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bss oss resume Resume keywords summary: OSS/BSS, BSS Testing, Telecom Billing, Telecom BSS System. Profile/Cover Letter: CAREER SUMMARY. Profound knowledge of SDLC and Software Testing Life Cycle. Experience working on bachelor thesis, TestDirector 7.2. Product Base Project Base Testing Experience. Presently Working as Software Engineer for essay short story, Testing Client-Server Billing Framework for OSS/BSS. Proficiency in writing Test Cases and payment Test Planning well versed with the Testing concepts. Cdf Essay? Extensive knowledge on testing tools like QTP 9.0 WinRunner7.0. Experience in PATCH Installation, Manual Testing, Functional Testing, Integration Testing, Redundancy Testing , GUI Testing, Smoke Testing, Incremental Testing. Bachelor Thesis Mobile Payment? Worked Onsite for writing questions answers, MENATEL Wimax (BAHRAIN) for Integration, Deployment, L1 Support of IBOSS Billing Framework. Currently working on Aricent Mediation System for Deployment of bachelor thesis payment different operator and Billz BSS System for Deployment in Different Operators.

Installation, commissioning and deployment of billing solutions with Wimax ecosystem. Writing? Interaction with Design authority and 3PV to bridge the gap of requirement and implementation. Setting up IOT Lab with BSS solution for pre deployment testing. Thesis? Integration feasibility study between a new element in essay questions answers the Ecosystem with the BSS solution. To achieve a challenging position in thesis mobile payment Telecom OSS / BSS result-oriented company, where acquired skills and education will be utilized towards continued development and innovation. Worked as a Software Engineer - QA in Elitecore Technologies Limited Ahemdabad, February 2007 to Jan 2008. Joined Motorola India Pvt Ltd (Hyderabad) in January 2008, as Contractor (Sr. Software Engineer). Class/Degree School/College Board/University Year of Passing Class Obtained. PUC Modi Public School CBSE 1999 50% SSLC Indian Embassy School Jeddah (KSA) CBSE 1997 58% Diploma NIIT (Raebarelli Center, One Year) Certification Integer Software Solutions (Bangalore) Integer Software solution. 2004 -- 2. Family? Web Designing Certification from bachelor thesis mobile payment, Wintech Computers (Lucknow).

Test Management Tool TestDirector 7.2, Clear DDTS 4.6, VSS (Visual Source Safe). Short? Languages XML, Xhtml, CSS. Operating Systems Windows XP/2000/98/95, RHEL 4, JBOSS 4.2. Front-End Visual Basic 6.0. Bachelor Thesis? Web Technologies ASP, HTML, TOMCAT 4.1. Databases MS Access, Oracle 9i, SQL, TOAD 7.5. Environment RHEL 4, Win XP, Win 2000, Oracle 10g. Application Server JBOSS 4.0.2. Essay Short Necklace? Client Mena Telecom (Bahrain) IBOSS is an enterprise-wide OSS / BSS solution that seamlessly integrates Telecom Operators operations and networks, enabling the delivery and support of next generation services to their customers, Flexible and bachelor thesis mobile scalable architecture, User friendly, self explanatory screens, Easily configured to match desired Telecom Operators processes, Easily configured to match desired Telecom Operators processes, Integrated management and executive reporting, Modular can be integrated with existing systems.

IBOSS Modules System Admin, CRM, Order Management, Product Catalogue, Project Management, Warehouse Management, Network Project Management, Site Planning, Network Inventory Management, Trouble Ticket Management, Netowrk Management System, Billing, Voice Billing, Reports, Provisioning), Rating Mediation. Working Modules System Admin, CRM, Order Management, Product Catalogue, Project Management, Billing, Voice Billing, Provisioning (Service Activation Gateway) Redundancy Testing of IBOSS Server Failover Scenarios, L1 Support in Menatelecom for cdf essay, IBOSS Billing Framework. integration and Deployment of New Patches at Onsite. System Testing, GUI Testing, Functional Testing of Change Requests Regression Testing of Defects. Defect Reporting by Clear DDTS 4.6. Redundancy Testing of payment IBOSS Servers. Crestel (Convergent Billing Solution) Environment RHEL 4, Win XP, Win 2000, JISP, Oracle 9i. Web Server Tomcat 4.1. Application Server JBOSS 3.2.

CRESTEL (Multilingual Multi Currency) is a real time carrier-grade Billing, Customer Care, Mediation and family Provisioning platform ,that enables ISP, broadband, IP-based service providers, Web and service portals, to manage and profit from application, media and communication services offered directly and thesis through distribution channels . Short Necklace? Application Server JBOSS,ORACLE AS ELITE-RADIUS. Web Server Tomcat 4.1. Client Veraz Networks. Patch Installation on mobile, Linux in JBOSS Environment. Understanding of FSD and short evils Created Test Cases from it, Execution of Test Cases.

Incremental Testing, GUI Testing, Functional Testing of Enhancements Regression Testing of Defects. Cross Browser Testing between IE Mozilla. Defect Reporting by TestDirector 7.2. Application Server JBOSS,ORACLE AS ELITE-RADIUS. Web Server Tomcat 4.1. Client MTNL (India) Patch Installation on Linux in bachelor mobile JBOSS Environment. Radius (AAA) Testing of Accounting Usage. Understanding of FSD and for science research paper Created Test Cases from thesis mobile, it, Execution of essay Test Cases.

GUI Testing, Functional Testing of Enhancements Regression Testing of Defects. Cross Browser Testing between IE Mozilla. Bachelor Thesis? Defect Reporting by TestDirector 7.2. Interaction with Implementation Support Team. Application Server JBOSS,ORACLE AS ELITE-RADIUS. Web Server Tomcat 4.1. Cdf Essay? Client BizNet (Indonesia) Understanding of FSD and Created Test Cases from it, Execution of Test Cases. Radius (AAA) Testing of Accounting Usage. GUI Testing, Functional Testing of Enhancements Regression Testing of Defects. Bachelor Thesis Mobile Payment? Cross Browser Testing between IE Mozilla. Defect Reporting by TestDirector 7.2.

Interaction with Implementation Support Team. Application Server JBOSS,ORACLE AS ELITE-RADIUS. Web Server Tomcat 4.1. Client Awayphone (UK) Patch Installation on cdf essay, Linux JBOSS Environment. Radius (AAA) Testing of Accounting Usage. Understanding of FSD and Created Test Cases from bachelor, it, Execution of Test Cases. GUI Testing, Functional Testing of Enhancements Regression Testing of Defects. Cross Browser Testing between IE Mozilla.

Defect Reporting by TestDirector 7.2. Application Server JBOSS,ORACLE AS ELITE-RADIUS. Writing Questions? Web Server Tomcat 4.1. Client LaserNet (Iran) Understanding of FSD and Created Test Cases from it, Execution of Test Cases. Radius (AAA) Testing of Accounting Usage. GUI Testing, Functional Testing of Enhancements Regression Testing of Defects. Cross Browser Testing between IE Mozilla. Payment? Defect Reporting by essay short stories on social evils, TestDirector 7.2. Date of Birth 11th Sept 1978. Passport Number B-5838616 (Validity 01/12/2011) Hobbies Computer working, Cricket, Music Traveling.

Languages Known English, Urdu Hindi. Date 20th Jan 2011. Place Hyderabad (SYED ABUZAR) •System Integration and bachelor payment customization of 3PV Billing solutions to cater to Customer requirements. •Installation, commissioning and deployment of billing solutions with Wimax ecosystem. •Interaction with Design authority and 3PV to bridge the essay writing gap of bachelor mobile payment requirement and implementation. Cdf Essay? •Setting up IOT Lab with BSS solution for pre deployment testing. •Integration feasibility study between a new element in the Ecosystem with the BSS solution. Application Server : JBOSS,ORACLE AS ELITE-RADIUS. Web Server : Tomcat 4.1. Client : Veraz Networks. • Patch Installation on Linux in JBOSS Environment. • Understanding of FSD and Created Test Cases from it, Execution of Test Cases. • Incremental Testing, GUI Testing, Functional Testing of Enhancements Regression Testing of Defects. • Cross Browser Testing between IE Mozilla. • Defect Reporting by TestDirector 7.2. Application Server : JBOSS,ORACLE AS ELITE-RADIUS. Web Server : Tomcat 4.1. Client : MTNL (India) • Patch Installation on Linux in JBOSS Environment. • Radius (AAA) Testing of Accounting Usage. • Understanding of FSD and Created Test Cases from thesis mobile, it, Execution of Test Cases. Essay Family Trip? • GUI Testing, Functional Testing of bachelor Enhancements Regression Testing of Defects. • Cross Browser Testing between IE Mozilla. • Defect Reporting by TestDirector 7.2. • Interaction with Implementation Support Team.

Application Server : JBOSS,ORACLE AS ELITE-RADIUS. Web Server : Tomcat 4.1. Client : BizNet (Indonesia) • Understanding of essay questions FSD and Created Test Cases from it, Execution of mobile Test Cases. • Radius (AAA) Testing of Accounting Usage. • GUI Testing, Functional Testing of Enhancements Regression Testing of Defects. • Cross Browser Testing between IE Mozilla. • Defect Reporting by TestDirector 7.2. • Interaction with Implementation Support Team. Application Server : JBOSS,ORACLE AS ELITE-RADIUS.

Web Server : Tomcat 4.1. Client : Awayphone (UK) • Patch Installation on Linux JBOSS Environment. • Radius (AAA) Testing of Accounting Usage. • Understanding of FSD and Created Test Cases from it, Execution of essay writing answers Test Cases. • GUI Testing, Functional Testing of Enhancements Regression Testing of Defects.

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From 1971: Why Have There Been No Great Women Artists? A banner for Women’s Lib could be Artemisia Gentileschi’s Judith Beheading Holofernes , one of this Roman painter’s favorite subject. This version dates ca. 1614–20, shortly after the thesis mobile scandal of cute essay girl her alleged promiscuous relations with her teacher. A version of this story originally appeared in the January 1971 issue of ARTnews. W hile the mobile recent upsurge of feminist activity in this country has indeed been a liberating one, its force has been chiefly emotional—personal, psychological and subjective—centered, like the other radical movements to which it is related, on the present and its immediate needs, rather than on historical analysis of the basic intellectual issues which the cute essay girl feminist attack on the status quo automatically raises. 1 Like any revolution, however, the feminist one ultimately must come to grips with the intellectual and ideological basis of the various intellectual or scholarly disciplines—history, philosophy, sociology, psychology, etc.—in the same way that it questions the ideologies of present social institutions. Thesis Payment! If, as John Stuart Mill suggested, we tend to accept whatever is as natural, this is just as true in the realm of academic investigation as it is in our social arrangements. In the former, too, “natural” assumptions must be questioned and the mythic basis of much so-called “fact” brought to light. And it is here that the introduction paper very position of thesis mobile payment woman as an for science, acknowledged outsider, the maverick “she” instead of the bachelor payment presumably neutral “one”—in reality the white-male-position-accepted-as-natural, or the hidden “he” as the subject of all scholarly predicates—is a decided advantage, rather than merely a hindrance of a subjective distortion.

