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manet-thesis-99mar - 1998:362 MASTER'S THESIS Routing. Click to edit the document details. Unformatted text preview: 1998:362 MASTER'S THESIS Routing Protocols in Wireless Ad-hoc Networks A Simulation Study Tony Larsson, Nicklas Hedman Civilingenjorsprogrammet 1998:362 • ISSN: 1402-1617 • ISRN: LTU-EX--98/362--SE Master’s thesis in Computer Science and Engineering Routing Protocols in Wireless Ad-hoc Networks A Simulation Study Stockholm, 1998 Tony Larsson and Nicklas Hedman Lulea University of Technology Supervisor: Per Johansson Switchlab Ericsson Telecom AB Examiner: Mikael Degermark Department of Computer Science and reviving bernabei Electrical Engineering Division of Computer Communications, Lulea University of Technology Abstract Ad-hoc networking is a concept in computer communications, which means that users wanting to communicate with each other form a temporary network, without any form of centralized administration. Each node participating in the network acts both as host and a router and must therefore be willing to forward packets for other nodes. Essay Few Line Mile Wordsworth? For this purpose, a routing protocol is needed. An ad-hoc network has certain characteristics, which imposes new demands on the routing protocol. The most important characteristic is the reviving the essay dynamic topology, which is a consequence of node mobility. Nodes can change position quite frequently, which means that we need a routing protocol that quickly adapts to topology changes. The nodes in an ad-hoc network can consist of laptops and personal digital assistants and essay are often very limited in resources such as CPU capacity, storage capacity, battery power and bandwidth.

This means that the routing protocol should try to the essay, minimize control traffic, such as periodic update messages. Instead the essay analysis routing protocol should be reactive, thus only calculate routes upon receiving a specific request. The Internet Engineering Task Force currently has a working group named Mobile Ad-hoc Networks that is working on the essay routing specifications for ad-hoc networks. This master thesis evaluates some of the protocols put forth by the working group. This evaluation is done by means of simulation using Network simulator 2 from Berkeley.

The simulations have shown that there certainly is a need for a special ad-hoc routing protocol when mobility increases. More conventional routing protocols like DSDV have a dramatic decrease in english as a essay performance when mobility is high. Two of the proposed protocols are DSR and AODV. They perform very well when mobility is high. However, we have found that a routing protocol that entirely depends on reviving the essay bernabei messages at response, the IP-level will not perform well. Some sort of support from the lower layer, for instance link failure detection or neighbor discovery is necessary for the essay, high performance. The size of the network and the offered traffic load affects protocols based on source routing, like DSR, to few line mile, some extent. A large network with many mobile nodes and high offered load will increase the overhead for DSR quite drastically.

In these situations, a hop-by-hop based routing protocol like AODV is more desirable. Preface This report is the result of our master thesis project carried out at reviving the essay bernabei, Ericsson Telecom, Switchlab in Stockholm. This master thesis is also the last part of essay analysis our Master of Science degree at Lulea University of Technology. Switchlab is an applied research organization within Ericsson, working on network studies and technologies for products in the foreseeable future. This master thesis project has been a cooperation between Switchlab in Stockholm and Ericsson Mobile Data Design (ERV) in Gothenburg.

Our master thesis consisted of reviving conducting a simulation study of proposed routing protocols in ad-hoc networks. The thesis work done at ERV implemented one of the proposed routing protocols and tested it in a simple scenario. This has made it possible to composed few line mile william, share thoughts and reviving the essay bernabei ideas with each other. We would like to thank the following persons: Per Johansson for being our supervisor at Switchlab, Bartosz Mielczarek for contribution of the realistic scenarios and Mikael Degermark for what is a response essay, being our Examiner at Lulea University of Technology. Bernabei? Also thanks to Johan Kopman and Jerry Svedlund in prompts college Gothenburg for discussions and comments regarding AODV. Bernabei? Finally, we would also like to thank Mats Westin and Henrik Eriksson for giving us feedback on this report. Mit Mba Essay Analysis? Table of Contents 1 INTRODUCTION . 9 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 2 BACKGROUND . 9 PROBLEM DESCRIPTION . 9 RELATED WORK . 10 PROJECT ORGANIZATION . Reviving The Essay Bernabei? 10 DISPOSITION . 11 ABBREVIATIONS . 11 GENERAL CONCEPTS.

12 2.1 WIRELESS AD-HOC NETWORKS . 12 2.1.1 General. 12 2.1.2 Usage. 13 2.1.3 Characteristics . 13 2.2 ROUTING . Essays Were? 14 2.2.1 Conventional protocols . 14 2.2.2 Link State. 14 2.2.3 Distance Vector . 14 2.2.4 Source Routing . 14 2.2.5 Flooding . 15 2.2.6 Classification. 15 3 AD-HOC ROUTING PROTOCOLS. 16 3.1 DESIRABLE PROPERTIES . 16 3.2 MANET. 17 3.3 DESTINATION SEQUENCED DISTANCE VECTOR - DSDV . 17 3.3.1 Description . 17 3.3.2 Properties . 17 3.4 AD-HOC ON DEMAND DISTANCE VECTOR - AODV . 18 3.4.1 Description . Reviving? 18 3.4.2 Properties . 19 3.5 DYNAMIC SOURCE ROUTING - DSR.

20 3.5.1 Description . 20 3.5.2 Properties . Slave? 20 3.6 ZONE ROUTING PROTOCOL - ZRP . Bernabei? 21 3.6.1 Description . 21 3.6.2 Properties . 22 3.7 TEMPORALLY-ORDERED ROUTING ALGORITHM - TORA . 22 3.7.1 Description . 22 3.7.2 Properties . 23 3.8 INTERNET MANET ENCAPSULATION PROTOCOL - IMEP. On We Were The Mulvaneys? 24 3.8.1 Description . 24 3.8.2 Properties . 24 3.9 CLUSTER BASED ROUTING PROTOCOL - CBRP. 24 3.9.1 Description . 24 3.9.2 Properties . Reviving? 26 3.10 COMPARISON. English Language Argumentative Essay? 26 4 SIMULATION ENVIRONMENT . 28 4.1 NETWORK SIMULATOR. Bernabei? 28 4.2 MOBILITY EXTENSION . 29 4.2.1 Shared media. English As A Global Language Essay? 30 4.2.2 Mobile node. 30 4.3 SIMULATION OVERVIEW . 31 4.4 MODIFICATIONS . 32 4.4.1 AODV . 32 4.4.2 DSR. 33 4.4.3 DSDV. 34 4.4.4 Flooding . 34 4.4.5 The simulator.

34 5 SIMULATION STUDY . 35 5.1 MEASUREMENTS . 35 5.1.1 Quantitative metrics . 35 5.1.2 Parameters . 35 5.1.3 Mobility . 35 5.2 SIMULATION SETUP . 38 5.3 MOBILITY SIMULATIONS . The Essay Bernabei? 39 5.3.1 Setup . 39 5.3.2 Fraction of received packets. Is A Essay? 40 5.3.3 End-to-end delay . The Essay? 41 5.3.4 End-to-end throughput . 42 5.3.5 Overhead . American Culture Essay? 43 5.3.6 Optimal path. 44 5.3.7 Summary mobility simulations. Reviving The Essay Bernabei? 46 5.4 OFFERED LOAD SIMULATIONS . 46 5.4.1 Setup . 46 5.4.2 Fraction of received packets. 47 5.4.3 End-to-end delay . 48 5.4.4 End-to-end throughput . English Global Language Essay? 49 5.4.5 Overhead . 49 5.4.6 Optimal path.

51 5.4.7 Summary offered load simulations . Reviving? 51 5.5 NETWORK SIZE SIMULATIONS. 52 5.6 REALISTIC SCENARIOS . 52 5.6.1 Setup . 52 5.6.2 Conference. 53 5.6.3 Event coverage . 55 5.6.4 Disaster area . Act Essay Confidential? 57 5.6.5 Summary realistic scenarios. 60 5.7 OBSERVATIONS . 60 5.7.1 Ability to find routes . 60 5.7.2 Temporary backward routes. 61 5.7.3 Buffers . 62 5.8 DISCUSSION. 62 5.9 CLASSIFICATION. Reviving The Essay Bernabei? 62 5.9.1 Mobile networks . 63 5.9.2 Size of networks . Language Argumentative? 63 5.9.3 Network scenarios . 64 5.10 IMPROVEMENTS . Reviving The Essay Bernabei? 64 6 IMPLEMENTATION STUDY . 65 DESIGN. 65 6.1.1 Main . 65 6.1.2 Event queue . 66 6.1.3 Route table. 66 6.1.4 Neighbors / senders . 66 6.1.5 Request buffer.

66 6.1.6 Message . Language Argumentative Essay? 66 6.2 SETUP . 66 6.3 TESTING . 67 6.3.1 Correctness. 67 6.3.2 Performance . 67 6.4 6.5 6.6 7 CONCLUSIONS. 69 7.1 7.2 8 PROBLEMS / LIMITATIONS . 67 IMPROVEMENTS . 68 IMPLEMENTATION CONCLUSIONS . Reviving Bernabei? 68 RESULTS. 69 FURTHER STUDIES . 69 REFERENCES . 71 APPENDIX A - TERMINOLOGY. 73 A.1 A.2 GENERAL TERMS . Mile Wordsworth? 73 AD-HOC RELATED TERMS . Reviving The Essay? 74 APPENDIX B - AODV IMPLEMENTATION FOR NS. Act Essay Prompts Confidential? 75 B.1 MESSAGE FORMATS. 75 B.1.1 Route Request – RREQ. 75 B.1.2 Route Reply - RREP. 76 B.1.3 Hello . Reviving The Essay Bernabei? 76 B.1.4 Link failure . Composed Essay Few Line? 76 B.2 DESIGN . 77 B.3 IMPORTANT ROUTINES.

78 B.3.1 Sending RREQ. 78 B.3.2 Receiving RREQ . 78 B.3.3 Forwarding RREQ. 79 B.3.4 Forwarding RREP . 79 B.3.5 Receiving RREP . 79 B.3.6 Hello handling . 80 B.3.7 Forwarding packets. 80 B.3.8 Sending Triggered RREP . 80 B.3.9 Receiving Triggered RREP. 80 APPENDIX C - SIMULATOR SCREENSHOTS . 81 C.1 C.2 NETWORK ANIMATOR . 81 AD-HOCKEY . Reviving? 82 List of Figures Figure 1: Figure 2: Figure 3: Figure 4: Figure 5: Figure 6: Figure 7: Figure 8: Figure 9: Figure 10: Figure 11: Figure 12: Figure 13: Figure 14: Figure 15: Figure 16: Figure 17: Figure 18: Figure 19: Figure 20: Figure 21: Figure 22: Figure 23: Figure 24: Figure 25: Figure 26: Figure 27: Figure 28: Figure 29: Figure 30: Figure 31: Figure 32: Figure 33: Figure 34: Figure 35: Example of a simple ad-hoc network with three participating nodes. . 12 Block diagram of few line wordsworth a mobile node acting both as hosts and as router. . 13 Network using ZRP. Reviving The Essay? The dashed squares show the routing zones for act essay prompts college, nodes S and D. 22 Directed acyclic graph rooted at reviving the essay bernabei, destination. Essay Mile? 23 IMEP in the protocol stack. . 24 Bi-directional linked clusters. 25 Network simulator 2. . 28 Shared media model. Reviving The Essay? . 30 A mobile node. . 31 Simulation overview. 32 Example of american essay mobility. . 37 Relation between the number of link changes and mobility. . 37 Mobility simulations - fraction of received packets. Reviving? . Mit Mba? 40 Mobility simulations - delay. 41 Mobility simulations - throughput. . 42 Mobility simulations - overhead.

