. For example throughout the entire story the pigs are in charge of everyone and treat the other animals with very little respect. They got the other animal’s trust this way because Old Major, who was one of the most majestic and wisest of the pigs, used a method of reaching to the animals’ emotions by telling them they are mistreated badly by humans and they needed to rebel and they all live short lives and they should live it freely. His character reflects the actions of Adolf Hitler. During WWII.

Animal Farm Napoleon Stalin Essay. snowball was able to get the on responsibility, animals in his favor and research papers Napoleon called a pack of dogs which he was taking care of to run Snowball out of the farm. After this Napoleon becomes the leader and essay on responsibility of students tyrant of the Animal Farm. Napoleon goes from being a co-leader with the rest of the pigs at the beginning of the revolution to a tyrant. Through the story, Napoleon's traits changed drastically. There were numerous occasions in which Napoleon used propaganda to control the research paper on global, animals in Animal Farm. Propaganda is used very. Animal Farm-The hunger for power Essay. On Responsibility? like leaders over the other animals just like Farmer Jones. The more the pigs set themselves above the other animals, the more one can predict that the pigs’ power eventually assists them when they become dictators. Old Major, the wise old pig, warns the animals about the possible rise of time, a single power if the animals do not follow the commandments. “Above all, no animal must ever tyrannise over his own kind.

Weak or strong, clever or simple, we are all brothers…All animals are equal” (Orwell 11). Old. Macbeth and Animal Farm Analysis Essay. boar, the only Berkshire on the farm” as well as stating that he was “not much of a talker but with a reputation for getting his own way.” This immediately sets him apart from the rest of the pigs and the word “only” also shows he has a different mind-set from those around him and is a unique and individual character. The deliberate use of the word “large” is effective as it foreshadows the magnitude of of students, Napoleon’s ambition to gain power and how to on homework control of Animal Farm. The description of Napoleon as “fierce-looking” Essay on Animal Farm, by George Orwell. Czar said, “The law will henceforward be respected and obeyed not only by on responsibility the nation but also the authority that rules it - and that the law would stand above the for and, changing views of the individual instruments of the supreme power.” (Pares 420).

The animal Napoleon can be compared as a character representing Stalin in Russia. Both were very mean looking, didn’t talk very much but always got what they wanted through force. In one part of the book Napoleon charged the dogs on Snowball, the other pig in. “Jones” to keep his authority and control the animals. Also he does not allow people to vote. This shows that he is not a democratic leader and he frighten animals to control. Thirdly. Napoleon violence to keep his authority. He never likes animals to on responsibility question him or disobey his statements. For instance; Napoleon wanted hens to give their eggs to pigs and he wanted 60 eggs per a week. He told that the need to sell eggs to get enough food for the farm. At first hens didn’t wanted to give their eggs.

Essay on linking phrases, Animal Farm: a Fairy Story. Themes: Manipulating Language a. Essay Of Students? If the paper on global, animals don’t “volunteer” to work on Sundays their rations of food would be reduced. b. This isn’t voluntary work. The reason is because if they chose to its okay but if they don’t they’ll be punished in a way. The pigs are just putting it in a nice way instead of saying they have to work. 6.Characterization: a. Mr. Whymper is was a sly-looking man with side whiskers. b. Napoleons new policy for getting items the farm need is to engage in trade. This doesn’t.

Essay on The Contemporary Relevance of Animal Farm poverty, hunger, lack of basic health care but claim to be living in a democratic nation (10). Orwell portrays this exact case in his story. The pigs belong to a social class that has privileges, while the other animals work hard but do not get enough food. The pigs fatten, when the other animals live in hunger. On Responsibility Of Students? The rich class in the developing world has access to a quality life, quality education, and security. There are schools distinct for the rich, and the poor cannot afford such schools. The rich. he was sent to the “knacker’s” but alas, he wasn’t fast enough: “Come at once!

They’re taking Boxer away!” he shouted . . . Sure enough, there was a . . . van, drawn by two horses . . . Find Research? And Boxer’s stall was empty . . . “Good-bye, Boxer!” [The animals] chorused . . . “Fools! Fools!” shouted Benjamin . . . “Fools! Do you not see what is essay on responsibility, written on . . . that van? . . . Alfred Simmonds, Horse Slaughterer . . . They are taking Boxer to the knacker’s!” . Shorter Essays Time? . Essay? . But the van was already . For And? . On Responsibility? . drawing away. Political Satire in Animal Farm by George Orwell Essay. A Very Old Man Wings? This battle clearly parallels the overthrow of Czar Nicholas II.

The animals rename Manor Farm more appropriately Animal Farm. Of Students? At first everything seems to go well on the farm. Focus? The two most prominent leaders of the animals begin to make rules for the animals to follow. Napoleon and Snowball, who parallel the leadership of Stalin and Trotsky, begin to take over the leadership roles on the farm. The main theme of Animal Farm starts to become evident here. It is that in every society and on responsibility organization. Animal Farm: Differences between the essays, Book and essay the Film Essay. not really affect the animals because he died because of his age. On the other hand, in the movie old Major is accidently shot by gmo essay for and Mr. Essay On Responsibility Of Students? Jones. Right after Major gives his speech Jones accidently shoots old Major because he thought there was something in his barn.

This occurs in find research papers, the movie when Jones fires two shots in the air and one hits Major, and Major falls out the barn on the other side. Of Students? The shooting of old Major really affected the animals in the movie because now the animals had more anger against. How To Focus? Animal Farm: the Story of Animals Were Overworked, Tied and Starved. Napoleon was a cruel, selfish and manipulative pig. He was the essay on responsibility, sole ruler of for and, Animal Farm after he had gotten Snowball run off the farm.At first, Napoleon lead the animals into thinking that the work they did was to profit themselves. Instead, the only ones who were benefiting were the pigs. Essay? (QUOTE) It was not until later that they realized that they were overworked, starved and tired. None of what they put into their work, did they get back. Napoleon, along with taking more than his share, also had.

Napoleon, the Symbol of Oppression in Animal Farm Essay. Napoleon, unfortunately, became an asylum for these traits, festering with every misdeed he commits to the farm. At first it had just been acts of how to focus, selfishness, taking the of students, apples and milk for the pig’s consumption, with their excuse being “our sole object in for and, taking these things is to preserve our health. Milk and apples…. We pigs are brain workers. The whole management and organization of this farm depend on us” (Orwell 36). Napoleon’s morals grew worse until eventually he took a liking to alcohol and. Animal Farm, by on responsibility George Orwell: An Allegory to the Russian Revolution. A Very Old Man With Prompt? Old Major helps the weak animals on the farm become strong by unifying them with a common vision promising a better life with dignity, a life of comfort and on responsibility of students freedom. With the promise of a better life the animals overcome their fear and unite to overtake the farm. After the successful revolution, they have a new set of commandments to live by.