In the field of art history, the white Western male viewpoint, unconsciously accepted as the viewpoint of the stories art historian, may—and does—prove to be inadequate not merely on moral and thesis mobile, ethical grounds, or because it is essay family trip, elitist, but on purely intellectual ones. In revealing the failure of much academic art history, and a great deal of history in general, to take account of the thesis mobile payment unacknowledged value system, the stories on social very presence of an intruding subject in historical investigation, the feminist critique at bachelor payment the same time lays bare its conceptual smugness, its meta-historical naivete. At a moment when all disciplines are becoming more self-conscious, more aware of the nature of their presuppositions as exhibited in the very languages and structures of the cute essay girl various fields of scholarship, such uncritical acceptance of “what is” as “natural” may be intellectually fatal. Just as Mill saw male domination as one of a long series of social injustices that had to be overcome if a truly just social order were to be created, so we may see the thesis payment unstated domination of white male subjectivity as one in a series of intellectual distortions which must be corrected in order to achieve a more adequate and accurate view of short on social historical situations. It is the engaged feminist intellect (like John Stuart Mill’s) that can pierce through the cultural-ideological limitations of the bachelor mobile time and its specific “professionalism” to reveal biases and inadequacies not merely in the dealing with the question of essay writing women, but in the very way of formulating the bachelor crucial questions of the discipline as a whole. Thus, the so-called woman question, far from being a minor, peripheral and essay about family trip, laughably provincial sub-issue grafted on to a serious, established discipline, can become a catalyst, an intellectual instrument, probing basic and “natural” assumptions, providing a paradigm for thesis payment other kinds of internal questioning, and in essay writing turn providing links with paradigms established by radical approaches in bachelor mobile other fields. Even a simple question like “Why have there been no great women artists?” can, if answered adequately, create a sort of chain reaction, expanding not merely to encompass the accepted assumptions of the single field, but outward to embrace history and cdf essay, the social sciences, or even psychology and thesis payment, literature, and thereby, from the outset, to challenge the writing questions assumption that the thesis payment traditional divisions of intellectual inquiry are still adequate to deal with the cdf essay meaningful questions of our time, rather than the thesis payment merely convenient or self-generated ones.

Let us, for example, examine the implications of that perennial question (one can, of course, substitute almost any field of human endeavor, with appropriate changes in phrasing): “Well, if women really are equal to men, why have there never been any great women artists (or composers, or mathematicians, or philosophers, or so few of the same)?” “Why have there been no great women artists?” The question tolls reproachfully in the background of most discussions of the so-called woman problem. But like so many other so-called questions involved in essay on social evils the feminist “controversy,” it falsifies the nature of the issue at the same time that it insidiously supplies its own answer: “There are no. great women artists because women are incapable of greatness.” The assumptions behind such a question are varied in range and thesis payment, sophistication, running anywhere from “scientifically proven” demonstrations of the inability of human beings with wombs rather than penises to create anything significant, to relatively open-minded wonderment that women, despite so many years of near-equality—and after all, a lot of men have had their disadvantages too—have still not achieved anything of exceptional significance in the visual arts. The feminist’s first reaction is to swallow the bait, hook, line and sinker, and to short on social evils, attempt to bachelor thesis mobile, answer the question as it is put: i.e., to dig up examples of worthy or insufficiently appreciated women artists throughout history; to rehabilitate rather modest, if interesting and productive careers; to “re-discover” forgotten flower-painters or David-followers and make out a case for them; to demonstrate that Berthe Morisot was really less dependent upon cdf essay, Manet than one had been led to think—in other words, to engage in bachelor thesis mobile the normal activity of the specialist scholar who makes a case for the importance of his very own neglected or minor master. Short Stories Evils! Such attempts, whether undertaken from a feminist point of view, like the ambitious article on women artists which appeared in the 1858 Westminster Review , 2 or more recent scholarly studies on such artists as Angelica Kauffmann and thesis payment, Artemisia Gentileschi, 3 are certainly worth the effort, both in adding to our knowledge of women’s achievement and of art history generally. But they do nothing to question the assumptions lying behind the question “Why have there been no great women artists?” On the contrary, by attempting to answer it, they tacitly reinforce its negative implications.

The Swiss-born Angelica Kauffman, most of whose prolific career was spent in cute essay girl Italy, combines allegory with portraiture in Angelica Hesitating between Music and Painting , 1791. Another attempt to answer the question involves shifting the ground slightly and thesis, asserting, as some contemporary feminists do, that there is a different kind of “greatness” for women’s art than for men’s, thereby postulating the cute essay girl existence of a distinctive and recognizable feminine style, different both in its formal and its expressive qualities and based on the special character of women’s situation and bachelor mobile payment, experience. This, on about trip the surface of thesis mobile payment it, seems reasonable enough: in general, women’s experience and situation in society, and hence as artists, is different from men’s, and certainly the art produced by a group of consciously united and purposefully articulate women intent on for science research paper bodying forth a group consciousness of feminine experience might indeed be stylistically identifiable as feminist, if not feminine, art. Bachelor! Unfortunately, though this remains within the realm of possibility it has so far not occurred. Cdf Essay! While the members of the Danube School, the followers of Caravaggio, the painters gathered around Gauguin at Pont-Aven, the Blue Rider, or the Cubists may be recognized by certain clearly defined stylistic or expressive qualities, no such common qualities of “femininity” would seem to link the styles of mobile payment women artists generally, any more than such qualities can be said to link women writers, a case brilliantly argued, against the most devastating, and mutually contradictory, masculine critical cliches, by Mary Ellmann in her Thinking about essay about family trip, Women . 4 No subtle essence of femininity would seem to link the work of thesis Artemesia Gentileschi, Mme. Vigee-Lebrun, Angelica Kauffmann, Rosa Bonheur, Berthe Morisot, Suzanne Valadon , Kaethe Kollwitz, Barbara Hepworth, Georgia O’Keeffe, Sophie Taeuber-Arp, Helen Frankenthaler, Bridget Riley, Lee Bontecou or Louise Nevelson, any more than that of Sappho, Marie de France, Jane Austen, Emily Bronte, George Sand, George Eliot, Virginia Woolf, Gertrude Stein, Anais Nin, Emily Dickinson, Sylvia Plath and Susan Sontag.

In every instance, women artists and writers would seem to be closer to other artists and writers of their own period and outlook than they are to each other. W omen artists are more inward-looking, more delicate and nuanced in short stories on social evils their treatment of their medium, it may be asserted. But which of the bachelor thesis women artists cited above is more inward-turning than Redon, more subtle and nuanced in the handling of pigment than Corot? Is Fragonard more or less feminine than Mme. Vigee-Lebrun? Or is it not more a question of the essay writing questions whole Rococo style of thesis 18th-century France being “feminine,” if judged in terms of a two-valued scale of “masculinity” vs. “femininity”? Certainly though, if daintiness, delicacy and preciousness are to be counted as earmarks of short a feminine style, there is bachelor thesis, nothing fragile about Rosa Bonheur’s Horse Fair , nor dainty and introverted about Helen Frankenthaler’s giant canvases. If women have turned to scenes of domestiC life, or of children, so did Jan Steen, Chardin and the Impressionists—Renoir and Monet as well as Morisot and Cassatt. In any case, the mere choice of a certain realm of subject matter, or the restriction to certain subjects, is not to be equated with a style, much less with some sort of quintessentially feminine style. The problem lies not so much with the essay writing questions feminists’ concept of what femininity is, but rather with their misconception—shared with the public at large—of what art is: with the naive idea that art is the bachelor mobile direct, personal expression of individual emotional experience, a translation of personal life into visual terms.

Art is almost never that, great art never is. The making of art involves a self-consistent language of form, more or less dependent upon, or free from, given temporally-defined conventions, schemata or systems of notation, which have to story necklace, be learned or worked out, either through teaching, apprenticeship or a long period of individual experimentation. The language of art is, more materially, embodied in paint and line on bachelor thesis canvas or paper, in stone or clay or plastic or metal—it is neither a sob-story nor a confidential whisper. The fact of the matter is that there have been no supremely great women artists, as far as we know, although there have been many interesting and very good ones who remain insufficiently investigated or appreciated; nor have there been any great Lithuanian jazz pianists, nor Eskimo tennis players, no matter how much we might wish there had been. That this should be the case is regrettable, but no amount of manipulating the historical or critical evidence will alter the situation; nor will accusations of male-chauvinist distortion of history. Family! The fact, dear sisters, is that there are no women equivalents for payment Michelangelo or Rembrandt, Delacroix or Cezanne, Picasso or Matisse, or even, in very recent times, for de Kooning or Warhol, any more than there are Black American equivalents for the same. Essay Short Story Necklace! If there actually were large numbers of bachelor thesis mobile payment “hidden” great women artists, or if there really should be different standards for women’s art as opposed to introduction for science paper, men’s—and one can’t have it both ways—then what are the feminists fighting for? If women have in fact achieved the bachelor thesis mobile same status as men in the arts, then the status quo is fine as it is. Judith Leyster’s The Jolly Toper was called a Frans Hal until the discovery of her typical signature, “J,” and the date 1629, in introduction for science research upper right center. But in actuality, as we all know, things as they are and as they have been, in the arts as in a hundred other areas, are stultifying, oppressive and discouraging to all those, women among them, who did not have the good fortune to be born white, preferably middle class and, above all, male. The fault, dear brothers, lies not in our stars, our hormones, our menstrual cycles or our empty internal spaces, but in our institutions and our education—education understood to include everything that happens to us from the moment we enter this world of meaningful symbols, signs and signals.

The miracle is, in bachelor payment fact, that given the overwhelming odds against women, or blacks, that so many of both have managed to trip, achieve so much sheer excellence, in mobile those bailiwicks of white masculine prerogative like science, politics or the story arts. It is bachelor mobile, when one really starts thinking about the implications of “Why have there been no great women artists?” that one begins to realize to what extent our consciousness of how things are in the world has been conditioned—and often falsified—by the way the most important questions are posed. We tend to take it for granted that there really is an East Asian Problem, a Poverty Problem, a Black Problem—and a Woman Problem. But first we must ask ourselves who is formulating these “questions,” and then, what purposes such formulations may serve. (We may, of course, refresh our memories with the connotations of the Nazi’s “Jewish Problem.”) Indeed, in our time of instant communication, “problems” are rapidly formulated to rationalize the bad conscience of those with power: thus the problem posed by Americans in Vietnam and Cambodia is referred to questions, by Americans as “the East Asian Problem,” whereas East Asians may view it, more realistically, as “the American Problem”; the so-called Poverty Problem might more directly be viewed as the “Wealth Problem” by denizens of urban ghettos or rural wastelands; the same irony twists the White Problem into its opposite: a Black Problem; and thesis, the same inverse logic turns up in the formulation of our own present state of affairs as the “Woman Problem.” Now the “Woman Problem,” like all human problems, so-called (and the very idea of calling anything to do with human beings a “problem” is, of course, a fairly recent one) is not amenable to “solution” at all, since what human problems involve is re-interpretation of the nature of the situation, or a radical alteration of stance or program on the part of the on social “problems” themselves . Thus women and bachelor mobile, their situation in the arts, as in other realms of endeavor, are not a “problem” to be viewed through the eyes of the dominant male power elite. Instead, women must conceive of themselves as potentially, if not actually, equal subjects, and must be willing to look the facts of their situation full in the face, without self-pity, or cop-outs; at the same time they must view their situation with that high degree of emotional and intellectual commitment necessary to research, create a world in which equal achievement will be not only bachelor thesis, made possible but actively encouraged by social institutions.

It is essay short story, certainly not realistic to hope that a majority of men, in thesis payment the arts, or in any other field, will soon see the light and find that it is in their own self-interest to grant complete equality to women, as some feminists optimistically assert, or to maintain that men themselves will soon realize that they are diminished by denying themselves access to traditionally “feminine” realms and emotional reactions. After all, there are few areas that are really “denied” to men, if the level of essay about family operations demanded be transcendent, responsible or rewarding enough: men who have a need for “feminine” involvement with babies or children gain status as pediatricians or child psychologists, with a nurse (female) to bachelor payment, do the introduction for science paper more routine work; those who feel the urge for kitchen creativity may gain fame as master chefs; and, of course, men who yearn to fulfill themselves through what are often termed “feminine” artistic interests can find themselves as painters or sculptors, rather than as volunteer museum aides or part time ceramists, as their female counterparts so often end up doing; as far as scholarship is concerned, how many men would be willing to change their jobs as teachers and researchers for those of unpaid, part-time research assistants and typists as well as full-time nannies and domestic workers? Those who have privileges inevitably hold on thesis mobile to them, and hold tight, no matter how marginal the advantage involved, until compelled to bow to stories evils, superior power of one sort or another. Thus the question of women’s equality—in art as in bachelor mobile payment any other realm—devolves not upon the relative benevolence or ill-will of individual men, nor the self-confidence or abjectness of individual women, but rather on the very nature of our institutional structures themselves and the view of reality which they impose on the human beings who are part of them. As John Stuart Mill pointed out more than a century ago: “Everything which is usual appears natural.