43 Mobility simulations - optimal path difference. . 45 Offered load simulations - fraction of received packets. . 47 Offered load simulations - average delay. . 48 Offered load simulations - average throughput. . 49 Offered load simulations - overhead. Bernabei? 50 Offered load simulations – optimal path. 51 Conference scenario. . 54 Event coverage scenario. . 56 Disaster area scenario. . 58 Simple example scenario. . Analysis? 60 Overview of bernabei AODV daemon. . 65 Different router identification approaches. From left to right: 3a, 3b, 3c. 70 Route request format. . 75 Route reply format. 76 AODV design of implementation for simulator. . 77 Screenshot – Network animator. 81 Screenshot – Ad-hockey – Conference scenario. . Is A Response Essay? 82 Screenshot – Ad-hockey – Event coverage scenario. . The Essay? 83 Screenshot – Ad-hockey – Disaster area. Act Essay? . 83 List of Tables Table 1: Table 2: Table 3: Table 4: Table 5: Table 6: Table 7: Table 8: Table 9: Table 10: Table 11: Table 12: Table 13: Table 14: Table 15: Table 16: Table 17: Table 18: Table 19: Table 20: Table 21: Neighbor table. . 25 Comparison between ad-hoc routing protocols. . 27 Constants used in the AODV implementation. 33 Constants used in the DSR implementation. . 33 Constants used in the DSDV implementation. . 34 Mobility variables. Bernabei? 36 Parameters used during mobility simulations. 39 Optimal path difference for were, all protocols. 45 Parameters used during offered load simulations. . 47 Parameters used during realistic simulations.

53 Parameters used during conference scenario. . 53 Conference simulation results. Reviving? . Essay? 54 Packet drops in conference scenario. 55 Parameters used during event coverage scenario. . Reviving? 55 Event coverage simulation results. . 57 Packet drops in event coverage scenario. Act Essay Prompts College Confidential? . 57 Parameters used during disaster area scenario. 57 Disaster area simulation results. . 59 Packet drops in the essay bernabei disaster area. 59 Routing tables for AODV after a route discovery process. . 60 Routing caches for DSR, after a route discovery process. 61 1 Introduction 1.1 Background Wireless communication between mobile users is becoming more popular than ever before. This due to recent technological advances in laptop computers and wireless data communication devices, such as wireless modems and wireless LANs. This has lead to lower prices and higher data rates, which are the analysis two main reasons why mobile computing continues to enjoy rapid growth.

There are two distinct approaches for enabling wireless communication between two hosts. The first approach is to let the existing cellular network infrastructure carry data as well as voice. The major problems include the reviving bernabei problem of handoff, which tries to prompts college, handle the situation when a connection should be smoothly handed over from one base station to another base station without noticeable delay or packet loss. Another problem is that networks based on the cellular infrastructure are limited to places where there exists such a cellular network infrastructure. The second approach is to form an ad-hoc network among all users wanting to communicate with each other. This means that all users participating in the ad-hoc network must be willing to forward data packets to make sure that the reviving packets are delivered from source to destination. This form of networking is limited in range by the individual nodes transmission ranges and is typically smaller compared to as a language argumentative essay, the range of cellular systems. This does not mean that the cellular approach is better than the ad-hoc approach. Ad-hoc networks have several advantages compared to traditional cellular systems. These advantages include: N N N On demand setup Fault tolerance Unconstrained connectivity Ad-hoc networks do not rely on any pre-established infrastructure and can therefore be deployed in places with no infrastructure. This is useful in bernabei disaster recovery situations and places with non-existing or damaged communication infrastructure where rapid deployment of a communication network is mit mba essay analysis, needed.

Adhoc networks can also be useful on conferences where people participating in the conference can form a temporary network without engaging the services of any pre-existing network. Because nodes are forwarding packets for each other, some sort of routing protocol is necessary to make the the essay bernabei routing decisions. Currently there does not exist any standard for essay mile wordsworth, a routing protocol for the essay, ad-hoc networks, instead this is english as a global language argumentative, work in progress. Many problems remain to be solved before any standard can be determined. This thesis looks at some of these problems and tries to reviving, evaluate some of the currently proposed protocols. 1.2 Problem description The objective for on we were, this master thesis was to evaluate proposed routing protocols for the essay, wireless ad-hoc networks based on performance.

This evaluation should be done theoretically and through simulation. Slave Culture Essay? It was also desirable to compare the the essay bernabei results with the mit mba essay results for the essay, routing protocols in a traditional wired network. At the beginning of this master thesis, no implementation of the protocols had been released, so the first main task was to english argumentative, implement some of the reviving the essay bernabei protocols. The thesis also included the goal to generate a simulation environment that could be used as a platform for further studies within the area of american essay ad-hoc networks. Bernabei? This simulation environment should if possible, be based on Network simulator 2 from Berkeley. 9 The goal of this master thesis was to: N N N N N N Get a general understanding of ad-hoc networks. Generate a simulation environment that could be used for further studies. Prompts College? Implement some of the proposed routing protocols for wireless ad-hoc networks.

Analyze the protocols theoretically and bernabei through simulation. Produce a classification of the protocols with respect to slave essay, applicability in combinations of small/large networks, and mobile/semi-mobile nodes. Recommend protocols for specific network scenarios. 1.3 Related work Many routing protocols have been proposed [2][4][6][8][10][11][12][16][19][22][26], but few comparisons between the reviving different protocols have been made. Culture? Of the work that has been done in this field, only the work done by the Monarch1 project at Carnegie Mellon University (CMU) has compared some of the different proposed routing protocols and evaluated them based on the same quantitative metrics. The result was presented in the article “A performance comparison of bernabei multi-hop ad hoc wireless network routing protocols” [3] that was released in the beginning of language argumentative October 1998. There exist some other simulation results [13][17] that have been done on individual protocols. These simulations have however not used the same metrics and are therefore not comparable with each other. In parallel with our master thesis, a master thesis project in Gothenburg [28] implemented the AODV [19] protocol and tested it in a environment that consisted of 5 computers with wireless interfaces. Reviving The Essay Bernabei? The cooperation between our projects and their project made it possible to share thoughts and ideas with each other. 1.4 Project organization The following persons have been involved in essays were the mulvaneys this master thesis project: Simulation study and master thesis authors M.Sc.

Tony Larsson M.Sc. Nicklas Hedman Supervisor at Ericsson Telecom AB, Switchlab Tekn.Lic. Per Johansson Examiner at Lulea University of reviving bernabei Technology Ph. D. Mikael Degermark Implementation study at Ericsson Mobile data design (ERV) in mit mba analysis Gothenburg M.Sc. Johan Kopman M.Sc.

Jerry Svedlund Supervisor at ERV M.Sc. Christoffer Kanljung Contribution of realistic scenarios Ph.D. Reviving Bernabei? student at culture, Chalmers University of Technology: Bartosz Mielczarek 1 MObile Networking ARCHitectures 10 1.5 Disposition This report consists of 8 chapters and reviving bernabei two appendices. Chapters 1 and 2 explain the essays the mulvaneys concept of ad-hoc networks and routing in general. Chapter 3 describes the the essay different routing protocols, analyzes and compares them. Chapters 4 and essays were 5 describe the simulator and the simulations that were made. Chapter 6 describes the implementation study of AODV that was made in Gothenburg.

Chapter 7 concludes the whole report and chapter 8 is the references that we have used. The appendices contain some terminology, details about the implementation of AODV that we did for the simulator and the essay some screenshots of the simulator. 1.6 Abbreviations AODV CBR CBRP DSDV DSR IEEE IETF LAN IP MAC MANET OLSR PDA QoS TCP TORA UDP WINET ZRP Ad-hoc On-demand Distance Vector Constant Bit Rate Cluster Based Routing Protocol Destination Sequenced Distance Vector Dynamic Source Routing Institute of act essay Electrical and Electronics Engineers Internet Engineering Task Force Local Area Network Internet Protocol Media Access Protocol Mobile Ad-hoc NETworks Optimized Link State Routing Protocol Personal Digital Assistant Quality of Service Transmission Control Protocol Temporally Ordered Routing Algorithm User Datagram Protocol Wireless InterNET Zone Routing Protocol 11 2 General Concepts 2.1 Wireless ad-hoc networks 2.1.1 General A wireless ad-hoc network is a collection of mobile/semi-mobile nodes with no pre-established infrastructure, forming a temporary network. Each of the nodes has a wireless interface and communicate with each other over either radio or infrared. Laptop computers and personal digital assistants that communicate directly with each other are some examples of nodes in an ad-hoc network.

Nodes in the adhoc network are often mobile, but can also consist of stationary nodes, such as access points to the Internet. Reviving? Semi mobile nodes can be used to is a response essay, deploy relay points in areas where relay points might be needed temporarily. Figure 1 shows a simple ad-hoc network with three nodes. The outermost nodes are not within transmitter range of each other. However the middle node can be used to forward packets between the outermost nodes.

The middle node is acting as a router and the three nodes have formed an ad-hoc network. Figure 1: Example of a simple ad-hoc network with three participating nodes. An ad-hoc network uses no centralized administration. This is to be sure that the network wont collapse just because one of the mobile nodes moves out of reviving bernabei transmitter range of the others. Nodes should be able to enter/leave the network as they wish. Because of the limited transmitter range of the nodes, multiple hops may be needed to reach other nodes.

Every node wishing to participate in an ad-hoc network must be willing to forward packets for other nodes. Thus every node acts both as a host and english argumentative as a router. A node can be viewed as an abstract entity consisting of a router and a set of affiliated mobile hosts (Figure 2). A router is an entity, which, among other things runs a routing protocol. A mobile host is simply an reviving the essay IP-addressable host/entity in the traditional sense. Essay? Ad-hoc networks are also capable of reviving handling topology changes and malfunctions in nodes. It is fixed through network reconfiguration. For instance, if a node leaves the network and causes link breakages, affected nodes can easily request new routes and mit mba essay analysis the problem will be solved. This will slightly increase the delay, but the network will still be operational.

12 Wireless ad-hoc networks take advantage of the nature of the wireless communication medium. In other words, in a wired network the physical cabling is done a priori restricting the connection topology of the nodes. This restriction is not present in reviving bernabei the wireless domain and, provided that two nodes are within transmitter range of each other, an instantaneous link between them may form. Host Host Router Host Figure 2: Block diagram of response a mobile node acting both as hosts and bernabei as router. 2.1.2 Usage There is no clear picture of what these kinds of networks will be used for.

The suggestions vary from document sharing at american culture essay, conferences to infrastructure enhancements and military applications. In areas where no infrastructure such as the Internet is available an ad-hoc network could be used by reviving the essay, a group of wireless mobile hosts. This can be the case in areas where a network infrastructure may be undesirable due to reasons such as cost or convenience. Examples of such situations include disaster recovery personnel or military troops in cases where the normal infrastructure is either unavailable or destroyed. Other examples include business associates wishing to share files in an airport terminal, or a class of students needing to interact during a lecture. If each mobile host wishing to communicate is equipped with a wireless local area network interface, the group of mobile hosts may form an ad-hoc network.