They give themselves a new identity with a constitution to guide them. The pigs fill the power vacuum left by the departure of Farmer Jones and soon a power. Essay on Tyranny in Animal Farm, by Geopge Orwell. Though the work was hard, animals were happy, as they worked only for themselves. However, this society was doomed to on homework become corrupt.

The main reason for corruption to occur was that the leaders began to put their interests and desires before of others; they wanted to obtain exclusive privileges in order to satisfy them. They no longer cared about the well-being of the farm. In spite of essay on responsibility, fact that there was the one, among the leaders, who wanted the society to prosper, who wanted to insert innovations. The Humane Treatment of Animals vs. Factory Farms Essay. com/watch?v=u-uYSafpKmk). Use of a very wings prompt, antibiotics is a necessity with factory farms, to stave off disease of so many animals living so closely together. And the list of horrors grows longer. Watch a clip from this film and if you can, check it out from your local video source and watch the whole film: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yh8c9OUti4c In factory farms, animals are products or commodities, not animals, not pets; they have no rights. After watching some of essay, these films, you get the. The Tragic Consequences of the for and, Rebellion on essay on responsibility, Animal Farm Essay.

The naivety of the animals was they key to shorter essays which Napoleon was able to essay on responsibility take over the farm so quickly and easily. Old Man Enormous Prompt? Another factor to consider was the way Napoleon terrorised his so-called comrades in order to gain power. He did this by using his personally trained guard dogs, who constantly monitored the essay on responsibility of students, animals and punished any that dared to go against Napoleon’s many commands. Old Man With Enormous Wings? Soon after Napoleon’s rule commenced, the animals found that the essay of students, morale that had existed in Old. Essay about gmo essay against, Power Corrupts in Animal Farm. With this, Squealer was brought to power with Napoleon and Snowball. Essay On Responsibility Of Students? Squealer was known for is good public speaking and essay prompt his ability to persuade the animals to do whatever him and Napoleon wanted them to do. Squealer represents the on responsibility of students, propaganda of government.

Squealer working with Napoleon is like the government working with Stalin. Squealer often gets caught in arguments but always finds a way to get out of essay, it. This is like the Pravda which was a daily paper that came to prominence after the. Oppressive Systems of Government in Egypt and Animal Farm Essay. country voted for based on policies not related to politics, and therefore would have a political agenda that does not benefit the country well. In “Animal Farm,” the pigs use propaganda tactics to keep control of the other animals. Squealer, second in command to Napoleon, often spreads lies and other propagandist messages to convince the on responsibility of students, animals that all is well, similar to the Egyptian media that propagates pro-government messages. The leader, Napoleon, also attempts to blame an enemy for their.

Language and Meaning in Animal Farm by George Orwell Essays. Moses is paper, afforded special treatment not available to the other animals. For example, he is the only animal not present at the meeting called by Old Major as the book opens. Later, the reader is told the other animals hate the raven because he does not do any work, in fact, the pigs give him a daily ration of on responsibility, beer. Like Lenin, who proclaimed religion was the opiate of the people, Orwell sees organized religion as another corruptible institution which serves to keep the masses tranquil. Moses preaches. The Similarities of the Russian Revolution and Animal Farm by George Orwell. Paper On Global? actions towards Snowball. Leon was inspired by Karl Marx’s theory of Communism, which was made to unite the workers of the world creating the essay on responsibility, perfect society. On the other hand, Animalism is created to make a world where all animals are together and share in the success of the farm.

Leon Trotsky was represented by find papers Snowball, who thought that a number of rebellions were required to achieve the revolution's goals. Snowball invented many influential plans like the windmill, which reflects on Trotsky’s intelligent. On Responsibility? Lord of the Flies and Animal Farm Comparison Essay. this is clear when reading the a very old man enormous essay, books in which they appear. Essay On Responsibility Of Students? Both books have two characters of warming, great similarity. The first is Piggy; the side kick in Lord of the Flies. Essay Of Students? The second is research, Squealer; Napoleons messenger and deliverer of propaganda in Animal Farm. Both show some weaknesses in character, but also strength of mind. Piggy's naivety and dependability is shown often throughout Golding's book. Piggy's naivety and dependable nature is portrayed in open admiration and essay on responsibility of students reliance upon Ralph. Piggy. Essay on Exploration Of The Main Themes In Animal Farm

The animals had assumed that it would be shared out equally so they began to wings essay prompt stir. The pigs quickly silenced this and put the other animals minds at rest by essay on responsibility sending in Squealer, the main propagandist throughout the story. Squealer explains “Milk and apples (This has been proven by science comrades) contain substances absolutely necessary to the well-being of a pig” and that if they were not to eat them “Jones would come back” Squealer uses science, something most of the animals know nothing about. Animal Farm, by George Orwell Essay example. was conceptualized to encourage industrial growth in the country, which is similar to the plans for essays the windmill that were Napoleon’s (that Snowball recognized as his own). The windmill was designed to create electricity (industrialization) for the animals, so their corrals could be heated. With the essay of students, corruption of the first Five Year Plans (and thus the destruction of the windmill), a new set of Five Year Plans, as was a new windmill, introduced. It is Napoleon who is. The Use of Distortion as a Literary Device in George Orwell#x27;s Animal Farm. working class animals and instills a sense of essay linking phrases, uncertainty and disillusionment that is felt by on responsibility of students most of the characters in shorter essays time, the story. In the essay on responsibility, beginning, the animals are excited by essay phrases Major’s talk of rebellion against Mr.

Jones and through Orwell’s objective point of view, the same feeling of insurrection is passed on to the audience. As the pigs weave an essay of students, intricate web of lies and scandal, the reader gets the sense that not all is well in the same way the animals do. The difference between the essay linking, animals and ourselves. Comparing Events in Animal Farm and the Russian Revolution through Symbolism. Like the essay on responsibility, animals in the farm yard, the with, people is Russia thought there would be no oppression in a new society because the working class people (or animals) would own all the riches and hold all the power. On Responsibility? (Golubeva and Gellerstein 168). Research? In Marx’s “Communist Manifesto”, Marx calls attention to change.

The animals, at first, resisted the dictatorship of the humans and wished to govern themselves where all animals were equal. Like in Russia, the essay on responsibility of students, common people were tired of the rich getting richer. Animal Farm - Napoleon and Boxer Act in how to, Ways to Destroy Freedom and Eq. The animals think that killing is against one of the commandments, but when Muriel reads the essay on responsibility of students, writing on the barn wall to on homework Clover, interestingly, the words are, No animal shall kill any other animal without cause. In addition, Napoleon completely transforms the farm into the same or worse way it was in the hands of Man.

He mimics Man: adopts all its bad habits which are against the animals with the exception of the pigs. The other aspect that is against essay, the followers is that Napoleon in general clearly. Propaganda, War, Famine and Death in Orwell#x27;s Animal Farm Essay. outside world and surrounding farms and how to teach them to sing Beasts of England from essay on responsibility of students beginning to end propaganda has been there. Snowball spread propaganda that would promote Animalism by building a windmill. This windmill was to be used for luxuries that would make life better for everyone on Animal Farm.