The subjection of women to men being a universal custom, any departure from essay questions it quite naturally appears unnatural.” 5 Most men, despite lip-service to equality, are reluctant to give up this “natural” order of things in which their advantages are so great; for women, the case is further complicated by the fact that, as Mill astutely pointed out, unlike other oppressed groups or castes, men demand of thesis her not only submission but unqualified affection as well; thus women are often weakened by the internalized demands of the research male-dominated society itself, as well as by a plethora of material goods and bachelor thesis payment, comforts: the middle-class woman has a great deal more to cdf essay, lose than her chains. At Thomas Eakins’ life-class at the Pennsylvania Academy around 1855, a cow, instead of a nude man, served as a model for the women students. COURTESY PENNSYLVANIA ACADEMY OF THE FINE ARTS/CHARLES BREGLER’S THOMAS EAKINS COLLECTION, PURCHASED WITH THE PARTIAL SUPPORT OF THE PEW MEMORIAL TRUST. The question “Why have there been no great women artists?” is simply the top tenth of an iceberg of misinterpretation and misconception; beneath lies a vast dark bulk of shaky idees recues about the nature of art and thesis mobile, its situational concomitants, about the nature of human abilities in general and of human excellence in particular, and the role that the cute essay girl social order plays in bachelor thesis mobile payment all of this. While the “woman problem” as such may be a pseudo-issue, the misconceptions involved in the question “Why have there been no great women artists?” points to major areas of intellectual obfuscation beyond the specific political and ideological issues involved in the subjection of cute essay girl women. Basic to the question are many naive, distorted, uncritical assumptions about the making of art in general, as well as the making of great art. These assumptions, conscious or unconscious, link together such unlikely superstars as Michelangelo and van Gogh, Raphael and bachelor thesis mobile payment, Jackson Pollock under the rubric of “Great”—an honorific attested to by the number of scholarly monographs devoted to the artist in question—and the Great Artist is, of essay short stories on social evils course, conceived of as one who has “Genius”; Genius, in turn, is thought of as an atemporal and mysterious power somehow embedded in the person of the Great Artist. 6 Such ideas are related to bachelor thesis, unquestioned, often unconscious, meta-historical premises that make Hippolyte Taine’s race-milieu-moment formulation of the dimensions of historical thought seem a model of sophistication.

But these assumptions are intrinsic to a great deal of art-historical writing. It is no accident that the crucial question of the conditions generally productive of great art has so rarely been investigated, or that attempts to family trip, investigate such general problems have, until fairly recently, been dismissed as unscholarly, too broad, or the province of some other discipline, like sociology. To encourage a dispassionate, impersonal, sociological and institutionally-oriented approach would reveal the entire romantic, elitist, individual-glorifying and monograph-producing substructure upon which the profession of art history is based, and bachelor, which has only cute essay girl, recently been called in to question by a group of younger dissidents. Underlying the question about woman as artist, then, we find the myth of the Great Artist—subject of a hundred monographs, unique, godlike—bearing within his person since birth a mysterious essence, rather like the golden nugget in Mrs. Grass’s chicken soup, called Genius or Talent, which, like murder, must always out, no matter how unlikely or unpromising the circumstances. The magical aura surrounding the representational arts and bachelor, their creators has, of course, given birth to myths since the earliest times. Interestingly enough, the same magical abilities attributed by Pliny to the Greek sculptor Lysippos in antiquity—the mysterious inner call in cute essay girl early youth, the lack of any teacher but Nature herself—is repeated as late as the 19th century by Max Buchon in his biography of Courbet. The supernatural powers of the artist as imitator, his control of strong, possibly dangerous powers, have functioned historically to set him off from others as a godlike creator, one who creates Being out of nothing. Bachelor Mobile! The fairy tale of the Boy Wonder, discovered by an older artist or discerning patron, usually in the guise of a lowly shepherd boy, has been a stock-in-trade of artistic mythology ever since Vasari immortalized the young Giotto, discovered by the great Cimabue while the lad was guarding his flocks, drawing sheep on a stone; Cimabue, overcome with admiration by the realism of the cute essay girl drawing, immediately invited the humble youth to be his pupil. 7 Through some mysterious coincidence, later artists including Beccafumi, Andrea Sansovino, Andrea del Castagno, Mantegna, Zurbaran and bachelor thesis payment, Goya were all discovered in cute essay girl similar pastoral circumstances. Even when the young Great Artist was not fortunate enough to come equipped with a flock of sheep, his talent always seems to have manifested itself very early, and independent of any external encouragement: Filippo Lippi and Poussin, Courbet and Monet are all reported to have drawn caricatures in the margins of their schoolbooks instead of mobile studying the required subjects—we never, of course, hear about the youths who neglected their studies and scribbled in the margins of necklace their notebooks without ever becoming anything more elevated than department-store clerks or shoe salesmen.

The great Michelangelo himself, according to his biographer and pupil, Vasari, did more drawing than studying as a child. So pronounced was his talent, reports Vasari, that when his master, Ghirlandaio, absented himself momentarily from his work in Santa Maria Novella, and payment, the young art student took the opportunity to draw “the scaffolding, trestles, pots of paint, brushes and stories on social evils, the apprentices at their tasks” in this brief absence, he did it so skillfully that upon mobile, his return the master exclaimed: “This boy knows more than I do.” Elisabeth Vigee-Lebrun’s immense following at the French court was largely due to the patronage of essay about trip Marie-Antoinette, whom she has been credited with making sympathetic to posterity through her portraits of the queen. Thesis! Marie-Antoinette de Lorraine-Habsbourg, Queen of France, and her children , 1781. As is so often the essay questions case, such stories, which probably have some truth in them, tend both to reflect and perpetuate the attitudes they subsume.

Despite any basis in fact of these myths about the early manifestations of Genius, the mobile tenor of the tales is misleading. Essay Short On Social Evils! It is no doubt true, for example, that the young Picasso passed all the thesis mobile examinations for entrance to the Barcelona, and later to the Madrid, Academy of Art at the age of 15 in but a single day, a feat of essay necklace such difficulty that most candidates required a month of mobile payment preparation. But one would like to find out more about similar precocious qualifiers for art academies who then went on to achieve nothing but mediocrity or failure—in whom, of course, art historians are uninterested—or to study in greater detail the cute essay girl role played by Picasso’s art-professor father in the pictorial precocity of his son. What if Picasso had been born a girl? Would Senor Ruiz have paid as much attention or stimulated as much ambition for achievement in a little Pablita? What is stressed in bachelor thesis mobile payment all these stories is the apparently miraculous, non-determined and a-social nature of artistic achievement; this semi-religious conception of the artist’s role is elevated to short on social evils, hagiography in the 19th-century, when both art historians, critics and, not least, some of the artists themselves tended to elevate the thesis mobile payment making of art into a substitute religion, the last bulwark of Higher Values in a materialistic world. The artist, in the 19th-century Saints’ Legend, struggles against the most determined parental and cute essay girl, social opposition, suffering the bachelor slings and arrows of social opprobrium like any Christian martyr, and ultimately succeeds against all odds—generally, alas, after his death—because from deep within himself radiates that mysterious, holy effulgence: Genius. Here we have the mad van Gogh, spinning out sunflowers despite epileptic seizures and near-starvation; Cezanne, braving paternal rejection and about, public scorn in order to revolutionize painting; Gauguin throwing away respectability and financial security with a single existential gesture to pursue his Calling in the tropics, or Toulouse-Lautrec, dwarfed, crippled and alchoholic [ sic ], sacrificing his aristocratic birthright in favor of the squalid surroundings that provided him with inspiration, etc. Now no serious contemporary art historian takes such obvious fairy tales at their face value.

Yet it is this sort of bachelor mobile payment mythology about artistic achievement and on social, its concomitants which forms the unconscious or unquestioned assumptions of bachelor payment scholars, no matter how many crumbs are thrown to social influences, ideas of the times, economic crises and essay short story necklace, so on. Behind the most sophisticated investigations of great artists—more specifically, the thesis mobile payment art-historical monograph, which accepts the cdf essay notion of the Great Artist as primary, and the social and institutional structures within which he lived and worked as mere secondary “influences” or “background”—lurks the golden-nugget theory of genius and the free-enterprise conception of thesis individual achievement. On this basis, women’s lack of about family trip major achievement in art may be formulated as a syllogism: If women had the golden nugget of artistic genius then it would reveal itself. But it has never revealed itself. Q.E.D. Women do not have the golden nugget of bachelor mobile payment artistic genius. If Giotto, the obscure shepherd boy, and van Gogh with his fits could make it, why not women? Berthe Morisot was a close friend of essay short stories Manet and bachelor thesis payment, later married his brother. Eugene Manet on the Isle of cdf essay Wight , 1875. Yet as soon as one leaves behind the thesis payment world of fairy-tale and self-fulfilling prophecy and, instead, casts a dispassionate eye on the actual situations in which important art production has existed, in the total range of its social and institutional structures throughout history, one finds that the essay short necklace very questions which are fruitful or relevant for bachelor the historian to ask shape up rather differently. One would like to essay stories evils, ask, for instance, from what social classes artists were most likely to come at different periods of art history, from bachelor mobile payment what castes and sub-group.

What proportion of painters and cute essay girl, sculptors, or more specifically, of major painters and bachelor thesis payment, sculptors, came from families in which their fathers or other close relatives were painters and sculptors or engaged in related professions? As Nikolaus Pevsner points out in his discussion of the French Academy in the 17th and 18th centuries, the transmission of the artistic profession from father to son was considered a matter of course (as it was with the Coypels, the introduction for science research paper Coustous, the Van Loos, etc); indeed, sons of academicians were exempted from the customary fees for lessons. 8 Despite the noteworthy and thesis, dramatically satisfying cases of the great father-rejecting revoltes of the 19th century, one might be forced to admit that a large proportion of artists, great and not-so-great, in the days when it was normal for sons to follow in stories their fathers’ footsteps, had artist fathers. In the rank of major artists, the names of Holbein and Durer, Raphael and bachelor thesis mobile, Bernini, immediately spring to essay, mind; even in our own times, one can cite the names of Picasso, Calder, Giacometti and Wyeth as members of artist-families. As far as the relationship of artistic occupation and bachelor mobile, social class is concerned, an introduction research, interesting paradigm for the question “Why have there been no great women artists?” might well be provided by trying to answer the question: “Why have there been no great artists from the aristocracy?” One can scarcely think, before the thesis payment anti-traditional 19th century at least, of any artist who sprang from the ranks of any more elevated class than the upper bourgeoisie; even in the 19th century, Degas came from the lower nobility—more like the haute bourgeoisie, in fact—and only essay short story necklace, Toulouse-Lautrec, metamorphosed into the ranks of the mobile payment marginal by writing answers accidental deformity, could be said to have come from the loftier reaches of the upper classes. While the aristocracy has always provided the lion’s share of the patronage and the audience for art—as, indeed, the aristocracy of wealth does even in our more democratic days—it has contributed little beyond amateurish efforts to the creation of art itself, despite the fact that aristocrats (like many women) have had more than their share of educational advantages, plenty of payment leisure and, indeed, like women, were often encouraged to dabble in the arts and even develop into respectable amateurs, like Napoleon III’s cousin, the Princess Mathilde, who exhibited at the official Salons, or Queen Victoria, who, with Prince Albert, studied art with no less a figure than Landseer himself. Could, it be that the little golden nugget—Genius—is missing from the aristocratic make-up in the same way that it is from the feminine psyche? Or rather, is it not, that the kinds of demands and expectations placed before both aristocrats and women—the amount of time necessarily devoted to social functions, the very kinds of essay family activities demanded—simply made total devotion to professional art production out of the question, indeed unthinkable, both for upper-class males and for women generally, rather than its being a question of bachelor payment genius and for science paper, talent? When the right questions are asked about the conditions for producing art, of payment which the production of great art is a sub-topic, there will no doubt have to be some discussion of the essay writing questions answers situational concomitants of intelligence and talent generally, not merely of artistic genius.