Access to the Internet and access to resources in networks such as printers are features that probably also will be supported. Response Essay? 2.1.3 Characteristics Ad-hoc networks are often characterized by a dynamic topology due to reviving, the fact that nodes change their physical location by what is a response, moving around. This favors routing protocols that dynamically discover routes over conventional routing algorithms like distant vector and link state [23]. Another characteristic is reviving bernabei, that a host/node have very limited CPU capacity, storage capacity, battery power and is a response bandwidth, also referred to as a “thin client”. This means that the the essay bernabei power usage must be limited thus leading to a limited transmitter range. Language Argumentative? The access media, the radio environment, also has special characteristics that must be considered when designing protocols for reviving the essay, ad-hoc networks. One example of this may be unidirectional links. These links arise when for example two nodes have different strength on their transmitters, allowing only one of the host to essay, hear the bernabei other, but can also arise from mit mba essay, disturbances from the the essay bernabei surroundings.

Multihop in a radio environment may result in an overall transmit capacity gain and power gain, due to american slave culture, the squared relation between coverage and required output power. By using multihop, nodes can transmit the reviving packets with a much lower output power. 13 2.2 Routing Because of the fact that it may be necessary to essay mile william wordsworth, hop several hops (multi-hop) before a packet reaches the destination, a routing protocol is needed. The routing protocol has two main functions, selection of routes for various source-destination pairs and the delivery of messages to reviving the essay bernabei, their correct destination. The second function is essay, conceptually straightforward using a variety of protocols and data structures (routing tables). This report is focused on selecting and finding routes. 2.2.1 Conventional protocols If a routing protocol is needed, why not use a conventional routing protocol like link state or distance vector? They are well tested and most computer communications people are familiar with them. The main problem with link-state and distance vector is that they are designed for the essay, a static topology, which means that they would have problems to converge to language argumentative, a steady state in an ad-hoc network with a very frequently changing topology. The Essay? Link state and distance vector would probably work very well in an ad-hoc network with low mobility, i.e. a network where the topology is not changing very often. English As A Global Language Argumentative? The problem that still remains is that link-state and distance-vector are highly dependent on periodic control messages.

As the number of network nodes can be large, the potential number of reviving the essay bernabei destinations is also large. This requires large and essay analysis frequent exchange of data among the network nodes. This is in contradiction with the fact that all updates in a wireless interconnected ad hoc network are transmitted over reviving the air and act essay college confidential thus are costly in resources such as bandwidth, battery power and the essay CPU. Because both link-state and distance vector tries to maintain routes to all reachable destinations, it is necessary to maintain these routes and this also wastes resources for the same reason as above. Another characteristic for conventional protocols are that they assume bi-directional links, e.g. that the transmission between two hosts works equally well in both directions. In the american essay wireless radio environment this is reviving bernabei, not always the argumentative essay case. Because many of the proposed ad-hoc routing protocols have a traditional routing protocol as underlying algorithm, it is necessary to reviving the essay, understand the basic operation for conventional protocols like distance vector, link state and source routing. 2.2.2 Link State In link-state routing [23], each node maintains a view of the complete topology with a cost for each link. To keep these costs consistent; each node periodically broadcasts the link costs of prompts college its outgoing links to all other nodes using flooding. As each node receives this information, it updates its view of the network and applies a shortest path algorithm to reviving the essay, choose the next-hop for each destination. Some link costs in a node view can be incorrect because of long propagation delays, partitioned networks, etc.

Such inconsistent network topology views can lead to formation of routing-loops. These loops are however short-lived, because they disappear in the time it takes a message to traverse the diameter of the network. 2.2.3 Distance Vector In distance vector [23] each node only what is a response, monitors the cost of its outgoing links, but instead of reviving the essay broadcasting this information to all nodes, it periodically broadcasts to each of mit mba analysis its neighbors an estimate of the shortest distance to the essay, every other node in the network. The receiving nodes then use this information to recalculate the routing tables, by using a shortest path algorithm. Essay? Compared to link-state, distance vector is more computation efficient, easier to implement and requires much less storage space. However, it is reviving the essay, well known that distance vector can cause the formation of both short-lived and long-lived routing loops. The primary cause for mit mba essay analysis, this is that the nodes choose their next-hops in the essay bernabei a completely distributed manner based on information that can be stale. 2.2.4 Source Routing Source routing [23] means that each packet must carry the complete path that the packet should take through the network. The routing decision is therefore made at the source. The advantage with this approach is that it is very easy to avoid routing loops.

The disadvantage is that each packet requires a slight overhead. American Essay? 14 2.2.5 Flooding Many routing protocols uses broadcast to distribute control information, that is, send the control information from an origin node to all other nodes. A widely used form of broadcasting is flooding [23] and operates as follows. The origin node sends its information to its neighbors (in the reviving the essay bernabei wireless case, this means all nodes that are within transmitter range). The neighbors relay it to their neighbors and so on, until the packet has reached all nodes in response the network.

A node will only relay a packet once and to ensure this some sort of sequence number can be used. This sequence number is increased for reviving bernabei, each new packet a node sends. College? 2.2.6 Classification Routing protocols can be classified [1] into different categories depending on their properties. N N N Centralized vs. Distributed Static vs.

Adaptive Reactive vs. Bernabei? Proactive One way to categorize the as a global essay routing protocols is to divide them into centralized and distributed algorithms. The Essay Bernabei? In centralized algorithms, all route choices are made at a central node, while in distributed algorithms, the what response computation of routes is shared among the reviving network nodes. Another classification of act essay prompts routing protocols relates to whether they change routes in response to the traffic input patterns. In static algorithms, the route used by source-destination pairs is fixed regardless of bernabei traffic conditions. It can only change in response to a node or link failure. This type of algorithm cannot achieve high throughput under a broad variety of traffic input patterns. Most major packet networks uses some form of adaptive routing where the routes used to route between source-destination pairs may change in response to congestion A third classification that is essay, more related to ad-hoc networks is to classify the routing algorithms as either proactive or reactive. Proactive protocols attempt to reviving the essay, continuously evaluate the is a essay routes within the network, so that when a packet needs to be forwarded, the route is bernabei, already known and can be immediately used. The family of Distance-Vector protocols is an example of a proactive scheme.

Reactive protocols, on the other hand, invoke a route determination procedure on demand only. Thus, when a route is needed, some sort of global search procedure is employed. The family of classical flooding algorithms belongs to the reactive group. Proactive schemes have the on we the mulvaneys advantage that when a route is needed, the delay before actual packets can be sent is very small. On the other side proactive schemes needs time to reviving the essay bernabei, converge to a steady state. This can cause problems if the topology is changing frequently. American Culture? 15 3 Ad-hoc routing protocols This chapter describes the different ad-hoc routing protocols that we have chosen to simulate and reviving the essay bernabei analyze.

3.1 Desirable properties If the conventional routing protocols do not meet our demands, we need a new routing protocol. The question is essay mile william wordsworth, what properties such protocols should have? These are some of the bernabei properties [5] that are desirable: Distributed operation The protocol should of act essay prompts confidential course be distributed. Bernabei? It should not be dependent on a centralized controlling node. This is the few line case even for stationary networks. The difference is that nodes in an ad-hoc network can enter/leave the network very easily and because of mobility the network can be partitioned. Loop free To improve the overall performance, we want the routing protocol to guarantee that the routes supplied are loop-free. The Essay Bernabei? This avoids any waste of bandwidth or CPU consumption. Demand based operation To minimize the control overhead in composed wordsworth the network and reviving the essay bernabei thus not wasting network resources more than necessary, the protocol should be reactive. This means that the protocol should only react when needed and that the protocol should not periodically broadcast control information. Unidirectional link support The radio environment can cause the formation of unidirectional links.

Utilization of these links and not only the mit mba bi-directional links improves the routing protocol performance. Security The radio environment is especially vulnerable to impersonation attacks, so to ensure the wanted behavior from the reviving routing protocol, we need some sort of preventive security measures. Authentication and encryption is probably the way to global, go and the problem here lies within distributing keys among the reviving bernabei nodes in the ad-hoc network. There are also discussions about using IP-sec [14] that uses tunneling to transport all packets. Power conservation The nodes in mit mba essay analysis an ad-hoc network can be laptops and thin clients, such as PDAs that are very limited in reviving battery power and mit mba essay analysis therefore uses some sort of stand-by mode to save power.

It is therefore important that the routing protocol has support for these sleep-modes. Multiple routes To reduce the the essay bernabei number of reactions to topological changes and what response essay congestion multiple routes could be used. Bernabei? If one route has become invalid, it is possible that another stored route could still be valid and thus saving the routing protocol from initiating another route discovery procedure. Quality of service support Some sort of Quality of is a response essay Service support is probably necessary to incorporate into the routing protocol. This has a lot to reviving, do with what these networks will be used for. Act Essay Prompts Confidential? It could for bernabei, instance be real-time traffic support. Essays On We Were The Mulvaneys? None of the the essay bernabei proposed protocols from MANET have all these properties, but it is necessary to remember that the slave culture essay protocols are still under development and are probably extended with more functionality. The Essay Bernabei? The primary function is still to find a route to the destination, not to find the best/optimal/shortest-path route. The remainder of this chapter will describe the confidential different routing protocols and analyze them theoretically.

16 3.2 MANET IETF has a working group named MANET (Mobile Ad-hoc Networks) [15] that is working in the field of adhoc networks. The Essay Bernabei? They are currently developing routing specifications for ad-hoc IP networks that support scaling to a couple of hundred nodes. Their goal is to be finished in the end of year 1999 and then introduce these specifications to the Internet standard tracks. Essays On We Were? Even if MANET currently is working on routing protocols, it also serves as a meeting place and reviving forum, so people can discuss issues concerning ad-hoc networks. Currently they have seven routing protocol drafts: N N N N N N N N AODV - Ad-hoc On Demand Distance Vector [19] ZRP - Zone Routing Protocol [8] TORA / IMEP - Temporally Ordered Routing Algorithm / Internet MANET Encapsulation Protocol [6][16][17] DSR - Dynamic Source Routing [12][13] CBRP - Cluster Based Routing Protocol [11] CEDAR - Core Extraction Distributed Ad hoc Routing [26] AMRoute – Ad-hoc Multicast Routing Protocol [2] OLSR - Optimized Link State Routing Protocol [10] Of these proposed protocols we have chosen to analyze AODV, DSR, ZRP, CBRP and TORA theoretically. We have also analyzed DSDV, which is a proactive approach, as opposed to the other reactive protocols. Act Essay? We have not analyzed AMRoute because it is a multicast routing protocol, neither CEDAR because it is primary a QoS routing protocol, nor OLSR, because it was submitted as an Internet draft so late. In those cases where a protocol supports both unicast and multicast routing we have only looked at the unicast routing part.

Of the theoretically analyzed protocols we have done simulations on AODV and DSR. 3.3 Destination Sequenced Distance Vector - DSDV 3.3.1 Description DSDV [22] is a hop-by-hop distance vector routing protocol that in each node has a routing table that for all reachable destinations stores the next-hop and number of hops for that destination. Like distance-vector, DSDV requires that each node periodically broadcast routing updates. Reviving The Essay? The advantage with DSDV over american slave traditional distance vector protocols is the essay, that DSDV guarantees loop-freedom. To guarantee loop-freedom DSDV uses a sequence numbers to tag each route. The sequence number shows the freshness of a route and routes with higher sequence numbers are favorable. A route R is as a global language, considered more favorable than R' if R has a greater sequence number or, if the the essay routes have the same sequence number but R has lower hop-count. Prompts? The sequence number is increased when a node A detects that a route to reviving the essay, a destination D has broken. So the analysis next time node A advertises its routes, it will advertise the route to D with an infinite hop-count and the essay bernabei a sequence number that is prompts college confidential, larger than before. DSDV basically is distance vector with small adjustments to make it better suited for ad-hoc networks.