Snowball also said that although the construction would be difficult all animals would benefit in the long run. His positive attitude, ideas and how to focus propaganda excited the animals so much that they wanted. Animal Farm Analytical Essay Comparing and essay of students Contrusting Erin Brockonvich. his care for other animal and not his love of controlled. Paper? Orwell construct the hens and the sheep as freedom fighter who has lost their life fighting for justice, who has been executed by napoleon. The rest of the animal represents the civilian who are under the on responsibility of students, regulation of essay phrases, napoleon. Paragraph 4 George Orwell positions the reader to understand the abuse of on responsibility, power by constructing his character Napoleon Evil and constructing the animals as powerless.

In the novel Animal Farm the author has constructed. How To On Homework? How Napoleon Achieved and Maintained Power in essay of students, George Orwell#x27;s Animal Farm. credibility was another of Napoleon’s tricks. Any animal who admired Boxer (one of the shorter, most well respected and famous characters on the farm) would have followed and essay imitated Boxer and his ‘Napoleon is always right’ attitude, thus earning Napoleon more supporters (much like the Labor Party did in their hiring of Peter Garrett…). Napoleon and Snowball were supposed to be joint leaders of the revolution, but they had different ideas as to how Animal Farm should be run. Snowball was more interested in.

Expert Essay Writers -
How to Be a Responsible Student (with Pictures) - wikiHow

essay on why world About World War I. T he First World War was truly #145;the Great War#146;. Its origins were complex. Its scale was vast. Its conduct was intense. Its impact on military operations was revolutionary. Its human and material costs were enormous.

And its results were profound. The war was a global conflict. Thirty-two nations were eventually involved. Twenty-eight of these constituted the Allied and Associated Powers, whose principal belligerents were the of students British Empire, France, Italy, Russia, Serbia, and the United States of America. They were opposed by the Central Powers: Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, Germany, and the Ottoman Empire. The war began in the Balkan cockpit of competing nationalisms and ancient ethnic rivalries. Hopes that it could be contained there proved vain. Expansion of the war was swift. Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia on 28 July 1914; Germany declared war on Russia on 1 August.

Germany declared war on France on 3 August and invaded Belgium. France was invaded on 4 August. German violation of Belgian neutrality provided the find British with a convenient excuse to enter the war on the side of France and Russia the same evening. Austria-Hungary declared war on Russia on 6 August. On Responsibility? France and Great Britain declared war on gmo essay Austria-Hungary six days later. The underlying causes of these events have been intensively researched and debated. Modern scholars are less inclined to allocate blame for the outbreak of war than was the case in the past. They have sought instead to understand the on responsibility of students fears and ambitions of the governing lites of Europe who took the fateful decisions for war, particularly that of imperial Germany. Fears were more important than ambitions. Of the powers involved in the outbreak of war, only Serbia had a clear expansionist agenda. The French hoped to recover the provinces of Alsace and gmo essay against, Lorraine lost to Germany as a result of their defeat in the Franco-Prussian War of essay on responsibility of students, 1870-1, but this was regarded as an attempt at restitution rather than acquisition.

Otherwise, defensive considerations were paramount. The states who embarked on shorter essays the road to of students, war in 1914 wished to preserve what they had. This included not only their territorial integrity but also their diplomatic alliances and their prestige. These defensive concerns made Europe's statesmen take counsel of their fears and research, submit to the tyranny of events. The Austrians feared for the survival of their multi-racial Empire if they did not confront the of students threat of research papers, Serb nationalism and Panslavism.

The Germans feared the consequences to themselves of allowing Austria, their closest and only reliable ally, to be weakened and humiliated. The Russians feared the threat to their prestige and essay of students, authority as protector of the Slavs if they allowed Austria to defeat and humiliate Serbia. The French feared the superior population numbers, economic resources, and military strength of essay phrases, their German neighbours. France's principal defence against the threat of German power was its alliance with Russia. On Responsibility Of Students? This it was imperative to defend. The British feared occupation of the gmo essay Low Countries by of students a hostile power, especially a hostile power with a large modern navy. But most of all they feared for the long-term security of research paper warming, their Empire if they did not support France and Russia, their principal imperial rivals, whose goodwill they had been assiduously cultivating for a decade. All governments feared their peoples.

Some statesmen welcomed the war in the belief that it would act as a social discipline purging society of dissident elements and encouraging a return to patriotic values. Others feared that it would be a social solvent, dissolving and transforming everything it touched. The process of expansion did not end in August 1914. Other major belligerents took their time and waited upon events. Italy, diplomatically aligned with Germany and Austria since the on responsibility Triple Alliance of 1882, declared its neutrality on 3 August. In the following months it was ardently courted by France and Britain.

On 23 May 1915 the Italian government succumbed to Allied temptations and declared war on Austria-Hungary in essays pursuit of territorial aggrandizement in the Trentino. Bulgaria invaded Serbia on 7 October 1915 and sealed that pugnacious country's fate. Serbia was overrun. The road to Constantinople was opened to the Central Powers. Romania prevaricated about which side to join, but finally chose the Allies in August 1916, encouraged by the success of the Russian 'Brusilov Offensive'. It was a fatal miscalculation. The German response was swift and decisive.

Romania was rapidly overwhelmed by two invading German armies and its rich supplies of on responsibility of students, wheat and oil did much to keep Germany in the war for another two years. Romania joined Russia as the other Allied power to suffer defeat in the war. It was British belligerency, however, which was fundamental in turning a European conflict into a world war. Britain was the world's greatest imperial power. The British had world-wide interests and enormous prompt, world-wide dilemmas. On Responsibility? They also had world-wide friends. Germany found itself at war not only with Great Britain but also with the dominions of Australia, Canada, New Zealand, and phrases, South Africa and with the greatest British imperial possession, India. Concern for the defence of India helped bring the British into essay on responsibility, conflict with the Ottoman Empire in November 1914 and resulted in a major war in gmo essay for and against the Middle East. Essay Of Students? Most important of all, perhaps, Britain's close political, economic, and cultural ties with the United States of America, if they did not ensure that nation's eventual entry into the war, certainly made it possible.

The American declaration of war on shorter essays Germany on 6 April 1917 was a landmark not only in the history of the United States but also in that of Europe and the world, bringing to an end half a millennium of European domination and ushering in 'the American century'. The geographical scale of the conflict meant that it was not one war but many. On the Western Front in essay on responsibility France and Belgium the French and their British allies, reinforced from 1917 onwards by the Americans, were locked in a savage battle of attrition against the German army. A Very Essay Prompt? Here the essay war became characterized by increasingly elaborate and sophisticated trench systems and field fortifications. Dense belts of barbed wire, concrete pillboxes, intersecting arcs of machine-gun fire, and accumulating masses of quick-firing field and heavy artillery rendered man#156;uvre virtually impossible. Against? Casualties were enormous. The first phase of the war in the west lasted until November 1914. This witnessed Germany's attempt to defeat France through an enveloping movement round the left flank of the French armies. The plan met with initial success. The advance of the essay on responsibility of students German armies through Belgium and northern France was dramatic. The French, responding with an offensive in old man with wings Lorraine, suffered an essay of students, almost catastrophic national defeat.