Piaget and bachelor mobile, others have stressed in their genetic epistemology that in short story the development of mobile payment reason and in the unfolding of imagination in young children, intelligence—or, by implication, what we choose to call genius—is a dynamic activity rather than a static essence, and an activity of a subject in a situation . Introduction Research! As further investigations in bachelor thesis payment the field of child development imply, these abilities, or this intelligence, are built up minutely, step by step, from infancy onward, and the patterns of essay family trip adaptation-accommodation may be established so early within the subject-in-an-environment that they may indeed appear to be innate to the unsophisticated observer. Such investigations imply that, even aside from meta-historical reasons, scholars will have to abandon the bachelor mobile payment notion, consciously articulated or not, of individual genius as innate, and as primary to cute essay girl, the creation of art. 9. The question “Why have there been no great women artists?” has led us to the conclusion, so far, that art is thesis payment, not a free, autonomous activity of answers a super-endowed individual, “influenced” by previous artists, and, more vaguely and superficially, by thesis payment “social forces,” but rather, that the total situation of art making, both in terms of the development of the art maker and in the nature and quality of the work of art itself, occur in a social situation, are integral elements of this social structure, and are mediated and determined by specific and definable social institutions, be they art academies, systems of patronage, mythologies of the divine creator, artist as he-man or social outcast. The Question of the Nude.

We can now approach our question from a more reasonable standpoint, since it seems probable that the answer to why there have been no great women artists lies not in the nature of cute essay girl individual genius or the lack of it, but in the nature of given social institutions and what they forbid or encourage in various classes or groups of individuals. Let us first examine such a simple, but critical, issue as availability of the thesis payment nude model to aspiring women artists, in cute essay girl the period extending from the Renaissance until near the end of the 19th century, a period in bachelor mobile payment which careful and essay story necklace, prolonged study of the nude model was essential to the training of thesis every young artist, to the production of any work with pretentions to grandeur, and to the very essence of History Painting, generally accepted as the highest category of art: indeed, it was argued by defenders of traditional painting in the 19th century that there could be no great painting with clothed figures, since costume inevitably destroyed both the cdf essay temporal universality and the classical idealization required by great art. Needless to say, central to mobile payment, the training programs of the academies since their inception late in the 16th and early in the 17th centuries, was life drawing from the writing nude, generally male, model. In addition, groups of artists and their pupils often met privately for life drawing sessions from the nude model in their studios. In general, it might be added, while individual artists and private academies employed the female model extensively, the female nude was forbidden in almost all public art schools as late as 1850 and after—a state of affairs which Pevsner rightly designates as “hardly believable.” 10 Far more believable, unfortunately, was the complete unavailability to the aspiring woman artist of any nude models at all, male or female. As late as 1893, “lady” students were not admitted to life drawing at the Royal Academy in London, and thesis mobile, even when they were, after that date, the on social evils model had to be “partially draped.” 11. A brief survey of representations of life-drawing sessions reveals: an all male clientele drawing from the female nude in Rembrandt’s studio; men working from male nudes in 18th-century representations of academic instruction in The Hague and Vienna; men working from the payment seated male nude in Bailly’s charming painting of the interior of Houdon’s studio at the beginning of the 19th century; Mathieu Cochereau’s scrupulously veristic Interior of David’s Studio , exhibited in the Salon of essay about family 1814, reveals a group of bachelor payment young men diligently drawing or painting from a male nude model, whose discarded shoes may be seen before the models’ stand.

The very plethora of surviving “Academies”—detailed, painstaking studies from the essay on social evils nude studio model—in the youthful oeuvre of artists down through the bachelor thesis payment time of essay story Seurat and bachelor, well into the 20th century, attests to the central importance of this branch of study in the pedagogy and development of the talented beginner. The formal academic program itself normally proceeded, as a matter of course, from copying from drawings and cute essay girl, engravings, to bachelor thesis mobile, drawing from casts of famous works of sculpture, to drawing from the living model. To be deprived of this ultimate stage of training meant, in effect, to writing answers, be deprived of the possibility of bachelor thesis mobile creating major art works, unless one were a very ingenious lady indeed, or simply, as most of the essay about family women aspiring to be painters ultimately did, to restrict oneself to the “minor” fields of portraiture, genre, landscape or still-life. It is rather as though a medical student were denied the opportunity to dissect or even examine the naked human body. In Zoffany’s painting of the life-class at the Royal Academy, 1772, all the members are present except for bachelor thesis Angelica Kauffmann, who for reasons of propriety has a stand-in—her portrait on the wall. There exist, to my knowledge, no representations of artists drawing from the nude model which include women in cdf essay any role but that of the nude model itself, an interesting commentary on rules of propriety: i.e., it is bachelor thesis mobile payment, all right for a (“low,” of course) woman to essay necklace, reveal herself naked-as-an-object for a group of men, but forbidden to a woman to participate in the active study and recording of mobile payment naked-man-as-an-object, or even of a fellow woman. An amusing example of this taboo on confronting a dressed lady with a naked man is embodied in a group portrait of the essay story members of the Royal Academy in London in payment 1772, represented by Zoffany as gathered in the life room before two nude male models: all the distinguished members are present with but one noteworthy exception—the single female member, the renowned Angelica Kauffmann, who, for propriety’s sake, is merely present in effigy, in the form of a portrait hanging on the wall.

A slightly earlier drawing of Ladies in the Studio by the Polish artist Daniel Chodowiecki, shows the ladies portraying a modestly dressed member of their sex. In a lithograph dating from the relatively liberated epoch following the French Revolution, the short necklace lithographer Marlet has represented some women sketchers in a group of students working from the male model, but the model himself has been chastely provided with what appears to be a pair of bathing trunks, a garment hardly conducive to bachelor payment, a sense of classical elevation: no doubt such license was considered daring in short stories on social evils its day, and the young ladies in question suspected of doubtful morals, but even this liberated state of affairs seems to have lasted only a short while. In an mobile payment, English stereoscopic color view of the for science interior of thesis payment a studio of about 1865, the cute essay girl standing, bearded male model is so heavily draped that not an iota of his anatomy escapes from the discreet toga, save for a single bare shoulder and arm: even so, he obviously had the grace to avert his eyes in the presence of the crinoline-clad young sketchers. The women in the Women’s Modeling Class at the Pennsylvania Academy were evidently not allowed even this modest privilege. A photograph by Thomas Eakins of about 1885 reveals these students modeling from a cow (bull? ox? the nether regions are obscure in the photograph), a naked cow to be sure, perhaps a daring liberty when one considers that even piano legs might be concealed beneath pantalettes during this era (the idea of introducing a bovine model into the artist’s studio stems from bachelor payment Courbet, who brought a bull into his short-lived studio academy in the 1860s). Only at essay necklace the very end of the 19th century, in the relatively liberated and open atmosphere of Repin’s studio and circle in Russia, do we find representations of women art students working uninhibitedly from the nude—the female model, to be sure—in the company of men.

Even in this case, it must be noted that certain photographs represent a private sketch group meeting in one of the women artists’ homes; in the other, the model is draped; and the large group portrait, a co-operative effort by two men and two women students of Repin’s, is an bachelor, imaginary gathering together of cdf essay all of the Russian realist’s pupils, past and present, rather than a realistic studio view. I have gone into bachelor mobile the question of the availability of the nude model, a single aspect of the automatic, institutionally-maintained discrimination against women, in such detail simply to cute essay girl, demonstrate both the universality of the discrimination against women and its consequences, as well as the institutional rather than individual nature of but one facet of the necessary preparation for achieving mere proficiency, much less greatness, in mobile payment the realm of art during a long stretch of time. One could equally well examine other dimensions of the situation, such as the apprenticeship system, the academic educational pattern which, in France especially, was almost the only key to success and which had a regular progression and set competitions, crowned by the Prix de Rome which enabled the young winner to work in the French Academy in essay on social that city—unthinkable for bachelor thesis mobile women, of course—and for questions answers which women were unable to compete until the end of the 19th century, by which time, in bachelor mobile payment fact, the whole academic system had lost its importance anyway. It seems clear, to take France in the 19th century as an example, a country which probably had a larger proportion of women artists than any other—that is to say, in necklace terms of their percentage in the total number of artists exhibiting in. the Salon—that “women were not accepted as professional painters.” 12 In the middle of the century, there were only a third as many women as men artists, but even this mildly encouraging statistic is deceptive when we discover that out of this relatively meager number, none had attended that major stepping stone to artistic success, the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, only 7 percent had received any official commission or had held any official office—and these might include the most menial sort of work—only 7 percent had ever received any Salon medal, and payment, none had ever received the Legion of essay trip Honor. 13 Deprived of encouragements, educational facilities and bachelor, rewards, it is essay about family, almost incredible that a certain percentage of thesis mobile women did persevere and seek a profession in cdf essay the arts. It also becomes apparent why women were able to compete on far more equal terms with men—and even become innovators—in literature. While art-making traditionally has demanded the bachelor payment learning of specific techniques and skills, in a certain sequence, in an institutional setting outside the essay family home, as well as becoming familiar with a specific vocabulary of iconography and motifs, the bachelor mobile payment same is by no means true for the poet or novelist. Anyone, even a women, has to learn the language, can learn to read and write, and introduction research paper, can commit personal experiences to paper in payment the privacy of one’s room.

Naturally this oversimplifies the real difficulties and complexities involved in about family trip creating good or great literature, whether by man or woman, but it still gives a clue as to the possibility of the existence of Emily Bronte or an thesis mobile, Emily Dickinson, and the lack of paper their counterparts, at least until quite recently, in the visual arts. Of course we have not gone into the “fringe” requirements for major artists, which would have been, for the most part, both psychically and thesis, socially closed to introduction paper, women, even if hypothetically they could have achieved the requisite grandeur in the performance of their craft: in the Renaissance and after, the great artist, aside from participating in the affairs of an bachelor thesis payment, academy, might well be intimate. with members of humanist circles with whom he could exchange ideas, establish suitable relationships with patrons, travel widely and freely, perhaps politic and intrigue; nor have we mentioned the sheer organizational acumen and cute essay girl, ability involved in running a major studio-factory, like that of Rubens. An enormous amount of self-confidence and thesis, worldly knowledgeability, as well as a natural sense of introduction for science research well-earned dominance and power, was needed by the great chef d’ecole , both in the running of the production end of painting, and in bachelor mobile the control and instruction of the numerous students and assistants. In contrast to the single-mindedness and commitment demanded of a chef d’ecole , we might set the image of the “lady painter” established by 19th-century etiquette books and reinforced by the literature of the times. Cdf Essay! It is precisely the insistence upon a modest, proficient, self-demeaning level of amateurism as a “suitable accomplishment” for the well-brought up young woman, who naturally would want to direct her major attention to the welfare of others—family and husband—that militated, and still militates, against any real accomplishment on the part of women. It is this emphasis which transforms serious commitment to frivolous self-indulgence, busy work or occupational therapy, and today, more than ever, in suburban bastions of the thesis mobile payment feminine mystique, tends to distort the whole notion of about family trip what art is and what kind of social role it plays. In Mrs. Ellis’ widely read The Family Monitor and Domestic Guide , published before the middle of the 19th century, a book of advice popular both in the United States and in England, women were warned against mobile payment the snare of trying too hard to excel in cdf essay any one thing: It must not be supposed that the writer is one who would advocate, as essential to woman, any very extraordinary degree of bachelor thesis mobile payment intellectual attainment, especially if confined to one particular branch of study. “I should like to cdf essay, excel in something” is a frequent and, to some extent, laudable expression; but in what does it originate, and to what does it tend? To be able to do a great many things tolerably well, is of infinitely more value to a woman, than to be able to payment, excel in any one.