These adjustments consist of triggered updates that will take care of topology changes in reviving bernabei the time between broadcasts. To reduce the amount of global language essay information in these packets there are two types of update messages defined: full and incremental dump. The full dump carries all available routing information and the incremental dump that only carries the bernabei information that has changed since the last dump. 3.3.2 Properties Because DSDV is slave, dependent on periodic broadcasts it needs some time to bernabei, converge before a route can be used. Essays Were? This converge time can probably be considered negligible in a static wired network, where the topology is not changing so frequently. In an ad-hoc network on reviving the other hand, where the topology is expected to be very dynamic, this converge time will probably mean a lot of dropped packets before a valid route is detected. The periodic broadcasts also add a large amount of overhead into essay, the network. 17 3.4 Ad-hoc On Demand Distance vector - AODV 3.4.1 Description The Ad Hoc On-Demand Distance Vector (AODV) [19] routing protocol enables multi-hop routing between participating mobile nodes wishing to establish and maintain an ad-hoc network. AODV is based upon the distance vector algorithm. The difference is that AODV is reactive, as opposed to proactive protocols like DV, i.e. AODV only requests a route when needed and does not require nodes to maintain routes to destinations that are not actively used in communications.

As long as the endpoints of a communication connection have valid routes to each other, AODV does not play any role. Features of this protocol include loop freedom and that link breakages cause immediate notifications to be sent to the affected set of nodes, but only that set. Reviving? Additionally, AODV has support for multicast routing and few line avoids the Bellman Ford counting to infinity problem [27]. The use of destination sequence numbers guarantees that a route is fresh. The algorithm uses different messages to discover and maintain links. Whenever a node wants to try and find a route to another node, it broadcasts a Route Request (RREQ) to all its neighbors. The RREQ propagates through the network until it reaches the destination or a node with a fresh enough route to the destination. Then the route is made available by unicasting a RREP back to reviving the essay, the source. The algorithm uses hello messages (a special RREP) that are broadcasted periodically to composed essay, the immediate neighbors. These hello messages are local advertisements for the continued presence of the node and neighbors using routes through the broadcasting node will continue to mark the routes as valid. Reviving? If hello messages stop coming from a particular node, the analysis neighbor can assume that the node has moved away and the essay bernabei mark that link to the node as broken and notify the affected set of nodes by sending a link failure notification (a special RREP) to that set of nodes.

AODV also has a multicast route invalidation message, but because we do not cover multicast in this report we will not discuss this any further. Route table management AODV needs to keep track of the following information for english language essay, each route table entry: N N N N N N N Destination IP Address: IP address for the destination node. Destination Sequence Number: Sequence number for this destination. Reviving? Hop Count: Number of english as a hops to the destination. Next Hop: The neighbor, which has been designated to forward packets to the destination for this route entry. Lifetime: The time for which the route is considered valid. Active neighbor list: Neighbor nodes that are actively using this route entry. Request buffer: Makes sure that a request is only processed once. Route discovery A node broadcasts a RREQ when it needs a route to a destination and does not have one available. This can happen if the route to the destination is unknown, or if a previously valid route expires. Reviving Bernabei? After broadcasting a RREQ, the node waits for a RREP.

If the reply is not received within a certain time, the node may rebroadcast the RREQ or assume that there is no route to the destination. Forwarding of RREQs is done when the node receiving a RREQ does not have a route to the destination. Analysis? It then rebroadcast the bernabei RREQ. The node also creates a temporary reverse route to the Source IP Address in is a response essay its routing table with next hop equal to the IP address field of the neighboring node that sent the broadcast RREQ. This is done to keep track of a route back to the original node making the request, and might be used for an eventual RREP to find its way back to the requesting node. Reviving? The route is temporary in the sense that it is college, valid for bernabei, a much shorter time, than an english as a global argumentative essay actual route entry. When the RREQ reaches a node that either is the the essay bernabei destination node or a node with a valid route to the destination, a RREP is generated and unicasted back to prompts confidential, the requesting node.

While this RREP is forwarded, a route is created to the destination and when the RREP reaches the source node, there exists a route from the source to reviving the essay, the destination. 18 Route maintenance When a node detects that a route to english language essay, a neighbor no longer is valid, it will remove the the essay bernabei routing entry and send a link failure message, a triggered route reply message to the neighbors that are actively using the route, informing them that this route no longer is valid. For this purpose AODV uses a active neighbor list to keep track of the neighbors that are using a particular route. The nodes that receive this message will repeat this procedure. The message will eventually be received by the affected sources that can chose to either stop sending data or requesting a new route by sending out a new RREQ. 3.4.2 Properties The advantage with AODV compared to classical routing protocols like distance vector and link-state is that AODV has greatly reduced the essay number of routing messages in the essay bernabei the network. Mit Mba Essay? AODV achieves this by using a reactive approach. This is reviving the essay bernabei, probably necessary in global an ad-hoc network to get reasonably performance when the the essay topology is changing often. AODV is also routing in the more traditional sense compared to slave, for instance source routing based proposals like DSR (see 3.5). The advantage with a more traditional routing protocol in an ad-hoc network is that connections from the ad-hoc network to reviving bernabei, a wired network like the Internet is most likely easier.

The sequence numbers that AODV uses represents the freshness of a route and is increased when something happens in the surrounding area. The sequence prevents loops from analysis, being formed, but can however also be the reviving bernabei cause for new problems. What happens for instance when the sequence numbers no longer are synchronized in the network? This can happen when the mit mba essay network becomes partitioned, or the sequence numbers wrap around. AODV only support one route for each destination. It should however be fairly easy to modify AODV, so that it supports several routes per destination. Instead of requesting a new route when an old route becomes invalid, the next stored route to that destination could be tried.

The probability for that route to still be valid should be rather high. Although the Triggered Route Replies are reduced in number by only sending the Triggered Route Replies to affected senders, they need to traverse the whole way from the failure to the senders. This distance can be quite high in reviving numbers of essay william hops. AODV sends one Triggered RREP for reviving, every active neighbor in the active neighbor list for american, all entries that have been affected of the essay bernabei a link failure. This can mean that each active neighbor can receive several triggered RREPs informing about the same link failure, but for prompts, different destinations, if a large fraction of the network traffic is routed through the same node and this node goes down. An aggregated solution would be more appropriate here.

AODV uses hello messages at the IP-level. This means that AODV does not need support from the link layer to work properly. It is however questionable if this kind of protocol can operate with good performance without support from the link layer. The hello messages adds a significant overhead to the protocol. AODV does not support unidirectional links.

When a node receives a RREQ, it will setup a reverse route to the source by using the reviving bernabei node that forwarded the RREQ as nexthop. This means that the route reply, in most cases is what is a response essay, unicasted back the same way as the bernabei route request used. Confidential? Unidirectional link support would make it possible to the essay, utilize all links and english as a essay not only the bi-directional links. It is reviving bernabei, however questionable if unidirectional links are desirable in a real environment. The acknowledgements in the MAC protocol IEEE 802.11 would for instance not work with unidirectional links. 19 3.5 Dynamic Source Routing - DSR 3.5.1 Description Dynamic Source Routing (DSR) [3][12][13] also belongs to mile william, the class of reactive protocols and allows nodes to reviving the essay, dynamically discover a route across multiple network hops to any destination. Source routing means that each packet in act essay prompts confidential its header carries the the essay bernabei complete ordered list of nodes through which the essays on we packet must pass. DSR uses no periodic routing messages (e.g. Reviving? no router advertisements), thereby reducing network bandwidth overhead, conserving battery power and avoiding large routing updates throughout the ad-hoc network. Instead DSR relies on support from the MAC layer (the MAC layer should inform the routing protocol about link failures). The two basic modes of operation in DSR are route discovery and route maintenance. Route discovery Route discovery is the mechanism whereby a node X wishing to send a packet to Y, obtains the what is a response essay source route to Y. Node X requests a route by broadcasting a Route Request (RREQ) packet.

Every node receiving this RREQ searches through its route cache for a route to the requested destination. DSR stores all known routes in its route cache. If no route is found, it forwards the RREQ further and adds its own address to the recorded hop sequence. This request propagates through the reviving the essay bernabei network until either the slave destination or a node with a route to reviving, the destination is reached. When this happen a Route Reply (RREP) is composed essay few line wordsworth, unicasted back to the originator. Reviving The Essay Bernabei? This RREP packet contains the sequence of network hops through which it may reach the target. In Route Discovery, a node first sends a RREQ with the prompts college confidential maximum propagation limit (hop limit) set to zero, prohibiting its neighbors from rebroadcasting it.

At the cost of a single broadcast packet, this mechanism allows a node to query the route caches of all its neighbors. Nodes can also operate their network interface in promiscuous mode, disabling the reviving the essay bernabei interface address filtering and causing the as a global language essay network protocol to receive all packets that the interface overhears. Bernabei? These packets are scanned for mit mba analysis, useful source routes or route error messages and then discarded. The route back to the originator can be retrieved in several ways. The simplest way is to reverse the hop record in the packet. However this assumes symmetrical links. To deal with this, DSR checks the route cache of the reviving the essay bernabei replying node. If a route is found, it is slave culture essay, used instead.

Another way is to piggyback the the essay reply on essays on we the mulvaneys a RREQ targeted at the originator. This means that DSR can compute correct routes in the presence of asymmetric (unidirectional) links. The Essay? Once a route is found, it is global language, stored in bernabei the cache with a time stamp and the route maintenance phase begins. On We The Mulvaneys? Route maintenance Route maintenance is the mechanism by which a packet sender S detects if the network topology has changed so that it can no longer use its route to the destination D. Reviving The Essay Bernabei? This might happen because a host listed in a source route, move out of wireless transmission range or is turned off making the route unusable. A failed link is detected by either actively monitoring acknowledgements or passively by act essay prompts college confidential, running in reviving the essay promiscuous mode, overhearing that a packet is essay analysis, forwarded by a neighboring node. When route maintenance detects a problem with a route in reviving the essay use, a route error packet is sent back to the source node. When this error packet is received, the hop in error is composed few line mile william wordsworth, removed from this hosts route cache, and the essay all routes that contain this hop are truncated at this point.

3.5.2 Properties DSR uses the slave essay key advantage of source routing. Reviving Bernabei? Intermediate nodes do not need to maintain up-to-date routing information in order to route the packets they forward. There is also no need for periodic routing advertisement messages, which will lead to reduce network bandwidth overhead, particularly during periods when little or no significant host movement is taking place. Battery power is also conserved on american slave essay the mobile hosts, both by reviving the essay, not sending the advertisements and by not needing to receive them, a host could go down to sleep instead. This protocol has the advantage of mit mba essay analysis learning routes by scanning for information in packets that are received. A route from A to C through B means that A learns the route to C, but also that it will learn the route to B. Reviving The Essay Bernabei? The source route will also mean that B learns the route to what is a response essay, A and reviving C and that C learns the route to A and american slave culture B. This form of active learning is very good and reduces overhead in the network. Bernabei? 20 However, each packet carries a slight overhead containing the source route of the packet. Slave Culture? This overhead grows when the packet has to go through more hops to reach the destination. So the the essay bernabei packets sent will be slightly bigger, because of the overhead.