France was saved by the iron nerve of how to on homework, its commander-in-chief, General J. J. Essay Of Students? C. Joffre, who had not only the intelligence but also the strength of character to linking, extricate himself from the ruin of his plans and order the historic counter-attack against the German right wing, the 'miracle of the Marne'. The German armies were forced to retreat and to entrench. Their last attempt at a breakthrough was stopped by French and British forces near the small Flemish market town of Ypres in November. On Responsibility? By Christmas 1914 trench lines stretched from the Belgian coast to the Swiss frontier. Although the events of a very with enormous wings essay, 1914 did not result in a German victory, they left the Germans in a very strong position.

The German army held the strategic initiative. It was free to retreat to positions of tactical advantage and to reinforce them with all the skill and ingenuity of essay on responsibility, German military engineering. Gmo Essay For And? Enormous losses had been inflicted on France. Two-fifths of France's military casualties were incurred in 1914. These included a tenth of the officer corps. German troops occupied a large area of northern France, including a significant proportion of French industrial capacity and of students, mineral wealth. These realities dominated the second phase of the war in the west.

This lasted from on homework November 1914 until March 1918. It was characterized by the unsuccessful attempts of the French and their British allies to evict the German armies from French and Belgian territory. During this period the essay Germans stood mainly on the defensive, but they showed during the Second Battle of Ypres (22 April-25 May 1915), and more especially during the Battle of Verdun (21 February-18 December 1916), a dangerous capacity to gmo essay, disrupt their enemies' plans. The French made three major assaults on the German line: in the spring of 1915 in Artois; in the autumn of 1915 in Champagne; and in the spring of essay of students, 1917 on the Aisne (the 'Nivelle Offensive'). These attacks were characterized by the intensity of the fighting and the absence of achievement. Little ground was gained. No positions of strategic significance were captured. Gmo Essay For And? Casualties were severe.

The failure of the Nivelle Offensive led to a serious breakdown of morale in the French army. For much of the rest of 1917 it was incapable of essay of students, major offensive action. The British fared little better. Although their armies avoided mutiny they came no closer to breaching the German line. During the battles of the Somme (1 July19 November 1916) and essays, the Third Battle of essay on responsibility of students, Ypres (31 July-12 November 1917) they inflicted great losses on the German army at essay phrases great cost to themselves, but the German line held and essay on responsibility of students, no end to the war appeared in sight. The final phase of the war in the west lasted from 21 March until 11 November 1918.

This saw Germany once more attempt to achieve victory with a knock-out blow and find papers, once more fail. The German attacks used sophisticated new artillery and infantry tactics. They enjoyed spectacular success. The British 5th Army on the Somme suffered a major defeat. But the British line held in front of of students, Amiens and later to the north in for and front of Ypres. No real strategic damage was done. By midsummer the German attacks had petered out. The German offensive broke the essay of students trench deadlock and returned movement and man#156;uvre to the strategic agenda. It also compelled closer Allied military co-operation under a French generalissimo, General Ferdinand Foch. The Allied counter-offensive began in July.

At the Battle of Amiens, on 8 August, the British struck the German army a severe blow. For the rest of the war in linking phrases the west the Germans were in retreat. On the Eastern Front in Galicia and Russian Poland the Germans and their Austrian allies fought the gallant but disorganized armies of Russia. Here the distances involved were very great. Essay? Artillery densities were correspondingly less. Man#156;uvre was always possible and cavalry could operate effectively. This did nothing to lessen casualties, which were greater even than those on the Western Front. The war in the east was shaped by German strength, Austrian weakness, and Russian determination.

German military superiority was apparent from the start of the war. The Russians suffered two crushing defeats in 1914, at Tannenberg (26-31 August) and the Masurian Lakes (5-15 September). Find Research? These victories ensured the security of Germany's eastern frontiers for essay on responsibility of students the rest of the war. They also established the military legend of Field-Marshal Paul von Hindenburg and General Erich Ludendorff, who emerged as principal directors of the against German war effort in the autumn of 1916. By September 1915 the Russians had been driven out of Poland, Lithuania, and Courland. Austro-German armies occupied Warsaw and the Russian frontier fortresses of on responsibility, Ivangorod, Kovno, Novo-Georgievsk, and Brest-Litovsk. These defeats proved costly to Russia. They also proved costly to Austria. Austria had a disastrous war.

Italian entry into the war compelled the Austrians to fight an three fronts: against Serbia in the Balkans; against Russia in Galicia; against Italy in the Trentino. This proved too much for Austrian strength. Their war effort was characterized by dependency on Germany. Germans complained that they were shackled to the 'Austrian corpse'. The war exacerbated the Austro-Hungarian Empire's many ethnic and national tensions. By 1918 Austria was weary of the war and desperate for peace. This had a major influence on the German decision to seek a victory in the west in the spring of 1918.

Perceptions of the Russian war effort have been overshadowed by the October Revolution of essay linking phrases, 1917 and by on responsibility of students Bolshevik 'revolutionary defeatism' which acquiesced in the punitive Treaty of gmo essay for and against, Brest-Litovsk (14 March 1918) and took Russia out of the war. This has obscured the essay on responsibility astonishing Russian determination to keep faith with the Franco-British alliance. Without the Russian contribution in gmo essay for and the east it is far from certain that Germany could have been defeated in the west. The unhesitating Russian willingness to essay on responsibility, aid their western allies is nowhere more apparent than in the 'Brusilov Offensive' (June-September 1916), which resulted in the capture of the Bukovina and large parts of Galicia, as well as 350,000 Austrian prisoners, but at a very old man with essay a cost to Russia which ultimately proved mortal. In southern Europe the Italian army fought eleven indecisive battles in an attempt to dislodge the Austrians from essay on responsibility of students their mountain strongholds beyond the Isonzo river. In October 1917 Austrian reinforcement by essay linking phrases seven German divisions resulted in a major Italian defeat at Caporetto. The Italians were pushed back beyond the Piave.

This defeat produced changes in the Italian high command. During 1918 Italy discovered a new unity of purpose and a greater degree of organization. On Responsibility Of Students? On 24 October 1918 Italian and British forces recrossed the Piave and shorter, split the Austrian armies in two at Vittorio Veneto. Austrian retreat turned into of students, rout and research paper warming, then into surrender. In the essay of students Balkans the Serbs fought the Austrians and Bulgarians, suffering massive casualties, including the highest proportion of servicemen killed of linking, any belligerent power. In October 1915 a Franco-British army was sent to Macedonia to operate against the Bulgarians.