By the cdf essay former, she may render herself generally useful: by the latter, she may dazzle for an hour. By being apt, and bachelor thesis, tolerably well skilled in everything, she may fall into any situation in life with dignity and short, ease—by devoting her time to excellence in one, she may remain incapable of every other. So far as cleverness, learning, and mobile payment, knowledge are conducive to woman’s moral excellence, they are therefore desirable, and cdf essay, no further. All that would occupy her mind to the exclusion of better things, all that would involve her in the mazes of flattery and admiration, all that would tend to draw away her thoughts from others and fix them on herself, ought to thesis, be avoided as an evil to her, however brilliant or attractive it may be in itself. 14. Lest we are tempted to laugh, we may refresh ourselves with more recent samples of exactly the same message cited in Betty Friedan’s Feminine Mystique , or in cute essay girl the pages of recent issues of popular women’s magazines. This advice has a familiar ring, of course: propped up by a bit of Freudianism and some tag-lines from the bachelor mobile social sciences about the well-rounded personality, preparation for woman’s chief career, marriage, and the unfemininity of deep involvement with work rather than sex, it is still the essay about mainstay of the Feminine Mystique. Such an outlook helps guard man from unwanted competition in his “serious” professional activities and assures him of “well-rounded” assistance on the home front, so that he may have sex and family in addition to payment, the fulfillment of his own specialized talent and excellence at the same time. As far as painting specifically is concerned, Mrs. Ellis finds that it has one immediate advantage for the young lady over its rival branch of artistic activity, music—it is cdf essay, quiet and disturbs no one (this negative virtue, of course, would not be true of sculpture, but accomplishment with the hammer and chisel simply never occurs as a suitable accomplishment for the weaker sex); in addition, says Mrs. Bachelor Thesis Payment! Ellis, “it [drawing] is an employment which beguiles the mind of many cares…Drawing is, of all other occupations, the one most calculated to keep the mind from brooding upon self, and to maintain.

that general cheerfulness which is a part of social and cdf essay, domestic duty…It can also,” she adds, “be laid down and thesis mobile, resumed, as circumstance or inclination may direct, and that without any serious loss.” 15 Again, lest we feel that we have made a great deal of essay answers progress in this area in the past 100 years, I might bring up the remark of a bright young doctor who, when the conversation turned to his wife and her friends “dabbling” in the arts, snorted: “Well, at least it keeps them out of trouble!” Now as in the 19th century, amateurism and lack of real commitment as well as snobbery and emphasis on chic on the part of women in bachelor thesis mobile payment their artistic “hobbies,” feeds the contempt of the successful, professionally committed man who is engaged in “real” work and essay, can, with a certain justice, point to his wife’s lack of bachelor thesis mobile payment seriousness in her artistic activities. Essay Writing Questions Answers! For such men, the “real” work of women is only that which directly or indirectly serves the family; any other commitment falls under the rubric of diversion, selfishness, egomania or, at the unspoken extreme, castration. The circle is a vicious one, in thesis mobile payment which philistinism and frivolity mutually re-enforce each other. In literature, as in life, even if the woman’s commitment to art was a serious one, she was expected to drop her career and give up this commitment at the behest of essay family trip love and marriage: this lesson is, today as in bachelor the 19th century, still inculcated in young girls, directly or indirectly, from the moment they are born. Even the cute essay girl determined and successful heroine of Mrs. Craik’s mid-19th-century novel about thesis, feminine artistic success, Olive , a young woman who lives alone, strives for fame and independence and actually supports herself through her art—such unfeminine behavior is at least partly excused by cdf essay the fact that she is a cripple and automatically considers that marriage is denied to her—even Olive ultimately succumbs to the blandishments of love and marriage. To paraphrase the words of Patricia Thomson in The Victorian Heroine , Mrs. Craik, having shot her bolt in the course of her novel, is content, finally, to let her heroine, whose ultimate greatness the reader has never been able to doubt, sink gently into matrimony. “Of Olive, Mrs.

Craik comments imperturbably that her husband’s influence is to thesis mobile payment, deprive the Scottish Academy of ‘no one knew how many grand pictures.’ ” 16 Then as now, despite men’s greater “tolerance,” the writing questions choice for women seems always to be marriage or a career, i.e., solitude as the price of success or sex and companionship at the price of professional renunciation. That achievement in the arts, as in any field of endeavor, demands struggle and sacrifice, no one would deny; that this has certainly been true after the middle of the 19th century, when the traditional institutions of artistic support and bachelor payment, patronage no longer fulfilled their customary obligations, is undeniable: one has only to questions, think of thesis Delacroix, Courbet, Degas, van Gogh and Toulouse-Lautrec as examples of great artists who gave up the distractions and obligations of essay writing answers family life, at least in part, so that they could pursue their artistic careers more singlemindedly. Yet none of them was automatically denied the pleasures of sex or companionship on account of this choice. Nor did they ever conceive that they had sacrificed their manhood or their sexual role on account of their singleness and singlemindedness in order to achieve professional fulfillment. But if the artist in question happens to mobile payment, be a woman, 1,000 years of about family trip guilt, self-doubt and objecthood have been added to the undeniable difficulties of being an artist in the modern world. The unconscious aura of titillation that arises from a visual representation of an aspiring woman artist in the mid-19th century, Emily Mary Osborne’s heartfelt painting, Nameless and Friendless , 1857, a canvas representing a poor but lovely and respectable young girl at payment a London art dealer, nervously awaiting the verdict of the pompous proprietor about the worth of her canvases while two ogling “art lovers” look on, is really not too different in its underlying assumptions from an overtly salacious work like Bompard’s Debut of the family trip Model . The theme in both is innocence, delicious feminine innocence, exposed to bachelor thesis mobile, the world. It is the charming vulnerability of the introduction paper young woman artist, like that of the hesitating model, which is really the subject of Miss Osborne’s painting, not the mobile value of the young woman’s work or her pride in it: the issue here is, as usual, sexual rather than serious. Always a model but never an artist might well have served as the motto of the seriously aspiring young woman in the arts of the 19th century. The monumental figures of The Church and The Synagogue from the South Portal of the essay Cathedral of Strasbourg, ca. 1225, are attributed to Sabina von Steinbach, daughter of the master-sculptor of the cathedral, who died before the completion of the bachelor payment work.

But what of the small band of for science research paper heroic women, who, throughout the ages, despite obstacles, have achieved pre-eminence, if not the pinnacles of grandeur of a Michelangelo, a Rembrandt or a Picasso? Are there any qualities that may be said to have characterized them as a group and as individuals? While we cannot go into bachelor thesis mobile payment such an investigation in depth in this article, we can point to for science research paper, a few striking characteristics of women artists generally: they all, almost without exception, were either the daughters of artist fathers, or, generally later, in the 19th and 20th centuries, had a close personal connection with a stronger or more dominant male artistic personality. Neither of these characteristics is, of course, unusual for bachelor payment men artists, either, as we have indicated above in the case of artist fathers and sons: it is essay writing, simply true almost without exception for their feminine counterparts, at least until quite recently. Bachelor Mobile Payment! From the legendary sculptor, Sabina von Steinbach, in the 13th century, who, according to local tradition, was responsible for South Portal groups on the Cathedral of Strasbourg, down to Rosa Bonheur, the short most renowned animal painter of the 19th century, and including such eminent women artists as Marietta Robusti, daughter of Tintoretto, Lavinia Fontana, Artemisia Gentileschi, Elizabeth Cheron, Mme. Vigee-Lebrun and Angelica Kauffmann—all, without exception, were the daughters of artists; in mobile payment the 19th century, Berthe Morisot was closely associated with Manet, later marrying his brother, and Mary Cassatt based a good deal of her work on the style of her close friend Degas. Precisely the same breaking of traditional bonds and discarding of time-honored practices that permitted men artists to essay writing answers, strike out in mobile payment directions quite different from those of their fathers in the second half of the 19th century enabled women, with additional difficulties, to be sure, to strike out on their own as well.

Many of our more recent women artists, like Suzanne Valadon, Paula Modersohn-Becker, Kaethe Kollwitz or Louise Nevelson, have come from non-artistic backgrounds, although many contemporary and near-contemporary women artists have married fellow artists. It would be interesting to investigate the short stories on social role of benign, if not outright encouraging, fathers in the formation of women professionals: both Kaethe Kollwitz and Barbara Hepworth, for example, recall. the influence of bachelor thesis unusually sympathetic and supportive fathers on their artistic pursuits. In the absence of any thoroughgoing investigation, one can only gather impressionistic data about the presence or absence of cute essay girl rebellion against parental authority in bachelor thesis mobile payment women artists, and whether there may be more or less rebellion on the part of women artists than is true in the case of men or vice versa. Essay Family! One thing however is clear: for a woman to opt for a career at all, much less for thesis a career in art, has required a certain amount of unconventionality, both in essay writing questions the past and at present; whether or not the thesis woman artist rebels against or finds strength in the attitude of her family, she must in any case have a good strong streak of rebellion in her to essay writing answers, make her way in the world of art at bachelor thesis mobile all, rather than submitting to essay family trip, the socially approved role of wife and bachelor mobile, mother, the introduction paper only role to which every social institution consigns her automatically. It is bachelor thesis, only by adopting, however covertly, the “masculine” attributes of singlemindedness, concentration, tenaciousness and absorption in ideas and about trip, craftsmanship for bachelor mobile payment their own sake, that women have succeeded, and continue to succeed, in the world of art. It is instructive to cdf essay, examine in greater detail one of the most successful and accomplished women painters of all time, Rosa Bonheur (1822-1899), whose work, despite the ravages wrought upon bachelor mobile, its estimation by changes of taste and story necklace, a certain admitted lack of variety, still stands as an impressive achievement to anyone interested in the art of the 19th century and in bachelor thesis the history of taste generally.

Rosa Bonheur is a woman artist in whom, partly because of the magnitude of her reputation, all the various conflicts, all the internal and essay, external contradictions and struggles typical of her sex and profession, stand out in sharp relief. Like Constant Troyon, Bonheur aimed at an epical, “heroic” interpretation of animals which became extremely popular. The Horse Fair , ca. 1852–55. The success of Rosa Bonheur firmly establishes the role of institutions, and thesis mobile payment, institutional change, as a necessary, if not a sufficient cause of achievement in art. We might say that Bonheur picked a fortunate time to become an artist if she was, at the same time, to have the disadvantage of being a woman: she came into her own in short on social the middle of the 19th century, a time in which the bachelor thesis mobile payment struggle between traditional History Painting as opposed to the less pretentious and more free-wheeling genre painting, landscape and still-life was won by the latter group hands down. Essay Stories On Social Evils! A major change in the social and institutional support for art itself was well under way: with the rise of the bachelor bourgeoisie and the fall of the cultivated aristocracy, smaller paintings, generally of every-day subjects, rather than grandiose mythological or religious scenes were much in demand. To cite the Whites: “Three hundred provincial museums there might be, government commissions for public works there might be, but the introduction for science paper only possible paid destinations for payment t he rising flood of canvases were the homes of the bourgeoisie. History painting had not and never would rest comfortably in cute essay girl the middle-class parlor. ‘Lesser’ forms of image art—genre, landscape, still-life—did.” 17 In mid-century France, as in 17th-century Holland, there was a tendency for artists to attempt to achieve some sort of security in a shaky market situation by specializing, by making a career out of a specific subject: animal painting was a very popular field, as the Whites point out, and Rosa Bonheur was no doubt its most accomplished and successful practitioner, followed in popularity only by the Barbizon painter Troyon (who at mobile payment one time was so pressed for cdf essay his paintings of thesis cows that he hired another artist to brush in the backgrounds). Cute Essay Girl! Rosa Bonheur’s rise to fame accompanied that of the Barbizon landscapists, supported by those canny dealers, the Durand-Ruels, who later moved on payment to the Impressionists. Cdf Essay! The.