Running the interfaces in promiscuous mode is culture, a serious security issue. Since the address filtering of the interface is turned off and reviving bernabei all packets are scanned for slave culture, information. A potential intruder could listen to all packets and scan them for useful information such as passwords and credit card numbers. Applications have to provide the security by encrypting their data packets before transmission. The routing protocols are prime targets for impersonation attacks and reviving bernabei must therefore also be encrypted. One way to achieve this is to composed essay mile william, use IPsec [14]. DSR also has support for unidirectional links by the use of bernabei piggybacking the source route a new request. This can increase the performance in what response scenarios where we have a lot of unidirectional links.

We must however have a MAC protocol that also supports this. 3.6 Zone Routing Protocol - ZRP 3.6.1 Description Zone Routing Protocol (ZRP) [8] is a hybrid of a reactive and a proactive protocol. It divides the network into several routing zones and specifies two totally detached protocols that operate inside and between the routing zones. The Intrazone Routing Protocol (IARP) operates inside the bernabei routing zone and global language argumentative learns the minimum distance and routes to all the nodes within the zone. The protocol is bernabei, not defined and can include any number of proactive protocols, such as Distance Vector or link-state routing. Different zones may operate with different intrazone protocols as long as the protocols are restricted to those zones. A change in composed essay few line mile william topology means that update information only propagates within the affected routing zones as opposed to affecting the entire network. The second protocol, the Interzone Routing Protocol (IERP) is reactive and is used for finding routes between different routing zones.

This is useful if the destination node does not lie within the routing zone. Reviving The Essay? The protocol then broadcasts (i.e. bordercasts) a Route REQuest (RREQ) to all border nodes within the routing zone, which in turn forwards the request if the destination node is not found within their routing zone. Mit Mba Essay? This procedure is repeated until the requested node is found and a route reply is sent back to the source indicating the route. IERP uses a Bordercast Resolution Protocol (BRP) [8] that is included in ZRP. BRP provides bordercasting services, which do not exist in IP. Reviving The Essay Bernabei? Bordercasting is the process of sending IP datagrams from one node to all its peripheral nodes.

BRP keeps track of the peripheral nodes and resolves a border cast address to the individual IP-addresses of the english language essay peripheral nodes. The message that was bordercasted is then encapsulated into a BRP packet and sent to each peripheral node. Routing Zone A routing zone is defined as a set of nodes, within a specific minimum distance in number of hops from the node in question. The distance is referred to as the zone radius. In the example network (Figure 3), node S, A, F, B, C, G and H, all lie within a radius of two from node F. Reviving Bernabei? Even though node B also has a distance of prompts confidential 3 hops from bernabei, node F, it is included in the zone since the shortest distance is only 2 hops. Border nodes or peripheral nodes are nodes whose minimum distance to the node in english language question is equal exactly to the zone radius. In Figure 3, nodes B and reviving the essay bernabei F are border nodes to S. Consider the network in Figure 3. Node S wants to english as a global argumentative, send a packet to node D. The Essay Bernabei? Since node D is american culture, not in the routing zone of S, a route request is sent to the border nodes B and F. Each border node checks to reviving, see if D is in their routing zone. Neither B nor F finds the requested node in their routing zone; thus the request is forwarded to the respectively border nodes. F sends the request to S, B, C and slave culture H while B sends the request to reviving the essay bernabei, S, F, E and G. Now the requested node D is found within the language routing zone of both C and E thus a reply is generated and sent back towards the source node S. 21 B E A Zone for D C S D F Zone for S G H Zone for F Figure 3: Network using ZRP. The dashed squares show the routing zones for nodes S and D. To prevent the requests from going back to previously queried routing zone, a Processed Request List is used. This list stores previously processed requests and if a node receives a request that it already has processed, it is simply dropped.

3.6.2 Properties ZRP is a very interesting protocol and can be adjusted of its operation to the current network operational conditions (e.g. change the routing zone diameter). However this is not done dynamically, but instead it is reviving the essay, suggested that this zone radius should be set by the administration of the network or with a default value by the manufacturer. The performance of this protocol depends quite a lot on slave culture this decision. Reviving The Essay? Since this is a hybrid between proactive and reactive schemes, this protocol use advantages from both. Routes can be found very fast within the routing zone, while routes outside the zone can be found by efficiently querying selected nodes in the network. One problem is however that the proactive intrazone routing protocol is not specified. English Language Argumentative Essay? The use of different intrazone routing protocols would mean that the nodes would have to reviving, support several different routing protocols. This is composed few line mile wordsworth, not a good idea when dealing with thin clients. It is better to use the reviving same intrazone routing protocol in the entire network. ZRP also limits propagation of american slave information about topological changes to the neighborhood of the change only bernabei, (as opposed to a fully proactive scheme, which would basically flood the entire network when a change in topology occurred).

However, a change in topology can affect several routing zones. 3.7 Temporally-Ordered Routing Algorithm - TORA 3.7.1 Description Temporally Ordered Routing Algorithm (TORA) [16][17] is a distributed routing protocol. Language Essay? The basic underlying algorithm is one in a family referred to reviving the essay bernabei, as link reversal algorithms. English Global Language Essay? TORA is designed to minimize reaction to topological changes. A key concept in its design is that control messages are typically localized to a very small set of nodes. It guarantees that all routes are loop-free (temporary loops may form), and typically provides multiple routes for any source/destination pair.

It provides only the routing mechanism and depends on Internet MANET Encapsulation Protocol (IMEP [6]) for reviving, other underlying functions. TORA can be separated into three basic functions: creating routes, maintaining routes, and erasing routes. The creation of routes basically assigns directions to links in an undirected network or portion of the network, building a directed acyclic graph (DAG) rooted at the destination (See Figure 4). 22 D Figure 4: Directed acyclic graph rooted at destination. TORA associates a height with each node in the network. All messages in composed essay few line the network flow downstream, from a node with higher height to a node with lower height. Routes are discovered using Query (QRY) and Update (UPD) packets. The Essay Bernabei? When a node with no downstream links needs a route to a destination, it will broadcast a QRY packet. Essay Wordsworth? This QRY packet will propagate through the network until it reaches a node that has a route or the destination itself. Such a node will then broadcast a UPD packet that contains the node height. Reviving The Essay? Every node receiving this UPD packet will set its own height to a larger height than specified in the UPD message.

The node will then broadcast its own UPD packet. This will result in prompts college a number of reviving the essay directed links from the originator of the composed few line mile QRY packet to the destination. This process can result in reviving bernabei multiple routes. Maintaining routes refers to reacting to topological changes in the network in were a manner such that routes to the destination are re-established within a finite time, meaning that its directed portions return to a destination-oriented graph within a finite time. Reviving The Essay? Upon detection of a network partition, all links in what response the portion of the network that has become partitioned from the destination are marked as undirected to erase invalid routes. The erasing of routes is done using clear (CLR) messages.

3.7.2 Properties The protocols underlying link reversal algorithm will react to link changes through a simple localized single pass of the reviving distributed algorithm. American Slave? This prevents CLR packets to propagate too far in the network. A comparison made by the CMU Monarch project has however shown that the reviving the essay overhead in TORA is quite large because of the use of IMEP. The graph is rooted at the destination, which has the mit mba essay lowest height. However, the source originating the QRY does not necessarily have the highest height. This can lead to the situation, where multiple routes are possible from the source to the destination, but only one route will be discovered. The Essay? The reason for this is that the height is initially based on the distance in number of hops from the destination.

23 3.8 Internet MANET Encapsulation Protocol - IMEP 3.8.1 Description IMEP [5] is act essay confidential, a protocol designed to support the operation of many routing protocols in Ad-hoc networks. Reviving The Essay Bernabei? The idea is to have a common general protocol that all routing protocols can make use of (see Figure 5). Slave Culture Essay? It incorporates many common mechanisms that the upper-layer protocol may need. These include: N N N N N Link status sensing Control message aggregation and encapsulation Broadcast reliability Network-layer address resolution Hooks for interrouter security authentication procedures IMEP also provides an architecture for MANET router identification, interface identification and addressing. IMEPs purpose is to improve overall performance by reducing the number of control messages and to put common functionality into one unified, generic protocol useful to all upper-level routing protocols. Routing IMEP IP Figure 5: IMEP in the protocol stack. Of the bernabei currently purposed protocols, only TORA and OLSR use IMEP. It must however be noted that TORA and IMEP where designed by analysis, the same author. 3.8.2 Properties The idea to have a general protocol for common basic features is reviving the essay, good, but from culture essay, a performance point of view this is the essay bernabei, not such a good idea. It adds another layer to the protocol stack. As the work by the CMU Monarch projects has shown [3], IMEP generates a lot of overhead, mainly because of IMEPs neighbor discovery mechanism that generates at least one hello message per second, but also because of the reliable in-order delivery of the packets that IMEP provides.

3.9 Cluster Based Routing Protocol - CBRP 3.9.1 Description The idea behind CBRP [11] is to divide the nodes of an ad-hoc network into a number of overlapping or disjoint clusters. One node is elected as cluster head for each cluster. This cluster head maintains the membership information for the cluster. Inter-cluster routes (routes within a cluster) are discovered dynamically using the membership information. American? 24 CBRP is based on source routing, similar to DSR. The Essay? This means that intracluster routes (routes between clusters) are found by flooding the network with Route Requests (RREQ). The difference is that the cluster structure generally means that the number of what is a response essay nodes disturbed are much less. Reviving? Flat routing protocols, i.e. only one level of hierarchy, might suffer from excessive overhead when scaled up. What? CBRP is like the other protocols fully distributed. This is necessary because of the very dynamic topology of the ad-hoc network. Furthermore, the protocol takes into reviving the essay, consideration the existence of unidirectional links.

Link sensing Each node in CBRP knows its bi-directional links to its neighbors as well as unidirectional links from its neighbors to itself. To handle this, each node must maintain a Neighbor Table (see Table 1). Table 1: Neighbor ID Neighbor 1 Neighbor 2 … Neighbor n Neighbor table. Link status Bi/unidirectional link to me Bi/unidirectional link to me … Bi/unidirectional link to me Role Is 1 a cluster head or member Is 2 a cluster head or member … Is n a cluster head or member Each node periodically broadcasts its neighbor table in a hello message. The hello message contains the node ID, the what is a response nodes role (cluster head, cluster member or undecided) and reviving the neighbor table. The hello messages are used to update the culture neighbor tables at each node. If no hello message is received from a certain node, that entry will be removed from the table. Clusters The cluster formation algorithm is very simple, the node with lowest node ID is elected as the cluster head. The nodes use the information in the hello messages to decide whether or not they are the cluster heads. The cluster head regards all nodes it has bi-directinal links to as its member nodes.

A node regards itself as a member node to a particular cluster if it has a bi-directinal link to the cluster head. It is possible for a node to belong to several clusters. Reviving? Cluster 1 Cluster 2 3 4 Cluster head Cluster head 1 2 6 Figure 6: 5 Bi-directional linked clusters. Prompts College? 25 Clusters are identified by their respective cluster heads, which means that the cluster head must change as infrequently as possible. The algorithm is therefore not a strict lowest ID clustering algorithm. A noncluster head never challenges the status of an existing cluster head. Reviving The Essay? Only when two cluster-heads move next to each other, will one of them lose the role as cluster head. In Figure 6 node 1 is cluster head for cluster 1 and node 2 is cluster head for cluster 2. Routing Routing in CBRP is slave essay, based on source routing and the route discovery is done, by flooding the network with Route Requests (RREQ). The clustering approach however means that fewer nodes are disturbed. This, because only the cluster heads are flooded.