It struggled to have any influence on the war. The Germans mocked it and declared Salonika to be the biggest internment camp in Europe, but the French and British eventually broke out of the essay malarial plains into the mountainous valleys of the Vardar and Struma rivers before inflicting defeat on linking Bulgaria in the autumn of 1918. In the Middle East British armies fought the Turks in a major conflict with far-reaching consequences. Essay On Responsibility? Here the war was characterized by the doggedness of Turkish resistance and by the constant struggle against climate, terrain, and disease. The British attempted to knock Turkey out of the focus war with an attack on the Gallipoli peninsula in April 1915, but were compelled to withdraw at the end of the year, having failed to break out from their narrow beach-heads in the face of stubborn Turkish resistance, coordinated by a German general, Liman von Sanders. The British also suffered another humiliating reverse in Mesopotamia when a small army commanded by Major-General C. V. F. Townshend advanced to Ctesiphon but outran its supplies and was compelled to surrender at Kut-al-Amara in April 1916. Only after the appointment of Sir Stanley Maude to the command of British forces in Mesopotamia did Britain's superior military and economic strength begin to assert itself.

Maude's forces captured Baghdad in March 1917, the on responsibility first clear-cut British victory of the war. Essay Linking? The following June General Sir Edmund Allenby was appointed to command British forces in Egypt. He captured Jerusalem by Christmas and in September 1918 annihilated Turkish forces in Palestine. Turkey surrendered on 31 October 1918. The war also found its way to essay, tropical Africa.

Germany's colonies in West and south-west Africa succumbed to British and South African forces by the spring of 1915. In East Africa, however, a German army of old man, locally raised black African soldiers commanded by Colonel Paul von Lettow-Vorbeck conducted a brilliant guerrilla campaign, leading over 100,000 British and South African troops a merry dance through the bush and surrendering only after the defeat of Germany in Europe became known. On and under the oceans of the world, Great Britain and Germany contested naval supremacy. Surface battles took place in the Pacific, the south Atlantic, and the North Sea. The British generally had the better of these despite suffering some disappointments, notably at Coronel (1 November 1914) and Jutland (31 May-1 June 1916), the only major fleet engagement, during which Admiral Sir John Jellicoe failed to deliver the expected Nelsonic victory of total annihilation. Submarine warfare took place in the North Sea, the Black Sea, the on responsibility Atlantic, the Mediterranean, and shorter essays, the Baltic. German resort to unrestricted submarine warfare (February 1917) brought Britain to the verge of ruin. German violation of international law and sinking of American ships also helped bring the United States into the war on the Allied side.

The British naval blockade of Germany, massively reinforced by the Americans from April 1917, played an essay, important role in German defeat. The geographical scale of the conflict made it very difficult for political and military leaders to research paper warming, control events. The obligations of coalition inhibited strategic independence. Short-term military needs often forced the great powers to allow lesser states a degree of licence they would not have enjoyed in peacetime. Governments' deliberate arousal of essay on responsibility of students, popular passions made suggestions of compromise seem treasonable. The ever-rising cost of the military means inflated the political ends. Hopes of a peaceful new world order began to replace old diplomatic abstractions such as 'the balance of gmo essay against, power'. Of Students? Rationality went out of season. War aims were obscured. Strategies were distorted. Great Britain entered the war on proclaimed principles of international law and in research paper defence of the rights of small nations.

By 1918 the British government was pursuing a Middle Eastern policy of naked imperialism (in collaboration with the French), while simultaneously encouraging the aspirations of Arab nationalism and promising support for the establishment of a Jewish national home in Palestine. It was truly a war of illusions. Europe's political and military leaders have been subjected to on responsibility, much retrospective criticism for their belief that the #145;war would be over by how to Christmas'. This belief was not based on complacency. Even those who predicted with chilling accuracy the murderous nature of essay on responsibility, First World War battlefields, such as the Polish banker Jan Bloch, expected the war to be short. This was because they also expected it to be brutal and costly, in both blood and research paper, treasure.

No state could be expected to sustain such a war for very long without disastrous consequences. The war which gave the lie to these assumptions was the American Civil War. Essay? This had been studied by European military observers at close quarters. Most, however, dismissed it. This was particularly true of the Prussians. Their own military experience in the wars against Austria (1866) and France (1870-1) seemed more relevant and compelling. These wars were both short. They were also instrumental. Papers? In 1914 the on responsibility of students Germans sought to replicate the success of their Prussian predecessors. They aimed to fight a 'cabinet war' on the Bismarckian model. To do so they developed a plan of breath-taking recklessness which depended on focus the ability of the German army to essay of students, defeat France in the thirty-nine days allowed for a war in the west.

Strategic conduct of the First World War was dominated by essays German attempts to achieve victory through knock-out blows. Erich von Falkenhayn, German commander-in-chief from September 1914 until August 1916, was almost alone in his belief that Germany could obtain an outcome to the war satisfactory to its interests and essay on responsibility, those of its allies without winning smashing victories of total annihilation. His bloody attempt to win the war by attrition at Verdun in 1916 did little to recommend the strategy to his fellow countrymen. The preference for knock-out blows remained. It was inherited from German history and was central to Germany's pre-war planning. Pre-war German strategy was haunted by the fear of a war on two fronts, against France in research paper on global warming the west and Russia in the east. The possibility of a diplomatic solution to on responsibility, this dilemma was barely considered by the military-dominated German government. A military solution was sought instead. The German high command decided that the best form of defence was attack. They would avoid a war on two fronts by knocking out one of their enemies before the find papers other could take the field.

The enemy with the slowest military mobilization was Russia. The French army would be in the field first. France was therefore chosen to receive the essay of students first blow. Once France was defeated the German armies would turn east and defeat Russia. The Schlieffen Plan rested on two assumptions: that it would take the Russians six weeks to put an army into the field; and that six weeks was long enough to defeat France. By 1914 the first assumption was untrue: Russia put an army into the field in essay linking fifteen days. The second assumption left no margin for on responsibility error, no allowance for the inevitable friction of war, and was always improbable. The failure of the a very with enormous wings Schlieffen Plan gave the First World War its essential shape. This was maintained by the enduring power of the German army, which was, in John Terraine's phrase, 'the motor of the war'. The German army was a potent instrument.

It had played a historic role in the emergence of the German state. It enjoyed enormous prestige. It was able to recruit men of talent and dedication as officers and NCOs. As a result it was well trained and well led. On Responsibility Of Students? It had the political power to command the enormous wings essay resources of Germany's powerful industrial economy. Germany's position at the heart of Europe meant that it could operate on interior lines of communication in a European war. The efficient German railway network permitted the movement of German troops quickly from front to front. The superior speed of the essay of students locomotive over find research papers the ship frustrated Allied attempts to use their command of the sea to operate effectively against the periphery of the Central Powers. The power of the German army was the fundamental strategic reality of the war. 'We cannot hope to win this war until we have defeated the on responsibility German army,' wrote the commander-in-chief of the British Expeditionary Force, Field Marshal Sir Douglas Haig. This was a judgement whose consequences some Allied political leaders were reluctant to embrace.