Durand-Ruels were among the first dealers to tap the expanding market in movable decoration for the middle classes, to use the Whites’ terminology. Rosa Bonheur’s naturalism and ability to capture the individuality—even the “soul”—of each of her animal subjects coincided with bourgeois taste at the time. The same combination, of qualities, with a much stronger dose of sentimentality and pathetic fallacy to be sure, likewise assured the success of mobile her animalier contemporary, Landseer, in essay story necklace England. Daughter of an impoverished drawing master, Rosa Bonheur quite naturally showed her interest in art early; at the same time, she exhibited an independence of spirit and liberty of manner which immediately earned her the label of tomboy. According to her own later accounts, her “masculine protest” established itself early; to what extent any show of persistence, stubbornness and thesis payment, vigor would be counted as “masculine” in the first half of the 19th century is conjectural. Rosa Bonheur’s attitude towards her father is somewhat ambiguous: while realizing that he had been influential in directing her towards her life’s work, there is no doubt that she resented his thoughtless treatment of her beloved mother, and in her reminiscences, she half affectionately makes fun of his bizarre form of social idealism. Raimond Bonheur had been an active member of the short-lived Saint-Simonian community, established in the third decade of the 19th century by writing questions answers “Le Pere” Enfantin at Menilmontant. Mobile Payment! Although in her later years Rosa Bonheur might have made fun of some of the more far-fetched eccentricities of the members of the community, and disapproved of the additional strain which her father’s apostolate placed on her overburdened mother, it is obvious that the Saint-Simonian ideal of equality for women—they disapproved of marriage, their trousered feminine costume was a token of emancipation, and their spiritual leader, Le Pere Enfantin, made extraordinary efforts to find a Woman Messiah to share his reign—made a strong impression on her as a child, and may well have influenced her future course of behavior. “Why shouldn’t I be proud to be a woman?” she exclaimed to an interviewer. “My father, that enthusiastic apostle of humanity, many times reiterated to me that woman’s mission was to elevate the human race, that she was the Messiah of essay future centuries. It is to mobile payment, his doctrines that I owe the great, noble ambition I have conceived for the sex which I proudly affirm to be mine, and whose independence I will support to my dying day…” 18 When she was hardly more than a child, he instilled in her the cute essay girl ambition to surpass Mme.

Vigee-Lebrun certainly the most eminent model she could be expected to follow, and he gave her early efforts every possible encouragement. At the same time, the bachelor mobile spectacle of her uncomplaining mother’s slow decline from sheer overwork and poverty might have been an even more realistic influence on her decision to control her own destiny and never to become the cdf essay slave of a husband and children. What is bachelor, particularly interesting from the modern feminist viewpoint is essay about, Rosa Bonheur’s ability to combine the most vigorous and mobile payment, unapologetic masculine protest with unabashedly self-contradictory assertions of “basic” femininity. In those refreshingly straightforward pre-Freudian days, Rosa Bonheur could explain to her biographer that she had never wanted to for science paper, marry for fear of losing her independence—too many young girls let themselves be led to the altar like lambs to the sacrifice, she maintained. Yet at the same time that she rejected marriage for herself and implied an inevitable loss of selfhood for any woman who engaged in it, she, unlike the Saint-Simonians, considered marriage “a sacrament indispensable to the organization of society.” While remaining cool to offers of marriage, she joined in a seemingly cloudless, lifelong and apparently Platonic union with a fellow woman artist, Nathalie Micas, who evidently provided her with the companionship and emotional warmth which she needed. Bachelor Mobile! Obviously the essay writing presence of this sympathetic friend did not seem to demand the same sacrifice of bachelor thesis payment genuine commitment to her profession which marriage would have entailed: in any case, the cute essay girl advantages of such an arrangement for women who wished to avoid the distraction of children in the days before reliable contraception are obvious. Yet at bachelor the same time that she frankly rejected the conventional feminine role of short story necklace her times, Rosa Bonheur still was drawn into what Betty Friedan has called the “frilly blouse syndrome,” that innocuous version of the feminine protest which even today compels successful women psychiatrists or professors to adopt some ultra-feminine item of clothing or insist on proving their prowess as pie-bakers.

19 Despite the fact that she had early cropped her hair and adopted men’s clothes as her habitual attire, following the example of George Sand, whose rural Romanticism exerted a powerful influence over her imagination, to her biographer she insisted, and no doubt sincerely believed, that she did so only because of the specific demands of her profession. Indignantly denying rumors to the effect that she had run about the streets of Paris dressed as a boy in her youth, she proudly provided her biographer with a daguerreotype of herself at 16 years, dressed in perfectly conventional feminine fashion, except for her shorn head, which she excused as a practical measure taken after the death of her mother; “who would have taken care of my curls?” she demanded. 20. As far as the question of masculine dress was concerned, she was quick to reject her interlocutor’s suggestion that her trousers were a symbol of emancipation. “I strongly blame women who renounce their customary attire in the desire to make themselves pass for men,” she affirmed. “If I had found that trousers suited my sex, I would have completely gotten rid of my skirts, but this is mobile payment, not the. case, nor have I ever advised my sisters of the palette to wear men’s clothes in the ordinary course of life.

If, then, you see me dressed as I am, it is not at all with the aim of short story necklace making myself interesting, as all too many women have tried, but simply in order to bachelor mobile, facilitate my work. Remember that at a certain period I spent whole days in the slaughterhouses. Cdf Essay! Indeed, you have to love your art in order to live in pools of blood…I was also fascinated with horses, and where better can one study these animals than at the fairs…? I had no alternative but to realize that the garments of my own sex were a total nuisance. That is bachelor thesis payment, why I decided to ask the Prefect of Police for the authorization to questions answers, wear masculine clothing. 21 But the costume I am wearing is my working outfit, nothing else. The remarks of fools have never bothered me. Nathalie [her companion] makes fun of them as I do. It doesn’t bother her at payment all to see me dressed as a man, but if you are even the slightest bit put off, I am completely prepared to put on cdf essay a skirt, especially since all I have to bachelor thesis payment, do is to questions answers, open a closet to find a whole assortment of feminine outfits.” 22. Yet at mobile payment the same time Rosa Bonheur is forced to essay short story necklace, admit: “My trousers have been my great protectors…Many times I have congratulated myself for mobile payment having dared to introduction research, break with traditions which would have forced me to abstain from certain kinds of work, due to the obligation to drag my skirts everywhere…” Yet the famous artist again feels obliged to qualify her honest admission with an ill-assumed “femininity”: “Despite my metamorphoses of costume, there is not a daughter of Eve who appreciates the niceties more than I do; my brusque and mobile, even slightly unsociable nature has never prevented my heart from remaining completely feminine.” 23.

It is somewhat pathetic that this highly successful artist, unsparing of herself in the painstaking study of animal anatomy, diligently pursuing her bovine or equine subjects in paper the most unpleasant surroundings, industriously producing popular canvases throughout the course of a lengthy career, firm, assured and incontrovertably masculine in her style, winner of a first medal in the Paris Salon, Officer of the Legion of Honor, Commander of the Order of thesis Isabella the Catholic and short on social, the Order of Leopold of Belgium, friend of Queen Victoria—that this world-renowned artist should feel compelled late in life to justify and bachelor thesis mobile payment, qualify her perfectly reasonable assumption of masculine ways, for any reason whatsoever, and to short story necklace, feel compelled to attack her less modest trouser-wearing sisters at mobile the same time, in order to satisfy the demands of her own conscience. For her conscience, despite her supportive father, her unconventional behavior and the accolade of introduction worldly success, still condemned her for bachelor payment not being a “feminine” woman. The difficulties imposed by such demands on the woman artist continue to short, add to her already difficult enterprise even today. Bachelor Thesis Mobile Payment! Compare, for example, the noted contemporary, Louise Nevelson, with her combination of utter, “unfeminine” dedication to her work and cdf essay, her conspicuously “feminine” false eyelashes; her admission that she got married at 17 despite her certainty that she couldn’t live without creating because “the world said you should get married.” 24 Even in the case of bachelor payment these two outstanding artists—and whether we like The Horsefair or not, we still must admire Rosa Bonheur’s achievement—the voice of the cdf essay feminine mystique with its potpourri of ambivalent narcissism and guilt, internalized, subtly dilutes and subverts that total inner confidence, that absolute certitude and self-determination, moral and esthetic, demanded by bachelor thesis mobile payment the highest and most innovative work in short art. We have tried to deal with one of the thesis mobile payment perennial questions used to challenge women’s demand for cdf essay true, rather than token, equality, by examining the whole erroneous intellectual substructure upon which.

the question “Why have there been no great women artists?” is bachelor thesis mobile payment, based; by questioning the cute essay girl validity of the formulation of so-called “problems” in general and the “problem” of women specifically; and mobile, then, by probing some of the limitations of the discipline of short art history itself. Bachelor Thesis Mobile Payment! Hopefully, by stressing the institutional —i.e. the public—rather than the cute essay girl individual , or private, pre-conditions for achievement or the lack of it in the arts, we have provided a paradigm for the investigation of other areas in the field. By examining in some detail a single instance of deprivation or disadvantage—the unavailability of nude models to women art students—we have suggested that it was indeed institutionally made impossible for women to achieve artistic excellence, or success, on the same footing as men, no matter what the potency of their so-called talent, or genius. The existence of a tiny band of successful, if not great, women artists throughout history does nothing to mobile, gainsay this fact, any more than does the existence of a few superstars or token achievers among the essay story members of any minority groups. And while great achievement is rare and difficult at best, it is still rarer and more difficult if, while you work, you must at the same time wrestle with inner demons of self-doubt and guilt and outer monsters of ridicule or patronizing encouragement, neither of which have any specific connection with the quality of the art work as such. What is important is thesis payment, that women face up to the reality of their history and of their present situation, without making excuses or puffing mediocrity. Disadvantage may indeed be an short stories on social evils, excuse; it is not, however, an intellectual position. Rather, using as a vantage point their situation as underdogs in the realm of grandeur, and outsiders in that of ideology, women can reveal institutional and intellectual weaknesses in general, and, at the same time that they destroy false consciousness, take part in the creation of thesis mobile institutions in which clear thought—and true greatness—are challenges open to cdf essay, anyone, man or woman, courageous enough to bachelor thesis mobile, take the necessary risk, the essay short story leap into the unknown. 1. Kate Millett’s Sexual Politics , New York, 1970, and Mary Ellman’s Thinking About Women , New York, 1968 provide notable exceptions. 2. “Women Artists.” Review of Die Frauen in die Kunstgeschichte by Ernst Guhl in bachelor mobile payment The Westminster Review (American Edition), LXX, July, 1958, 91–104.

I am grateful to Elaine Showalter for having brought this review to my attention. 3. See, for example, Peter S. Walch’s excellent studies of Angelica Kauffmann or his unpublished doctoral dissertation, Angelica Kauffmann , Princeton, 1968, on the subject; for Artemisia Gentileschi, see R. Cdf Essay! Ward Bissell, “Artemisia Gentileschi—A New Documented Chronology,” Art Bulletin , L (June), 1968, 153–168. 4. New York, 1968. 5. John Stuart Mill, The Subjection of Women (1869) in Three Essays by John Stuart Miff, World’s Classics Series, London, 1966, p. 441. 6. For the relatively recent genesis of the emphasis on the artist as the nexus of esthetic experience, see M. H. Abrams, The Mirror and the Lamp: Romantic Theory and the Critical Tradition , New York, 1953, and thesis payment, Maurice Z. Shrader, Icarus: The Image of the Artist in writing French. Romanticism , Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1961. 7. A comparison with the parallel myth for women, the Cinderella Story, is bachelor thesis mobile, revealing: Cinderella gains higher status on essay the basis of a passive, “sex-object” attribute—small feet—whereas the Boy Wonder always proves himself through active accomplishment. For a thorough study of myths about artists, see Ernst Kris and Otto Kurz, Die Legende vom Kunstler: Ein Geschichtlicher Versuch , Vienna, 1934. 8. Nikolaus Pevsner, Academies of Art, Past and Present , Cambridge, 1940, p. 96f. 9. Contemporary directions—earthworks, conceptual art, art as information, etc.—certainly point away from emphasis on the individual genius and his salable products; in art history, Harrison C. and Cynthia A. White’s Canvases and Careers: Institutional Change in the French Painting World , New York, 1965, opens up a fruitful new direction of investigation, as did Nikolaus Pevsner’s pioneering Academies of Art . Ernst Gombrich and Pierre Francastel, in their very different ways, always have tended to view art and the artist as part of a total situation rather than in bachelor thesis lofty isolation.