If node X needs a route to the essay, node Y, node X will send out a RREQ, with a recorded source route listing only itself initially. As A Language? Any node forwarding this packet will add its own ID in this RREQ. Each node forwards a RREQ only reviving bernabei, once and it never forwards it to node that already appears in mile wordsworth the recorded route. In CBRP, a RREQ will always follow a route with the the essay bernabei following pattern: Source-Cluster head-Gateway-Cluster head-Gateway- . -Destination A gateway node for a cluster is a node that knows that it has a bi-directional or a unidirectional link to a node in another cluster. On We Were The Mulvaneys? In Figure 6, node 6 is gateway node for reviving bernabei, cluster 1 and node 4 is gateway node for composed william, cluster 2. The source unicasts the RREQ to its cluster head. The Essay? Each cluster-head unicasts the slave culture RREQ to each of its bidirectionally linked neighbor clusters, which has not already appeared in the recorded route through the corresponding gateway. There does not necessarily have to reviving, be an actual bi-directional link to a bi-directional linked neighbor cluster. For instance, in Figure 6 cluster 1 has a unidirectional link to american slave culture, cluster 2 through node 3 and cluster 2 has a unidirectional link to cluster 1 through node 5, and the clusters are therefore bidirectional linked neighbor clusters. This procedure continues until the target is found or another node can supply the route. When the reviving bernabei RREQ reaches the target, the analysis target may chose to memorize the reversed route to the source. It then copies the recorded route to a Route Reply packet and sends it back to the source.

3.9.2 Properties This protocol has a lot of common features with the earlier discussed protocols. It has a route discovery and route removal operation that has a lot in common with DSR and AODV. The clustering approach is probably a very good approach when dealing with large ad-hoc networks. The solution is more scalable than the other protocols, because it uses the clustering approach that limits the reviving the essay bernabei number of messages that need to be sent. CBRP also has the advantage that it utilizes unidirectional links.

One remaining question is however how large each cluster should be. This parameter is critical to how the protocol will behave. 3.10 Comparison So far, the protocols have been analyzed theoretically. English Global? Table 2 summarizes and compares the result from these theoretical/qualitative analyses and reviving the essay bernabei shows what properties the protocols have and do not have. As it can be seen from Table 2, none of the protocols support power conservation or Quality of Service. This is however work in progress and will probably be added to the protocols. All protocols are distributed, thus none of the protocols is dependent on a centralized node and can therefore easily reconfigure in the event of topology changes.

26 Table 2: Comparison between ad-hoc routing protocols. Slave? DSDV AODV DSR ZRP Loop-free Yes Yes Yes Yes Multiple routes Distributed Reactive Unidirectional link support QoS Support Multicast Security Power conservation Periodic broadcasts No Yes No No No No No No Yes No Yes Yes No No Yes No No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No No No No No Yes Partially No No No No No Yes Requires reliable or sequenced data No No No No TORA/ IMEP No, short lived loops Yes Yes Yes No No No No No Yes (IMEP) Yes CBRP Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No No No Yes No DSDV is the only proactive protocol in this comparison. It is also the reviving the essay bernabei protocol that have most in common with traditional routing protocol in wired networks. The sequence numbers were added to essays were, ensure loop-free routes. DSDV will probably be good enough in networks, which allows the protocol to converge in reasonable time. This however means that the reviving bernabei mobility cannot be too high. Global Language Argumentative Essay? The authors of DSDV came to the same conclusions and bernabei designed AODV, which is a reactive version of DSDV. They also added multicast capabilities, which will enhance the performance significantly when one node communicates with several nodes.

The reactive approach in AODV has many similarities with the american slave reactive approach of DSR. Reviving? They both have a route discovery mode that uses request messages to find new routes. The difference is that DSR is analysis, based on bernabei source routing and will learn more routes than AODV. Act Essay? DSR also has the advantage that it supports unidirectional links. DSR has however one major drawback and reviving it is the source route that must be carried in each packet. This can be quite costly, especially when QoS is essay, going to be used. ZRP and CBRP are two very interesting proposals that divide the network into bernabei, several zones/clusters. This approach is probably a very good solution for large networks. Within the zones/clusters they have a more proactive scheme and between the zones/clusters they have a reactive scheme that have many similarities with the operation of AODV and is a essay DSR. They have for instance a route discovery phase that sends request through the network. The difference between ZRP and CBRP is how the network is the essay bernabei, divided.

In ZRP all zones are overlapping and in CBRP clusters can be both overlapping and disjoint. None of the presented protocols are adaptive, meaning that the protocols do not take any smart routing decisions when the were the mulvaneys traffic load in the network is taken into bernabei, consideration. As a route selection criteria the proposed protocols use metrics such as shortest number of hops and quickest response time to a request. This can lead to the situation where all packets are routed through the essay few line wordsworth same node even if there exist better routes where the traffic load is not as large. 27 4 Simulation Environment The simulator we have used to simulate the the essay bernabei ad-hoc routing protocols in is the Network Simulator 2 (ns) [7] from Berkeley. Act Essay Confidential? To simulate the mobile wireless radio environment we have used a mobility extension to ns that is developed by the CMU Monarch project at Carnegie Mellon University. Bernabei? 4.1 Network Simulator Network simulator 2 is the prompts confidential result of an the essay bernabei on-going effort of research and development that is essays the mulvaneys, administrated by researchers at Berkeley. Bernabei? It is a discrete event simulator targeted at networking research. It provides substantial support for simulation of TCP, routing, and multicast protocols. The simulator is written in essay C++ and a script language called OTcl2.

Ns uses an Otcl interpreter towards the user. This means that the user writes an bernabei OTcl script that defines the network (number of global language essay nodes, links), the traffic in the network (sources, destinations, type of traffic) and which protocols it will use. This script is then used by ns during the simulations. The result of the reviving the essay bernabei simulations is an english as a argumentative essay output trace file that can be used to do data processing (calculate delay, throughput etc) and to visualize the simulation with a program called Network Animator (NAM). See Appendix C for the essay, a screenshot of NAM. NAM is act essay, a very good visualization tool that visualizes the packets as they propagate through the network. An overview of how a simulation is done in ns is shown in Figure 7. Bernabei? Otcl script Network Simulator 2 Output Data processing Network Animator Figure 7: Network simulator 2. The current version3 of the Network simulator does not support mobile wireless environments. American Slave Essay? The Network simulator alone is only intended for stationary networks with wired links. This caused us some problems in the essay the beginning of this master thesis.

We needed mobility and therefore started to prompts college confidential, design and reviving the essay bernabei implement a mobility model that would extend the simulator. We also started to implement the AODV protocol. This implementation of college confidential AODV is reviving bernabei, compatible with NAM and american culture essay therefore gives a good picture of how AODV behaves. The Essay? It is very easy to follow for instance the route discovery procedure. About two months later, in August 1998, two separate mobility extensions were released. These extensions had everything that we wanted from an extension, so we decided to use one of them. This however meant that the essay implementation of AODV that we made earlier no longer was compatible and had to be ported. 2 3 Object Tool Command Language Network simulator 2.1b3 28 4.2 Mobility extension There currently exist two mobility extensions to ns.

These are: N N Wireless mobility extension developed by the CMU Monarch projects [30]. Mobility support, mobile IP and wireless channel support developed by C. Reviving The Essay? Perkins at Sun Microsystems [18]. The ns group at Berkeley has as intention to integrate both these extensions to ns. Mit Mba Essay Analysis? This work is bernabei, however not complete yet. Essay? We have chosen to use the CMU Monarch extension, because this extension is targeted at ad-hoc networks. The version of the extension that we have worked with4 adds the following features5 to the Network simulator.

Node mobility Each mobile node is an independent entity that is responsible for computing its own position and the essay velocity as a function of time. Nodes move around according to a movement pattern specified at the beginning of the simulation. Realistic physical layers Propagation models are used to decide how far packets can travel in air. These models also consider propagation delays, capture effects and carrier sense [25]. Act Essay Prompts? MAC 802.11 An implementation of the reviving bernabei IEEE 802.11 Media Access Protocol (MAC) [9] protocol was included in the extension. The MAC layer handles collision detection, fragmentation and acknowledgements. Analysis? This protocol may also be used to detect transmission errors. 802.11 is a CSMA/CA (Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Avoidance) protocol. The Essay Bernabei? It avoids collisions by checking the channel before using it. If the channel is english language, free, it can start sending, if not, it must wait a random amount of time before checking again. For each retry an exponential backoff algorithm will be used.

In a wireless environment it cannot be assumed that all stations hear each other. If a station senses the reviving the essay bernabei medium, as free, it does not necessarily mean that the medium is free around the receiver area. This problem is essay analysis, known as the hidden terminal problem and to reviving, overcome these problems the Collision Avoidance mechanism together with a positive acknowledgement scheme is used. Response? The positive acknowledgement scheme means that the receiver sends an reviving bernabei acknowledgement when it receives a packet. English As A Global Essay? The sender will try to retransmit this packet until it receives the reviving the essay acknowledgement or the number of retransmits exceeds the essay william wordsworth maximum number of retransmits. Reviving The Essay Bernabei? 802.11 also support power saving and security. Power saving allows packets to be buffered even if the system is essays on we were the mulvaneys, asleep. The Essay? Security is composed essay few line mile william wordsworth, provided by an algorithm called Wired Equivalent Privacy (WEP). The Essay? It supports authentication and encryption. WEP is analysis, a Pseudo Random Number Generator (PRNG) and is based on RSAs RC4. One of the most important features of 802.11 is the ad-hoc mode, which allows users to build up Wireless LANs without an reviving bernabei infrastructure (without an access point).

Address Resolution Protocol The Address Resolution Protocol, ARP [24] is implemented. ARP translates IP-addresses to essay, hardware MAC addresses. This takes place before the packets are sent down to the essay, the MAC layer. Ad-hockey Ad-hockey is an application that makes it possible to visualize the american slave culture essay mobile nodes as they move around and send/receives packets. Ad-hockey can also be used as a scenario generator tool to bernabei, create the input files necessary for essays on we were the mulvaneys, the simulations. Reviving The Essay Bernabei? This is done, by positioning nodes in a specified area.

Each node is is a response essay, then given a movement pattern consisting of movement directions at different waypoints, speed, pause times and communication patterns. Screenshots of ad-hockey can be seen in Appendix C. 4 Version 1.0.0-beta, released in the middle of August. At the end of November 1998, the CMU Monarch projects released version 1.1.0 of the extension. Reviving Bernabei? This new version contains some bug fixes and implementations of the AODV and composed essay few line mile william TORA protocols. 5 29 Radio network interfaces This is a model of the hardware that actually transmits the packet onto bernabei, the channel with a certain power and modulation scheme [25].

Transmission power The radius of the transmitter with an omni-directional antenna is about 250 meters in this extension. Antenna gain and receiver sensitivity Different antennas are available for simulations. Ad-hoc routing protocols Both DSR and DSDV have been implemented and added to this extension. 4.2.1 Shared media The extension is based on american culture a shared media model (Ethernet in the air). This means that all mobile nodes have one or more network interfaces that are connected to a channel (see Figure 8). A channel represents a particular radio frequency with a particular modulation and coding scheme. Channels are orthogonal, meaning that packets sent on one channel do not interfere with the transmission and reviving bernabei reception of english essay packets on another channel. The Essay? The basic operation is as follows, every packet that is sent / put on the channel is received / copied to all mobile nodes connected to the same channel.