The German army suffered from two important strategic difficulties. The first of essay linking phrases, these was the inability of the German political system to forge appropriate instruments of strategic control. The second was Great Britain. German government rested on the tortured personality of the Kaiser. It was riven by intrigue and indecision. The kind of centralized decision-making structures which eventually evolved in Britain and France (though not in Russia) failed to evolve in Germany. When the Kaiser proved incapable of coordinating German strategy, he was replaced not by a system but by other individuals, seemingly more effective. Field Marshal Paul von Hindenburg radiated calm and of students, inspired confidence.

This gave him the appearance of a great man but without the how to on homework substance. General Erich Ludendorff was a military technocrat of outstanding talent, but he was highly strung and without political judgement. In 1918 his offensive strategy brought Germany to ruin. The failure to develop effective mechanisms of strategic control applied equally to on responsibility, the Austro-German alliance. The Austrians depended on German military and economic strength, but the Germans found it difficult to turn this into linking, 'leverage'. Austria was willing to take German help but not German advice.

Only after the crushing reverses inflicted by Brusilov's offensive did the Austrians submit to German strategic direction. By then it was almost certainly too late. Germany's pre-war strategic planning was based entirely on winning a short war. British belligerency made this unlikely. The British were a naval rather than a military power. They could not be defeated by the German army, at least not quickly. The British could, if necessary, hold out even after their Continental allies had been defeated. They might even have chosen to do this. They had in essay on responsibility the past and they would again in the not-too-distant future. The German navy was too weak to defeat the British, but large enough to time, make them resentful and suspicious of German policy; it ought never to have been built.

British entry into on responsibility, the war dramatically shifted the shorter time economic balance in favour of the on responsibility Allies. Britain was one of the world's great industrial powers. Seventy-five per cent of the world's shipping was British built and much of it British owned. London was the shorter time world's greatest money and commodities market. British access to essay, world supplies of a very wings prompt, food and credit and to imperial resources of manpower made them a formidable enemy, despite the of students 'contemptible little army' which was all they could put into the field on the outbreak of war. From about mid-1916 onwards British economic, industrial, and manpower resources began to focus, be fully mobilized. Germany was forced for the first time to confront the reality of material inferiority. Germany had increasingly to fight a war of on responsibility, scarcity, the a very old man with wings prompt Allies increasingly a war of abundance. French strategy was dominated by the German occupation of much of northern France and most of Belgium. At its closest point the German line was less than 40 miles from Paris. A cautious, defensive strategy was politically unacceptable and psychologically impossible, at least during the essay on responsibility first three years of the war.

During 1914 and 1915 France sacrificed enormous numbers of men in the attempt to evict the Germans. This was followed by the torment of how to focus, Verdun, where the Germans deliberately attempted to 'bleed France white'. French fears of military inferiority were confirmed. Essay On Responsibility Of Students? If France was to prevail its allies would have to contribute in time kind. On Responsibility? For the British this was a radical departure from the historic norm and one which has appalled them ever since.

British strategy became increasingly subordinated to old man with enormous essay, the needs of the Franco-British alliance. Essay? The British fought the find research papers war as they had to, not as they wanted to. The British way in of students warfare envisaged a largely naval war. Essays? A naval blockade would weaken Germany economically. If the German navy chose not to break the stranglehold Germany would lose the war. If it did choose to fight it would be annihilated. British maritime superiority would be confirmed. Neutral opinion would be cowed. Fresh allies would be encouraged into the fight. The blockade would be waged with greater ruthlessness.

Military operations would be confined to the dispatch of a small professional expeditionary force to of students, help the French. Remaining military forces would be employed on the periphery of the Central Powers remote from the German army, where it was believed they would exercise a strategic influence out of all proportion to their size. The British never really fought the find papers war they envisaged. The branch of the British army which sent most observers to the American Civil War was the Corps of Royal Engineers. And it was a Royal Engineers' officer, Lord Kitchener, who was one of the few European political and military leaders to recognize that the war would be long and require the complete mobilization of national resources. Kitchener was appointed Secretary of State for War on 5 August 1914. He doubted whether the French and the Russians were strong enough to defeat Germany without massive British military reinforcement. He immediately sought to raise a mass citizen army. There was an overwhelming popular response to his call to arms.

Kitchener envisaged this new British army taking the essay on responsibility field in how to 1917 after the French and on responsibility, Russian armies had rendered the German army ripe for defeat. They would be 'the last million men'. They would win the find papers war and decide the peace. For the British a satisfactory peace would be one which guaranteed the long-term security of the British Empire. This security was threatened as much by Britain's allies, France and Russia, as it was by essay on responsibility Germany. It was imperative not only that the gmo essay Allies win the war but also that Britain emerge from it as the dominant power. Kitchener's expectations were disappointed. By 1916 it was the French army which was ripe for defeat, not the German. But the obligations of the French alliance were inescapable. The British could not afford to acquiesce in a French defeat. French animosity and resentment would replace the valuable mutual understanding which had been achieved in the decade before the war.

The French had a great capacity for making imperial mischief. And so did the Russians. If they were abandoned they would have every reason for doing so. There seemed no choice. The ill-trained and ill-equipped British armies would have to take the field before they were ready and be forced to take a full part in the attrition of German military power. The casualties which this strategy of of students, 'offensive attrition' involved were unprecedented in British history. They were also unacceptable to some British political leaders. Winston Churchill and how to on homework, David Lloyd George (Prime Minister from on responsibility of students December 1916), in particular, were opposed to the British army 'chewing barbed wire' on the Western Front. They looked to use it elsewhere, against Germany's allies in the eastern Mediterranean, the Middle East, and the Balkans. Their attempts to find research papers, do this were inhibited by the need to keep France in the war. This could only be done in France and by fighting the German army.

They were also inhibited by on responsibility of students the war's operational and tactical realities. These imposed themselves on Gallipoli and in Salonika and in Italy just as they did on the Western Front. Attempts to implement an Allied grand strategy enjoyed some success. Allied political and military leaders met regularly. At Chantilly in December 1915 and December 1916 they determined to stretch the German army to its limits by simultaneous offensive action on the western, eastern, and Italian fronts. A Supreme Allied War Council was established at Versailles on 27 November 1917, and was given the power to control Allied reserves. Franco-British co-operation was especially close. This was largely a matter of practical necessity which relied on the mutual respect and understanding between French and British commanders-in-chief on the Western Front. The system worked well until the shorter essays time German Spring Offensive of essay of students, 1918 threatened to divide the shorter essays Allies. Only then was it replaced by a more formal structure. But not even this attained the on responsibility levels of joint planning and control which became a feature of Anglo-American co-operation in the Second World War.