10. Female models were introduced in the life-class in Berlin in 1875, in Stockholm in essay about 1839, in thesis mobile payment Naples in 1870, at the Royal College of Art in for science research London, after 1875. Pevsner, op. cit. , p. 231. Female models at the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts wore masks to hide their identity. as late as about 1866—as attested to in a charcoal drawing by Thomas Eakins—if not later.

12. H. C. and C. A. Bachelor Mobile! White, op. cit. , p. 51. 14. Mrs. Ellis, The Daughters of England: Their Position in Society, Character, and Responsibilities (1844) in The Family Monitor , New York, 1844, p. 35. 16. Patricia Thomson, The Victorian Heroine: A Changing Ideal , London, 1956, p. Essay Short Evils! 77. 17. H. C. an d C . Bachelor Thesis Payment! A. White, op. cit. , p. 91 . 18. Essay Short Stories! Anna Klumpke, Rosa Bonheur: Sa Vie, son oeuvre, Paris, 1908, p. 311. 19.

Betty Friedan, The Feminine Mystique , New York, 1963, p. 158. 20. A. Klumpke, op. cit. , p. 166. 21. Paris, like many cities even today, had laws against impersonation on its books. 22. A. Klumpke, op. cit. , pp. 308–309.

24. Cited in Elizabeth Fisher, “The Woman as Artist, Louise Nevelson,” Aphra , I (Spring), 1970, p. Thesis Payment! 32. Author: Linda Nochlin is professor of art history at Vassar. Her book on Realism (Penguin) will come out this winter. This article is cdf essay, based on a section of the anthology Woman in Sexist Society: Studies in Power and Powerlessness , to be published by Basic Books in April. A version of this story originally appeared in the January 1971 issue of ARTnews on page 22 under the title “Why Have There Been No Great Women Artists?” Linda Nochlin on Feminism Then and mobile payment, Now. Retrospective: Eight Artists Reply. Copyright 2017, Art Media ARTNEWS, llc.

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100 Writing Practice Lessons #038; Exercises. Want to become a better writer? Perhaps you want to write novels, or maybe you just want to get better grades in your essay writing assignments, or maybe you#8217;d like to start a popular blog. Thesis Mobile! If you want to story, write better, you need practice. But what does a writing practice actually look like? In this post, I#8217;m going to mobile, give you everything you need to kick off your writing practice and become a better writer faster. This was the question I had when I first started The Write Practice in 2011. I knew how to practice a sport and how to practice playing an instrument.

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elderly abuse essays most prevalent in being solved due to the effects it has on the elderly and payment, everybody who surround them. II.THE FOCUS OF THIS ARTICLE The population of elderly is growing and with that the need for long-term care facilities in which to cdf essay place the elderly is also growing. Mobile. As stated one of the most popular long-term care facilities within the cdf essay United States are nursing homes. Due to contributing aggravating circumstances the elderly have become subject to abuse within some nursing homes. Abuse. Indias Elderly Face Growing Neglect Essay. children to court due to bachelor thesis mobile payment our old values and tradition. They will face the bad behavior of their children and tolerate it but feel shame to go to court. Anticipating the growing problem of old age abuse the government has already sanctioned to open 600 elderly home through out the country. One thing we must keep in essay stories evils, mind whatever the bachelor mobile government or the society try to accommodate this old age problem, providing all the facilities, it can not give the essay writing questions mental satisfaction which a senior citizen find from.

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Secondly, the thin vaginal tissues and decreased natural lubrication increase the risk of micro-tears which leading to STDs. Thirdly, elderly are less likely to use condoms because contraception is thesis not a concern anymore and they may. reduction in parent’s stress levels, therefore reducing the amount of child abuse and neglect. Article 2 Falconer, Clark, and Paris (2010) evaluated a research program used to stories on social prevent child abuse and payment, neglect; their article is essay short story called Validity in an evaluation of bachelor thesis, Healthy Families Florida. Health Families Florida is a volunteer-run home visiting organization that helps out families assessed with high child abuse and neglect. Family Trip. The subjects of this experiment were split up into three groups: the completers.

Interview with Elderly Person Essay. the state based that perceive the concept of taking the slack of any funds or balances owed. Bachelor Payment. Most elderly individuals receive the supplemental income (SSI) monthly that has to be considered for the compensation of the agency base pay for the employees and staff. Business Model Business models are the cute essay girl presentation of the thesis business idea focusing on the general purpose for the attraction of the elderly or senior citizen. The business model mediates between the technical and economic domains.

Legal and Ethical Issues of Reporting Abuse in cdf essay, Both Children and the Elderly. abuse and neglect against children. These numbers only include those cases that are reported, it is unknown what the true numbers of cases each year. Many children are never brought to a medical facility for care or die before receiving any medical assistance for bachelor mobile payment the injuries they receive. Cdf Essay. Reporting elderly abuse and neglect is typically more difficult for mobile an attending physician. The abuse and/or neglect may be more varied than as in the cases of children. Elderly abuse and essay writing answers, neglect is mobile not just. spend over 40 hours per week in caring for their elderly family members (Kossek, Colquitt, Noe, 2001; Covinsky, et al, 2001). While reducing the hours that one works may decrease stress in the amount of stories evils, time available for care, it increases the payment stress on the financial well-being of cute essay girl, both caregiver and those who are cared for. In a survey conducted by HR Magazine (2000), participants admitted to bachelor thesis mobile payment being perceived by their employers as unreliable once elderly relatives moved in to be cared for.

Some have. Salutory Neglect in essay questions answers, the American Colonies Essay. He claimed that “if no restrictions were placed on the colonies, they would flourish.” Britain had quite a few reasons as to why they used salutary neglect, but there are three main ones. First, the colonies were a part of their mother country Britain, and therefore they were expected to do everything could to serve the thesis payment mother country (Britain) through mercantilism. England just expected that since they were in charge of the colonies, that they would stay loyal to England even with less law enforcement. continues to worsen as time goes by. The noticeable problems that could affect driving become a problem around the age of cdf essay, 60 (Heiting). Loss of peripheral vision could contribute to not seeing what is beside you or behind you. This could cause an elderly person to change into another lane and a car be in their blind spot.

Losing the bachelor thesis mobile ability to distinguish colors could cause a senior to run a red light and hit another person that has the right away. The loss of vision would be devastating to one’s. Essay about Child Abuse and Neglect. children receive poorer quality parenting than non maltreated children. There are other factors relating to poverty associated with child abuse and neglect. Stress and economic hardship resulting from unemployment have been linked to child maltreatment. Essay Family Trip. “Parenting characteristics potentially mediate the relationship between poverty and child neglect. Past research on poverty and parenting suggests that economic stress is bachelor thesis payment linked to more hostile parenting.” (Slack, Holl, McDaniel, Yoo Bolger, 2004) Aging: The Growing Population of Elderly Essay.

The care needed to assist the individual with DD may require physical abilities that the essay stories on social evils elderly parent is no longer capable of performing. In scenarios such as this, the thesis payment physical deficit are felt by both the “normal” aging individual and by the aging individual with DD. However, there are areas of essay necklace, strength that should be considered regarding the subgroup and thesis mobile, those envolved within the essay short necklace group. For instance, there is a paradigm shift in which social workers have a proclivity toward commuity support. Epidemiology in the Elderly with Heart Disease Essays. is the leading killer in the elderly.

Men are higher at risk for heart disease than women during middle age, women’s risk increases after menopause leading to equality in risk. Aortic valve disease is the mobile most common heart valve disease in the elderly. The aortic valve allows blood to pump form the left ventricle to the rest of the body. Aortic sclerosis is the process of thickening and cute essay girl, stiffening in thesis mobile, this valve. This disease affects about one third of all elderly people.

Heart rhythm and electrical. Negarive Impact of Emotional Child Neglect Essay examples. story having a different situation but leading to the same outcome. Child neglect can often be misguided with child abuse but the two have different consequences. It is possible that child abuse can lead to child neglect and cute essay girl, vice versa, but one has to mainly focus on the effects child neglect causes.

In Working Toward a Conceptual Definition Of Child Neglect, Connie Tang points out, “Even when the consequence of child neglect is not fatal, neglected children often exhibit developmental difficulties. Physical Abuse and thesis mobile payment, Neglect on essay questions Children Essay. parents or caregivers more than the non-maltreated children. The authors supported this argument by showing some examples and studies of children who experienced abuse at a very early stage. They indicate that “children who experience early emotional neglect seem to particularly at risk of mobile payment, attachment problems; whereas 57 % of the questions emotionally neglected children participating in the Minnesota mother-child project were securely attached at 12 months of age, at 18 months of age the classifications of these. Essay on Elderly Lesbians and Breast Cancer.

Lesbians are four times less likely than heterosexual women to have had a mammogram. Bachelor Mobile Payment. Running Head: ELDERLY LESBIANS AND BREAST CANCER 3 Some lesbians are also at increased risk for breast cancer related to higher alcohol intake and nulliparity (Barnes, 2012). Age-related changes among lesbians In aging women, frequency of ovulation diminishes and menstrual cycles become shorter and irregular. Hormonal changes also occur, as post-menopausal women produce approximately 90% less estrogen (Miller. Nursing Homes are a Haven for the Elderly Essay. removes a great stress from the family of an elderly person who can no longer care for him or herself. Stories On Social. The facility helps residents with their prescriptions and bachelor, medicines.

Nursing homes are usually located near hospitals to ensure quick treatment. Cute Essay Girl. And in case of an emergency, trained professionals are on site. What a multipurpose establishment! Security, entertainment, and health care. These days, there is no better place for our elderly.

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Melissa’s twisted relationship with Mary Lou results in extreme pain and bachelor thesis mobile payment, feeling of neglect for her. Essay Questions Answers. Oates. Essay on Putting Elderly Parents in Anursing Home. law answers website, 2008) ] Wow, now can you just see their life saving dwindling. I can say after being a nursing assistant employed in the nursing home setting for seventeen years now. That I can tell you I’ve heard it endless times form my elderly residents in the nursing home, how they worked hard all their life and for what? To live out their golden years watching everything they worked for bachelor thesis mobile payment go to their care.

Needless to say it’s heartbreaking for those who have to watch it and cdf essay, those experiencing. Fall Prevention on Elderly Patients in a Surgical Ward Essay. not just for the elderly but for patients in general, Sensor alarm are available commercially such device will sound if the patient tried to move hazily and the ward are reminded for their attention, Use of Hip protector for patients who cannot walk may allow support and mobility. Actually all this equipment should be checked regularly even before operation or surgery may occur. Bachelor Thesis. In KDH hospital they have identified the following intervention to reduce the risk of cdf essay, falling of bachelor mobile, elderly patients in a. How Does Animal Neglect Affect the Community?

Essay. shifting animals such as cats and dogs to alternate kennels in order to give them more space and to provide more space for cute essay girl incoming animals. During this I was able to observe animals that were suffering from all kinds of different disabilities due to neglect such as missing limbs, so scrawny you could see the bones and a few with either a missing eye or blind in both of them. I asked what he/she thought had happened to these animals and the response was that these animals were almost all street rescues. How does neglect during infancy affect cognitive development in young children? mothers are most likely to neglect their children. Other risk factors include environmental influences, like living in poverty or lack of social support, family influences, like lack of thesis payment, communication or family stress and influences from the essay questions answers child, such as, age or special needs (DiPanfilis, D., 2006). Does neglect in infancy lead to deficits in bachelor mobile, cognitive functioning? Several studies indicate that maltreatment during infancy does affect cognitive development.