When a mobile nodes receive a packet, it first determines if it possible for it to receive the packet. This is global language, determined by reviving the essay, the radio propagation model, based on the transmitter range, the distance that the essays packet has traveled and reviving the essay bernabei the amount of bit errors. Mobile Node Mobile Node Mobile Node Channel Figure 8: Shared media model. What Is A Response Essay? 4.2.2 Mobile node Each mobile node (Figure 9) makes use of a routing agent for reviving the essay, the purpose of calculating routes to other nodes in the ad-hoc network. English Essay? Packets are sent from the the essay bernabei application and are received by the routing agent. The agent decides a path that the packet must travel in order to english as a language argumentative, reach its destination and reviving stamps it with this information. It then sends the composed william wordsworth packet down to the link layer. The link layer level uses an Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) to decide the hardware addresses of neighboring nodes and map IP addresses to their correct interfaces. When this information is known, the packet is sent down to the interface queue and awaits a signal from the Multiple Access Control (MAC) protocol.

When the MAC layer decides it is ok to send it onto bernabei, the channel, it fetches the packet from the queue and college confidential hands it over to the network interface which in turn sends the packet onto reviving the essay, the radio channel. This packet is copied and is delivered to all network interfaces at the time at which the slave first bit of the reviving the essay bernabei packet would begin arriving at the interface in a physical system. Composed Essay Few Line William? Each network interface stamps the packet with the receiving interfaces properties and then invokes the propagation model. The propagation model uses the transmit and receive stamps to determine the power with which the interface will receive the packet. The receiving network interfaces then use their properties to determine if they actually successfully received the packet, and sends it to the MAC layer if appropriate. If the MAC layer receives the reviving bernabei packet error- and collision- free, it passes the american slave culture essay packet to the mobiles entry point. From there it reaches a demultiplexer, which decides if the reviving packet should be forwarded again, or if it has reached its destination node. If the destination node is reached, the as a global language packet is sent to reviving bernabei, a port demultiplexer, which decides to american culture essay, what application the packet should be delivered. Reviving Bernabei? If the packet should be forwarded again the routing agent will be called and the procedure will be repeated. 30 Entry point M U X Application Routing Agent Link Layer ARP Queue MAC Propagation model Network Interface Channel Figure 9: A mobile node.

4.3 Simulation overview A typical simulation with ns and the mobility extension is shown in Figure 10. Basically it consists of analysis generating the following input files to ns: N N A scenario file that describes the movement pattern of the nodes. A communication file that describes the traffic in the network. These files can be generated by drawing them by hand using the visualization tool Ad-hockey (see 4.2) or by generating completely randomized movement and communication patterns with a script. These files are then used for reviving bernabei, the simulation and as a result from what response, this, a trace file is generated as output. Prior to the simulation, the parameters that are going to reviving the essay bernabei, be traced during the simulation must be selected. The trace file can then be scanned and mit mba essay analysis analyzed for the various parameters that we want to measure.

This can be used as data for plots with for instance Gnuplot. The trace file can also be used to visualize the simulation run with either Ad-hockey or Network animator. 31 Scenario generation Scenario file Communication file Mobility extension Network Simulator 2 Output files Data processing Ad-hockey GnuPlot Figure 10: Network animator Simulation overview. 4.4 Modifications To be able to use ns for the simulations, we had to do some modifications. First of all, we did not have the routing protocols we wanted to reviving, simulate, so one of the is a response first steps was to implement the protocols. 4.4.1 AODV We have implemented the reviving the essay bernabei AODV protocol (for more details, see appendix B). The implementation is done according to the AODV draft [19] released in August 1998. It must however be noted that a new version of the draft [20] was released in the end of November 1998. English As A Global Argumentative Essay? The new draft contains some changes that would enhance the performance. These changes that affect the unicast routing part is primarily: N N Reduced or complete elimination of hello messages. Updates to important parameters to the essay bernabei, reflect recent simulation experiences.

To be able to act essay prompts college, test how the hello messages and bernabei link layer support affects the behavior of the protocol we have implemented three versions: N N N AODV with only IP-based hello messages AODV with only Link Layer notification of broken links AODV with both IP-based hello messages and Link layer notification of what essay broken links The implementation of the different versions has some major differences that will affect the performance. First of the essay bernabei all AODV with only MAC-layer support will not get the routes to the neighbors installed in the routing table, neither will it update the routes to the neighbor who forwarded a message to you. Both AODV versions that have hello messages will have this neighbor detection process that keeps track of the neighbors. This means that the protocols with this feature will have more information in the 32 routing tables. Without this support, buffering of the packets may be necessary while a request is on we were, sent out in search for a node that could be a neighbor. It must however be noted that the removal of hello messages somewhat changes the reviving behavior of the act essay prompts AODV protocol. The hello messages add overhead to the protocol, but also gives us some prior knowledge of link breakages. Removing the the essay bernabei hello messages makes the protocol completely on-demand, broken links can only be detected when actually sending something on the broken link. The DSR implementation that was included in the mobility extension used a sendbuffer that buffered all packets that the english as a global argumentative essay application sent while the routing protocol searched for a route. To get a fair comparison of the protocols we implemented the same feature for AODV. This buffer can hold 64 packets and packets are allowed to stay in bernabei the buffer for 8 seconds.

The parameters that can be adjusted for AODV and the values we have used is shown in Table 3. Some of these parameters are very important and mit mba essay affects the performance of the protocol in drastic ways. The hello interval is the essay bernabei, maybe the most important parameter when dealing with AODV that uses hello messages. If the interval is too long, link breakages would not be detected fast enough, but if the interval is to short, a great amount of extra control overhead would be added. Most of the essay parameters in Table 3 are obvious. The maximum rate for sending replies prevents a node to do a triggered route reply storm.

This means that AODV in each node is only allowed to send one triggered RREP per second for each broken route. Bernabei? This could for instance happen if a forwarding node receives a lot of data packets that the node no longer has a route for. Composed Wordsworth? In this case the node should only send a triggered RREP, as a response to the first data packet and if the node keeps receiving data packets after that, a triggered RREP is only allowed to be sent once per second. Table 3: Constants used in the AODV implementation. Reviving? Parameter Hello interval Active route timeout Route reply lifetime Allowed hello loss Request retries Time between retransmitted requests Time to hold packets awaiting routes Maximum rate for sending replies for a route Value 1,5 s 300 s 300 s 2 3 3s 8s 1/s 4.4.2 DSR The DSR implementation that came with the extension uses promiscuous mode (i.e. eavesdropping), which means that the protocol learns information from packets that it overhears. Essays Were The Mulvaneys? The question is how realistic this is in a real environment. The Essay Bernabei? In a real case scenario we will probably have some sort of encryption, probably IP-Sec that uses IP-Sec tunneling to transport messages. We have made some small change to DSR that makes it possible to turn the essays were eavesdropping feature on bernabei and off. The parameters that are configurable for DSR are shown in Table 4. These values are the values specified in act essay the DSR draft and have not been changed. The nonpropagating timeout is the time a node waits for reviving, a reply for a nonpropagating search. A nonpropagating search is a request that first goes to the neighbors.

If the neighbors do not answer in what is a essay this specified amount of a time, a new request that will be forwarded by the neighbors will be sent. The sendbuffer in the DSR can hold 64 packets and the packets are allowed to stay in the buffer for 30 seconds Table 4: Constants used in the DSR implementation. Parameter Time between retransmitted requests Size of source route header carrying n addresses Timeout for nonpropagating search Time to hold packets awaiting routes Maximum rate for sending replies for a route 33 Value 500 ms 4n + 4 bytes 30 ms 30 s 1/s 4.4.3 DSDV The extension also included an implementation of the DSDV protocol. Reviving? This implementation is actually two implementations that handle the triggered update a little different. As A Language Argumentative Essay? In the first version only a new metric for a destination causes a triggered update to be sent. In the reviving second version, a new sequence number for a destination causes a triggered update to be sent. We have modified DSDV so it always uses the act essay college version that triggers on new sequence numbers. This is the version that, we feel behaves according to the specification of DSDV. Bernabei? The parameters for DSDV are shown in act essay prompts confidential Table 5 and are as specified in the DSDV paper [22].

Table 5: Constants used in the DSDV implementation. Parameter Periodic route update interval Periodic updates missed before link declared broken Route advertisement aggregation time Maximum packets buffered per node per the essay, destination Value 15 s 3 1s 5 4.4.4 Flooding We have implemented a simple flooding protocol that simply floods all user data packets to all nodes in the network. Essays Were? To have some sort cleverness in this flooding and avoiding data to bounce back and forth we use a sequence number in each packet. This sequence number is incremented for each new packet. The Essay Bernabei? Each node keeps track of mile wordsworth (source IP, sequence number) for all destinations and does not process a packet if the reviving the essay bernabei packet has a sequence number smaller than the stored sequence number. The idea was to do the simulations on the flooding protocol and compare the results with the results for global essay, the routing protocols. After some initial simulations on the essay bernabei flooding this plan was abandoned. Few Line Wordsworth? The simulations took too long to complete.

The reason is that flooding generates too many packets (events in the simulator). 4.4.5 The simulator To the actual simulator (ns + extension) we have added some new features to reviving, allow us to make the essay mile wanted measurements. Obstacles The visualization/scenario generator tool, Ad-hockey, allows the the essay bernabei user to place obstacles (lines and boxes) into the scenario. Essay Mile William? The problem is that ns do not use these obstacles for any kind of computation. Two nodes can communicate, even through a wall. Reviving? We wanted to simulate the protocols in a few realistic scenarios, so we added these computations to ns. The calculations consisted of two parts. The first part was to culture, store all obstacles in a database that we later could use when calculating the reviving intersection points and the second part was to extend the propagation model with the actual computations. The computations merely consisted of deciding if there existed an intersection point between the composed essay william wordsworth straight line from the sending node to the receiving node and any obstacle in the database.

If such an intersection point exists, the communication is simply cut of. No fading of the signal, reflections etc is taken into consideration. The model is therefore very simple. Reviving Bernabei? The problem with these computations is that it adds a lot of overhead in the simulations. Essay? The simulations will take significantly longer time to complete. Reviving? The extra computation must be done for all packets. In a large scenario with many nodes that are sending a lot of traffic this will increase the simulation time significantly. Version management To allow us to test different versions of one protocol simultaneous, we have added a version control to ns. This means that it is possible to act essay prompts confidential, give a version number to a protocol when the simulation starts. This version number is given to the specified protocol and it is then up to the essay, the programmer to use it.

We currently use this feature with both AODV and DSR. The different versions are: N N N N N AODV 1 = AODV with only hello messages. Culture? AODV 2 = AODV with only reviving the essay, MAC-layer feedback. Global Argumentative Essay? AODV 3 = AODV with both hello messages and MAC-layer feedback. DSR 1 = DSR with eavesdropping. DSR 2 = DSR without eavesdropping. 34 5 Simulation study The protocols that we have simulated are DSDV, AODV and the essay DSR. DSDV is college, only used to bernabei, get a comparison of as a global language argumentative how much better/worse the MANET protocols are than an ordinary proactive protocol. The simulations were conducted on an Intel PC with a Pentium-2 processor at 400 MHz, 128 Mbytes of reviving the essay bernabei RAM running FreeBSD6. Few Line William Wordsworth? 5.1 Measurements Before we go into the essay, the actual simulations, we will discuss which parameters [5] that are interesting to measure when studying routing protocols in an ad-hoc network.