Allied grand strategy was conceptually sound. How To? The problems which it encountered were not principally ones of planning or of co-ordination but of performance. Achieving operational effectiveness on the battlefield was what was difficult. This has given the war, especially the war in the west, its enduring image of boneheaded commanders wantonly sacrificing the lives of their men in essay fruitless pursuit of impossibly grandiose strategic designs. The battlefields of the First World War were the product of a century of a very old man with wings, economic, social, and political change. Europe in 1914 was more populous, more wealthy, and more coherently organized than ever before. The rise of nationalism gave states unprecedented legitimacy and authority. Of Students? This allowed them to demand greater sacrifices from their civilian populations. Improvements in agriculture reduced the numbers needed to work on a very old man with enormous wings essay prompt the land and provided a surplus of males of military age.

They also allowed larger and larger armies to be fed and kept in the field for years at a time. Changes in administrative practice brought about by the electric telegraph, the telephone, the typewriter, and the growth of railways allowed these armies to be assembled and deployed quickly. Industrial technology provided new weapons of unprecedented destructiveness. Quick-firing rifled cannon, breech-loading magazine rifles, and essay of students, machine-guns transformed the shorter range, rapidity, accuracy, and deadliness of military firepower. They also ensured that in any future war, scientists, engineers, and mechanics would be as important as soldiers. These changes did much to make the First World War the first 'modern war'. On Responsibility Of Students? But it did not begin as one. The fact of a firepower revolution was understood in most European armies. Essays Time? The consequences of it were not. The experience of the essay on responsibility of students Russo-Japanese War (1904-5) appeared to offer a human solution to the problems of the technological battlefield.

Victory would go to the side with the best-trained, most disciplined army, commanded by generals of iron resolution, prepared to maintain the against offensive in the face of huge losses. As a result the opening battles of the war were closer in conception and execution to those of the Napoleonic era than to the battles of of students, 1916 onwards. It is difficult to say exactly when 'modern' war began, but it was apparent by the end of 1915 that pre-war assumptions were false. Well-trained, highly disciplined French, German, and Russian soldiers of high morale were repeatedly flung into battle by commanders of a very old man wings, iron resolve. The results were barren of strategic achievement. The human costs were immense. The 'human solution' was not enough. The search for on responsibility a technological solution was inhibited not only by the tenacity of pre-war concepts but also by the limitations of the technology itself. The principal instrument of education was artillery. And the mode of linking, instruction was experience.

Shell-fire was merciless to troops in essay the open. The response was to get out of the open and into the ground. Soldiers did not dig trenches out of focus, perversity in order to be cold, wet, rat-infested, and essay on responsibility of students, lice-ridden. They dug them in order to survive. The major tactical problem of the war became how to break these trench lines once they were established and essay linking phrases, reinforced. For much of the war artillery lacked the ability to find enemy targets, to hit them accurately, and to destroy them effectively. Contemporary technology failed to provide a man-portable wireless. Communication for most of the war was dependent on telephone or telegraph wires. These were always broken by shell-fire and difficult to protect. Artillery and infantry commanders were rarely in voice communication and both usually lacked 'real time' intelligence of battlefield events; First World War infantry commanders could not easily call down artillery fire when confronted by an enemy obstruction. As a result the coordination of infantry and artillery was very difficult and often impossible.

Infantry commanders were forced to fall back on their own firepower and this was often inadequate. The infantry usually found itself with too much to do, and on responsibility of students, paid a high price for its weakness. Artillery was not only a major part of the problem, however. It was also a major part of the solution. A Very Enormous Wings Essay? During 1918 Allied artillery on the western front emerged as a formidable weapon. Target acquisition was transformed by on responsibility of students aerial photographic reconnaissance and the sophisticated techniques of flash-spotting and sound-ranging. These allowed mathematically predicted fire, or map-shooting. The pre-registration of phrases, guns on enemy targets by essay on responsibility of students actual firing was no longer necessary. The possibility of surprise returned to the battlefield.

Accuracy was greatly improved by maintaining operating histories for individual guns. Battery commanders were supplied with detailed weather forecasts every four hours. Paper Warming? Each gun could now be individually calibrated according to its own peculiarities and according to wind speed and direction, temperature, and humidity. All types and calibres of guns, including heavy siege howitzers whose steep angle of fire was especially effective in trench warfare, became available in virtually unlimited numbers. Munitions were also improved.

Poison gas shells became available for the first time in large numbers. High explosive replaced shrapnel, a devastating anti-personnel weapon but largely ineffective against the earthworks, barbed wire entanglements, and essay on responsibility, concrete machine-gun emplacements which the infantry had to assault. Instantaneous percussion fuses concentrated the explosive effect of essays, shells more effectively against barbed wire and reduced the cratering of the battlefield which had often rendered the forward movement of essay on responsibility, supplies and reinforcements difficult if not impossible. Shorter? Artillery-infantry co-operation was radically improved by essay of students aerial fire control. The tactical uses to which this destructive instrument were put also changed.

In 1915, 1916, and for much of 1917 artillery was used principally to kill enemy soldiers. It always did so, sometimes in a very with wings large numbers. But it always spared some, even in front-line trenches. Essay On Responsibility? These were often enough, as during the first day of the Battle of the Somme (1 July 1916), to inflict disastrous casualties on attacking infantry and bring an entire offensive to a halt. From the autumn of 1917 and during 1918, however, artillery was principally used to suppress enemy defences. Command posts, telephone exchanges, crossroads, supply dumps, forming-up areas, and gun batteries were targeted. Find? Effective use was made of poison gas, both lethal and lachrymatory, and smoke. The aim was to essay on responsibility of students, disrupt the a very essay enemy's command and on responsibility, control system and keep his soldiers' heads down until attacking infantry could close with them and bring their own firepower to essays time, bear.

The attacking infantry were also transformed. In 1914 the British soldier went to war dressed like a gamekeeper in a soft cap, armed only with rifle and bayonet. In 1918 he went into battle dressed like an industrial worker in a steel helmet, protected by a respirator against poison gas, armed with automatic weapons and mortars, supported by tanks and ground-attack aircraft, and preceded by a creeping artillery barrage of essay of students, crushing intensity. Firepower replaced manpower as the instrument of victory. This represented a revolution in the conduct of war.

The ever-increasing material superiority of the western Allies confronted the German army with major problems. Its response was organizational. As early as 1915 even the weakly armed British proved that they could always break into the German front-line trenches. How To Focus On Homework? The solution was to deepen the trench system and limit the number of infantry in the front line, where they were inviting targets for enemy artillery. The burden of defence rested on machine-gunners carefully sited half a mile or so behind the front line. From the on responsibility of students autumn of 1916 the Germans took these changes to their logical conclusion by instituting a system of 'elastic defence in depth'.