Research on neglect, specifically, during. have any of the diseases or downfalls discussed above in the background portion of this piece (CNN). All of these above incidents and accidents could be prevented if the right actions take place. But so far some attempts have been unsuccessful. Elderly citizens could help prevent these accidents in several ways. If they were to regularly have a physical that consisted of more than just simply checking vision and family trip, hearing we could reduce the amount of fatal crashes by taking drivers off the road that. Hemispatial Neglect Research Review Essay. For this, several hemispatial neglect patients took an MRI, NIHSS test, and hemispatial neglect test on bachelor mobile the first day. Hillis, Wityk, Barker, et al found that the NIHSS test was not a good indicator for the stroke and that hemispatial neglect would be a better indicator for essay writing questions answers the stroke. This indicates a better way to measure nondominant ischemic stroke6. 4. Bachelor. Hemispatial Neglect between Different Genders Hemispatial neglect was once thought to be more prevalent in essay short on social, men because men and women have.

Although I carry a strong opinion, however I do not agree on removing the license of the elderly based on bachelor mobile payment their age, but on their capability to pass the eyesight and physical ability test on a yearly base. It has been proven that these driven tests are legit. “According to a 2004 study in the Journal of the story American Medical Association found that requiring people to show up for license renewal helps reduce crash rates. Researchers say those who are unfit to drive decide not to seek a new license. Interaction Design for Elderly Essay. focused most on bachelor thesis mobile payment a young user like children and teenage and rarely bothers of the elderly.

Since most of the elderly are particularly not IT literate, it is essay writing questions answers a big responsibility or can be considered as a big challenge to the industry to thesis payment produce an elderly friendly design. Recently, a lot of short evils, countries like Japan, USA and bachelor thesis mobile, including few European states, the USA, and cute essay girl, Japan, are aging; both the figure and the proportion of elderly citizens are mounting. To create a consistent and comprehensive. for law abiding citizens of any age to get a job, so the mobile payment releasing more jobless individuals is an added burden to communities. The families who these prisoners come home also to face the added financial burden of having to care and provide for writing the elderly or sick relative. More government funds would then have to bachelor thesis allocate to cute essay girl these communities help with the added costs of housing and the medical care of these released prisoners. Bachelor. Milwaukee, for example, is recognized as a city suffering from cdf essay poverty.

Essay on Technology for the Elderly with Dementia. They mentioned that employers are less interested to choose a disabled person over a non-disabled person when looking for jobs. This results in the two fold multiplication of unemployment rates for disabled people. In Ireland in the recent years, the relationship between disability and poverty has been correlated negatively (Gannon and Nolan, 2006). According to payment the analysis carried out in 2003 on illness, disability and social inclusion throughout Europe, Ireland was included concerning these. So at the end of introduction for science, it all, thousands of bachelor thesis mobile payment, animals could be dying at the expense of nothing, because we will never know how the product will really react to humans (about my planet).

Animal slaughtering has been another big topic of debate. Many will argue that people need to eat, and animals are a good source of food, especially protein. Yes we can eat meat, but the means of going about getting the meat does not need to be so callous. Cute Essay Girl. There are many methods in which to kill an animal, Electrical stunning. It seems to get worse every year. Yet it never fails to astonish us when we hear or read about terrible mistreatment of children around the mobile payment country. If you tried to understand every single incident, you would probably get really depressed, and lose your humanity. For that reason alone, we respect the essay short on social evils men and women who work in mobile, the field of social work, first responders, and hospital staff, who see these terrible cases first hand.

So how about the children? Do they bounce back? The survivors of these. Stereotypes and the Elderly Essay. Society characterizes older people as helpless and unable to short story necklace make decisions for themselves anymore. While with the bachelor payment event of some extreme cases, such as with dementia or Alzheimer’s, this can hold some truth. As a result, this comparison can be very insulting with most seniors.

They are seen as not being able to cdf essay make decisions for themselves and therefore need to be taken care of. I feel as though if I were to be cut out of the decision making process, I would feel alienated and disrespected. Thesis Mobile Payment. Growing. The Neglect of the Native American Indian Essay. They talked about the hardships of the research paper Indians, the wars they were in, how those wars were started, and how the tribes in thesis payment, those wars have been mistreated. Television documentaries and introduction for science, movies also contain valuable information about this topic. Although they are not always 100% factual, they paint a picture of past Indian life while they entertain you.

Personally, I become bored easily when reading historical material, so being able to visually see what these acts of mistreatment looked like on a screen. Essay on Promoting Health for the Elderly. Commonly people who availed the Medicaid are those who have heart diseases, chronic lung disease, and hypertension. (Novak, 2012) In Timonen (2008) statement, care is related to bachelor mobile both mental and social care. The care denotes the assistance of introduction for science paper, other person in order for the senior citizen to have good welfare. Long term care includes light touch services or purely social aspects such as companionships. It is more helpful for senior citizens if social services are often given to them; it eases their. Essay Social Media and the Elderly.

For instance, some studies have found that using Facebook increases weak social ties at bachelor, the expense of stronger ties, while other studies have found that that does not occur. Essay About Family Trip. The studies which found no effect also found a relationship between the quality of in-person friendships and the use of instant messaging on social networking sites. Additionally, other differences were seen among users of social media. For instance, for those adopters of social networking who had high social circles, their. Since the cloning of the thesis mobile sheep Dolly, there has been much debate over whether or not human should be cloned. Many people believe that cloning is a violation of the natural order of things and that all research should be banned. About. Others feel that this is a natural progression of science and human evolution and thesis, that research in the area of human cloning should be a priority. Essay Answers. Human cloning should and ought to be banned because it is unethical and it is a deviation from the thesis mobile payment natural way of introduction for science research paper, life. And it.

Child Abuse and Neglect Essay example. (Crosson-Tower, 2002; Williams, 2009) Often parents use physical punishments to correct unwanted behavior, however, sometimes those punishments are seen by others as abuse. One form of punishment that is often seen as abuse is mobile corporal punishment. Corporal punishment includes but is not limited to pulling ears and hair, slapping, smacking, spanking, and shaking. On February 22, 2007, a legislation to ban the use of corporal punishment with children less than four years of age was introduced, sparking. Essay about Sexual Behavior in the Elderly. They said loss of essay, a partner is another reason sexual urge has diminished in the old age.

Older men talked also of deteriorating health as a reason for low sexual desire. The study also indicated that despite advanced age, a number of bachelor thesis payment, seniors still wanted to experience sex once a week or even daily. In the essay writing answers study revealed that elders in their fifties were active, accounting for about ninety percent of the respondents. Women showed no interest in payment, behaviors, for example, holding hands. Lack of Exercise May Cause Falls in necklace, the Elderly Essay. FALLS IN THE ELDERLY 4 though it had been correctly applied she was mobile enough to slip through the restraint till it compressed her neck, and then unable to extricate herself from it, so that she died of strangulation (Berzlanovich, Schopfer, Keil, 2012). Bachelor Mobile Payment. An important point is that the exercise program, although without a heavy load, is effective for prevention of falls among frail elderly persons, so.

Essay on Elder Abuse and Neglect in Latino Families. Rigid socialization of Latino women to be subservient and tolerant to their husbands and short evils, men to be powerful and dominant over women creates a toxic atmosphere for thesis mobile payment wives experiencing abuse. Because their culture condemns martial separation, they are likely to allow the mistreatment to continue. About Trip. Other factors such as Latino distrust of institutions, cultural emphasis on family and bachelor, the fact that elders are often socially isolated could also keep Latina elders from cute essay girl seeking help in thesis mobile payment, these situations. Challenge of Taking Care Elderly Loved One Essay. In addition to the fact she could not live alone and the medical issues, she had a problem with managing her money.

My mother would often miss paying her bills and get late charges. She misplaced her checks and money. She would also give it away to my siblings when they would ask her for money. I also had offered to set up her bills online and essay writing, pay them monthly although, she refused. When she came to live with me finally, anything that came on the television especially the religious evangelist. Examining the Western Culture#x27;s View of the Elderly Essay.

The expression of her loneliness was unlike any type I had experienced before. Many times, I had friends tell me how lonely they were. Not to discount their feelings, but many of them still had family they could talk to and friends to spend time with. Agnes' family never came to visit her, nor any friends to keep her company. She invited me to come an join her anytime to sit with her in her room and just watch TV. I asked her if she would like me to stay, and she said yes.

I sat down, and bachelor payment, she said. Essay on Perceptions of Death among Elderly Patients. Many differing scientific approaches have been applied to the concept. For example, brain death, as it is defined by medical science, describes death as the cessation of writing questions answers, brain activity (Venes et al., 2001). The most difficult challenge of thesis, defining death is cdf essay differentiating it from life. Thesis Payment. It would seem that death would refer to the moment that life ends. Determining when death has occurred requires describing precise conceptual boarders between life and death. There are no definitive agreements about.

How the physical effects of ageing affect an elderlys self confidence. Seeing friends being able to about trip go out and play activities could make them feel down in the dumps and left out. I have seen this happen to my great nan. Bachelor Thesis Mobile Payment. She wasn't capable of being able to get up and walk around, let alone go out to about family play activities. She lived with her friend who was able to thesis mobile payment get up and essay writing answers, about which i noticed from the bachelor thesis mobile look in her eyes that it did upset her that she couldn't do things that others around her could. In a way she seemed to be embarassed at the fact she couldn't. It seemed. Essay Medication Compliance in Elderly.

What the agreements would stand for is a “need to cdf essay know basis,” meaning that the patients information is strictly confidential and those who are on a need to bachelor thesis know basis would have access to the patients information. The liability agreement is so that the cdf essay patient could not sue the pharmaceutical company or the medical facility where they are being treated if a complaint involved only the videotelephone reminder program. Once the videotelephone reminder program is implemented the pharmaceutical company. What Are the Risks of an Elderly Man with Parkinson#x27;s Disease Developing Further Complications After Getting an Electrode Implant Compared to an Elderly Man with Parkinson#x27;s Disease Without an Electrode Implant? Relatives and medical examiners did notice a change in impulsiveness of the PD patients.

During the self examination of the patients, they did not notice a change in thesis mobile payment, their personalities. There was also a large change is premeditation of cute essay girl, movements. Family members also noted that the patients were less thoughtful and didn't think of the repercussions of their actions. It is thought that this can vary with individual patients. Pham stated: To our knowledge, this is the first study to apply multiple. Childhood Abuse and Neglect and bachelor mobile payment, Posttraumatic Stress Syndrome. In the ACE study, the presence of one or more of these childhood adverse events was associated with smoking, obesity, depression, a history of suicide attempt, current substance abuse and addiction, risky sexual behavior, sexually transmitted diseases, heart disease, cancer, emphysema, and diabetes. The individual cost of cute essay girl, child complex trauma cannot be assessed, but the cost per year has been estimated at 94 billion dollars per year (Cook, Blaustein, Spinazzola van der Kolk, 2003). Complex.

matter and what they think or say will no longer be considered. Bachelor Thesis Mobile. But the elderly do have feelings and thoughts, and when the government enforces laws, the elderly should feel better about receiving care. It all begins with the patients though; most of the seniors who currently receive care receive abuse as well, and they need to know how to make it stop. One Article Reports: “For every reported incident of domestic elder abuse or neglect, approximately five go unreported, according to the Administration. that are defined within the context. For example, elder abuse is divided into short five forms of bachelor thesis mobile, abuse: psychological, physical, sexual, neglect and financial abuse(cite).Furthermore, one also has to understand how each type of abuse effects the elderly and the main root cause of it. In order to examine this, we must carefully analyze society’s attitudes towards the elderly. Essay. For example, elder abuse can be determined through the bachelor thesis payment lens of introduction for science, ageism which explains the reason why age is an important cultural dimension. CAGE: A Screening Technique to Detect Alcohol Dependence Essay.

the use of alcohol, as well as drugs, among elderly citizens. Payment. Drug and alcohol abuse among the elderly tends to pass under the radar because clinicians do not routinely ask older patients about substance use behaviors. Also, non-specific symptoms of abuse or dependence, such as self-neglect, cognitive deficits, and sleep disturbance, may be misdiagnosed as dementia or depression. Contrary to popular belief, the rates of drug and alcohol abuse among elderly people are gradually increasing. Estimates.