The German front line was sited where possible on a reverse slope to make enemy artillery observation difficult. A formal front-line trench system was abandoned. The German first line consisted of machine-gunners located in research papers shell-holes, difficult to detect from the air. Their job was to disrupt an enemy infantry assault. Of Students? This would then be drawn deep into the German position, beyond the linking phrases supporting fire of its own guns, where it would be counter-attacked and destroyed by the bulk of the German infantry and artillery. This system allowed the Germans to survive against an Allied manpower superiority of more than 3:2 on on responsibility the Western Front throughout 1917 and to inflict significant losses on their enemies. The German system required intelligent and well-trained as well as brave soldiers to make it work. An increasing emphasis was placed on essay linking phrases individual initiative, surprise, and speed. In 1918 specially trained #145;stormtroops', supported by a hurricane bombardment designed to disrupt their enemies' lines of communication and their command and control systems, were ordered to bypass points of resistance and advance deep into essay, the enemy's rear. The success they enjoyed was dramatic, and much greater than anything achieved by the French and for and against, British, but it was not enough. Essay On Responsibility? Attacking German infantry could not maintain the on homework momentum and inflict upon enemy commanders the kind of moral paralysis achieved by German armoured forces in 1940.

The Allied line held and essay on responsibility of students, exhausted German infantry were eventually forced back by gmo essay for and against the accumulating weight and essay on responsibility, increasing sophistication of Allied material technology. The material solution to the problems of the First World War battlefield, favoured by the western Allies, was not in find papers the gift of soldiers alone. It depended on essay on responsibility the ability of the armes' host societies to produce improved military technology in ever-greater amounts. This, in turn, depended on the effectiveness of their political institutions and the quality of a very with enormous essay, their civilian morale. It was a contest at which the of students liberal democracies of France and Great Britain (and eventually the research paper on global United States of America) proved more adept than the authoritarian regimes of Austria-Hungary, Germany, and essay, Russia.

The 'modern war' fought from 1916 onwards resolved itself simply into a demand for more: more men, more weapons, more ammunition, more money, more skills, more morale, more food. Some of the demands were contradictory. More men meant more men for the armies and more men for the factories. Balancing the competing demands was never easy. 'Manpower' (a word first coined in 1915) became central to the war effort of all states. The Allies were in a much stronger position than Germany. They had access not only to their home populations but also to those of their empires. How To Focus On Homework? 630,000 Canadians, 412,000 Australians, 136,000 South Africans, and 130,000 New Zealanders served in the British army during the war. Very large numbers of Indian troops (800,000 in Mesopotamia alone) and a small number of Africans (perhaps 50,000) also served. (The British also employed several hundred thousand Chinese labourers to work on their lines of communication.) The French recruited some 600,000 combat troops from essay of students North and West Africa and a further 200,000 labourers. And of course there were the Americans.

American troops arrived in France at the rate of 150,000 a month in 1918. Truly the new world had come in to redress the balance of the old. The British and essay phrases, French were particularly successful in mobilizing their economies. In Britain this had much to do with the work of David Lloyd George as Minister of Munitions (May 1915-July 1916). The grip of the skilled trade unions on industrial processes was relaxed.

Ancient lines of demarcation were blurred. Women replaced men in the factories. Research and development were given a proper place in industrial strategy. Prodigies of production were achieved. Essay On Responsibility Of Students? On 10 March 1915, at the Battle of Neuve Chapelle, the British Expeditionary Force struggled to accumulate enough shells for half an hour's bombardment. In the autumn of 1918 its 18-pounder field guns were firing a minimum of 100,000 rounds a day. The French performance was, in many ways, even more impressive, given that so much of their industrial capacity was in German hands. Not only did the French economy supply the French army with increasing amounts of old and new weaponry, but it also supplied most of the American Expeditionary Force's artillery and aeroplanes. The French aircraft industry was, arguably, the best in Europe and provided some of the leading aircraft of the war, including the Nieuport and the SPAD VII. Morale was also a key factor.

All sides tried to explain and justify the old man wings essay prompt war and used increasingly refined techniques of propaganda to maintain commitment to the cause. Giving the impression of adversity shared equally among the classes became a key theme. One of the major threats to this was the equality of access to food supplies. In Germany this proved increasingly difficult to maintain. Morale deteriorated and industrial efficiency suffered as a result. British agriculture did not perform particularly well during the war, but British maritime superiority and financial power allowed them to command the agricultural resources of North and South America and on responsibility, Australasia. Food was one of the Allies#146; principal war-winning weapons. The degree of active resistance to find, the war was low in of students most countries.

But war-weariness set in everywhere by 1917. There were many strikes and much industrial unrest. In Russia this was severe enough to produce a revolution and then a Bolshevik coup d#146;tat which took Russia out of the war in how to focus on homework 1918. The social consequences of this mass mobilization were less spectacular than is sometimes claimed. There were advances for the organized working class, especially its trade unions, especially in of students Britain, and arguably for research paper women, but the working class of Europe paid a high price on the battlefield for social advances at home.

And in the defeated states there was very little social advance anyway. The First World War redrew the essay map of Europe and the Middle East. Four great empires, the Romanov, the gmo essay Hohenzollern, the Habsburg, and the Ottoman, were defeated and collapsed. They were replaced by a number of of students, weak and sometimes avaricious successor states. Russia underwent a bloody civil war before the establishment of a Communist Soviet Union which put it beyond the pale of shorter essays, European diplomacy for a generation. On Responsibility Of Students? Germany became a republic branded at its birth with the stigma of research papers, defeat, increasingly weakened by the burden of Allied reparations and by on responsibility of students inflation. France recovered the provinces of Alsace and Lorraine, but continued to be haunted by fear and loathing of Germany. Italy was disappointed by the territorial rewards of a very old man enormous essay, its military sacrifice.

This provided fertile soil for Mussolini's Fascists, who had overthrown parliamentary democracy by essay on responsibility 1924. The British maintained the integrity and independence of Belgium. Shorter Essays Time? They also acquired huge increases in imperial territory and imperial obligation. But they did not achieve the of students security for the Empire which they sought. Shorter Essays? The white dominions were unimpressed by essay of students the quality of British military leadership. The First World War saw them mature as independent nations seeking increasingly to go their own way. The stirrings of revolt in India were apparent as soon as the war ended. In 1922 the British were forced, under American pressure, to abandon the Anglo-Japanese alliance, so useful to them in protecting their Far Eastern empire.

They were also forced to accept naval parity with the Americans and phrases, a bare superiority over the Japanese. 'This is not a peace,' Marshal Foch declared in 1919, 'but an armistice for twenty-five years.' The cost of all this in human terms was 8.5 million dead and 21 million wounded out of some 65 million men mobilized. The losses among particular groups, especially young, educated middle-class males, were often severe, but the demographic shape of Europe was not fundamentally changed. The real impact was moral. The losses struck a blow at European self-confidence and pretension to superior civilization. It was a blow, perhaps, whose consequences have not even now fully unfolded.

From The Oxford Illustrated History of Modern War . Ed. Charles Townshend. Essay On Responsibility? Oxford: Oxford UP, 1997. Copyright © 1997 by Oxford University Press.