There are two main performance measures that are substantially affected by the routing algorithm, the average end-to-end throughput (quantity of confidential service) and the average end-to-end delay (quality of service). Bernabei? 5.1.1 Quantitative metrics The measurements that we have conducted can be seen from prompts, two angels: externally and internally. The external view is bernabei, what the application/user sees and the internal view is how the routing protocol behaves. The external measurements are basically the language essay end-to-end throughput and delay. The internal behavior can further be divided into reviving the essay bernabei, routing accuracy and routing efficiency. N N Routing Efficiency: How much of the sent data is actually delivered to the destination? How much routing overhead is required to find routes? Routing Accuracy: How accurate, measured in number of hops are the supplied routes compared to the optimal shortest path.

5.1.2 Parameters The metrics has to be measured against some parameter that describes the characteristic behavior of an adhoc network and can be varied in a controlled way. The parameters that we have chosen to language essay, simulate with are: N N N Mobility, which probably is one of the most important characteristics of an ad-hoc network. The Essay Bernabei? This will affect the dynamic topology, links will go up and down. Offered network load. The load that we actually offer the network. This can be characterized by three parameters: packet size, number of connections and the rate that we are sending the packets with. Network size (number of nodes, the size of the as a argumentative area that the nodes are moving within). The network size basically determines the bernabei connectivity. Fewer nodes in composed essay few line mile the same area mean fewer neighbors to send requests to, but also smaller probability for collisions.

5.1.3 Mobility Because mobility is an important metric when evaluating ad-hoc networks we need some definition of mobility. There exist many definitions of mobility. The CMU Monarch project [3] has for instance used the pause time in the waypoints as a definition of mobility. Reviving The Essay Bernabei? If a node has a low pause time, it will almost constantly be moving, which would mean a high mobility. If a node has a large pause time it will stand still most of the time and have a low mobility. American Culture Essay? We did not think that this mobility definition was good enough, because even if the pause time is low and the essay all nodes are constantly moving, they could all be moving with a very slow speed in the same area. We have defined mobility a little differently. Our definition is based on the relative movement of the nodes. Essays On We Were The Mulvaneys? This definition gives a very good picture of how the nodes are moving relatively to each other. The definition is as follows: 6 FreeBSD 2.2.6 35 If several nodes move for a certain time, then the mobility is the reviving the essay bernabei average change in distance between all nodes over that period of essay time.

This time is the reviving simulation time T. Mobility is a function of both the english as a global essay speed and the movement pattern. It is calculated with a certain sampling rate. During the simulations, we have used 0.1 seconds as sampling rate. Bernabei? This is the default time when logging the movement in the simulations, so it was appropriate to use the same value when calculating the mobility. Table 6 shows all variables that are used in the equations for the mobility factor. What Is A? Table 6: Variable name dist(nx, ny)t n i Ax(t) Mx T t Mob Mobility variables.

Description the reviving the essay bernabei distance between node x and node y at time t number of nodes Index Average distance for node x to all other nodes at time t Average mobility for node x relative to all other nodes during the entire simulation time Simulation time Granularity, simulation step Mobility for what is a response essay, entire scenario First of all, the average distance from each node to all other nodes has to be calculated. This has to be done at times t = 0, t = 0+X, t = 0+2X, . t = simulation time. The Essay? For the prompts node x at time t the formula is: n ¦ dist (n , n ) x Ax(t) = i i1 (5.1) n 1 After that, with the use of (5.1), the average mobility for reviving the essay bernabei, that particular node has to be calculated. Act Essay Prompts College Confidential? This is the bernabei average change in act essay confidential distance during a whole simulation. The mobility for node x is: T t ¦ A (t ) A (t 't ) x Mx = x t0 (5.2) T 't Finally, the reviving bernabei mobility for the whole scenario is the sum of the mobility for slave culture, all nodes (5.2) divided with the number of reviving nodes: n ¦M Mob = i i1 (5.3) n The unit for the mobility factor (5.3) is m/s.

The mobility factor therefore gives a picture of the average speed of the distance change between the nodes. Is A? Figure 11 shows some basic examples of how this mobility factor will reflect the actual movement. If the nodes are standing still, this will of course lead to a mobility of 0, but this would also be the case when the bernabei nodes relative movement is english language, zero, for example when the the essay nodes are moving in parallel with the same speed. It is only when the nodes have a movement relative to each other that the mobility factor will be greater than zero. Confidential? 36 Our mobility definition reflects how the mobility affects the dynamic topology, without considering obstacles or surroundings. Standing still 0.0 Parallel movement 0.0 Figure 11: Relative movement 0.0 Example of mobility. The reason for choosing mobility as a parameter in the simulations is first of all that the reviving bernabei mobility is one of the most important characteristics of an few line mile william wordsworth ad-hoc network. But also because mobility is a parameter that is easy to grasp for people in general. Everyone has a rather good picture of what it means if the reviving bernabei mobility is increased.

We have tested the mobility factor to see how it affects the dynamic topology. As it can be seen in Figure 12, the number of link changes is directly proportional to the mobility factor. A link change basically means that a link changes state from either up/down to down/up. The plot is the average values for all simulations that we have done using 50 nodes and an environment size of 1000x1000 meters. 3500 3000 Avg nr of what is a essay link changes 2500 2000 1500 1000 500 0 0 0.5 Figure 12: 1 1.5 2 Mobility 2.5 3 3.5 Relation between the reviving the essay bernabei number of link changes and mit mba essay mobility. 37 4 5.2 Simulation setup In this chapter we will describe how the simulations were done. We have done 4 different types of simulations: N N N N Mobility simulations: We vary the mobility to see how it affects the different metrics that we are measuring. Offered load simulations: We vary the load that we offer the network, to the essay bernabei, see how the protocols behave when for analysis, instance the load is high. Network size simulations: We vary the number of nodes in reviving bernabei the network. Realistic simulations: A few realistic scenarios were designed.

These simulations do not give a general view of the protocol, but instead tests certain characteristics of the is a protocols. Because we had different versions of both AODV and DSR we decided to first compare the different versions of the same protocol. After that we did a more general comparison where we used one version of each protocol and compared them against DSDV. The Essay? The comparisons made are therefore: N N N Comparison of AODV with only hello messages, AODV with only college confidential, link layer support and reviving bernabei ADOV with both hello messages and link layer support. Comparison of DSR with and without eavesdropping. Comparison of DSDV, AODV with both hello messages and link layer support and DSR without eavesdropping. The reason for choosing DSR without eavesdropping in the last comparison, is as mentioned earlier that this is more realistic. Security features like encryption will prohibit eavesdropping in the future. The choice of AODV with both link layer support and hello messages was made because first of all, link layer support is probably a necessity to achieve a performance that is good enough and secondly because the removal of hello messages somewhat changes the overall functionality of AODV. Removal of hello messages would of course save us from the overhead of the hello messages, but also makes the protocol completely on-demand. A broken link could only be detected when a packet needs to be sent on the link.

In all simulations, except the realistic scenario simulations, we have used a randomized scenario. The randomized scenarios have different parameters that affect the movement patterns. The parameters that can be changed are: N N N N N Maximum speed: Every time a speed is going to be randomized it is randomized in the interval [0,maximum speed]. Number of nodes: This was constant during the simulations. Act Essay College? We used 50 nodes for reviving, all simulation except the size simulation where we varied the number of mit mba essay nodes.

Environment size: Determines the size of the environment. We have used a size of 1000 x 1000 meters for all simulations except the realistic simulations where we have used 1500 x 900. Simulation time: The time for which the simulations will be run at. We have used a simulation time of 250 seconds for all simulations except the realistic simulations where we used 900 seconds. Pause time: Pause time is the time for which a node stands still before randomizing a new destination and the speed that will be used to reach this destination.

We have used a pause time for 1 second in all simulations. Reviving The Essay Bernabei? The randomizing of scenarios works like this: first of all every node stands still for pause time seconds. Response? After that each node selects a random destination, a waypoint somewhere in the environment space. Each node also randomizes a speed that will be used when moving to the waypoint. This speed is randomized uniformly in the interval 0 to reviving the essay, maximum speed. Every time a node reaches a waypoint, this procedure will be repeated. Mit Mba? A factor that we have not taken into consideration with the scenarios is the fact that a real person is the essay bernabei, not likely to stand on the same place if the connection goes down. A real person is more likely to find a place where the reception is good enough. The system would be to complex if this factor were included also. We have assumed bi-directional links during all our simulations, i.e. the links work equally well in both directions.

It is questionable if unidirectional links are desirable when using the IEEE 802.11 MAC protocol, because bi-directional links are necessary if 802.11 acknowledgements are supposed to essay william wordsworth, be used. 38 5.3 Mobility simulations 5.3.1 Setup The simulations where we varied the the essay bernabei mobility where done by randomizing scenario files. What Essay? This method is very hard to perform, because we cannot prior a scenario generation say that we want a mobility factor of exactly X. Instead we used the maximum speed parameter to bernabei, control the scenario. The simulation parameters that have been used for the mobility simulations are shown in Table 7. Essay Few Line William? Table 7: Parameters used during mobility simulations. Reviving The Essay? Parameter Transmitter range Bandwidth Simulation time Number of nodes Pause time Environment size Traffic type Packet rate Packet size Number of flows Value 250 m 2 Mbit 250 s 50 1s 1000x1000 m Constant Bit Rate 5 packets/s 64 byte 15 The scenario is a very crucial part of the simulation. We have therefore collected 10 measurements for each wanted mobility factor. The mobility factors that we simulated on are: 0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5, 3.0, and 3.5.

Because of the hard part of getting scenarios that are precise we have used an interval of r0.1 for the above mentioned mobility factors. The scenarios that where created where then analyzed in terms of unreachable hosts. We did not want to investigate network partition at this stage, so all scenarios with extremely high degree of unreachable hosts where discarded. By increasing the maximum speed in mile wordsworth the scenario generation, the mobility will also increase. A mobility factor of 3.5 approximately corresponds to a maximum speed of 20 m/s. For the randomized simulations we have varied the maximum speed in reviving the essay bernabei the interval 0 to 20 m/s. A speed of composed few line wordsworth 20 m/s corresponds the speed of a vehicle, which will lead to a high mobility. We used the same communication pattern for reviving, all mobility simulations. Act Essay College Confidential? The traffic pattern consisted of 15 CBR sources that started at different times. We did not use TCP for the simulations, because we did not want to investigate TCP, which uses flow control, retransmit features and so on. We wanted to get a general view of how the routing protocol behaves.

The communication pattern was randomly created. The parameters that was specified when randomizing the reviving bernabei communication pattern were the essay number of reviving bernabei wanted sources, the packet size, the rate at which they were sending and the simulation time. In these simulations, we wanted to investigate how the mobility affected the protocols, so the load that we offer is very low. We only use 15 CBR sources sending 64 bytes large packets with a rate of english global language argumentative 5 packets/s. The bandwidth of the links are 2 Mbit. 39 5.3.2 Fraction of received packets 0.8 Fraction received packets 1 0.8 Fraction received packets 1 0.6 0.4 0.2 0.6 0.4 0.2 AODV-HELLO-MAC AODV-MAC AODV-HELLO DSR-eaves dropping DSR 0 0 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 Mobility (m/s) 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 Mobility (m/s) 1 Fraction received packets 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 AODV-HELLO-MAC DSR DSDV 0 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 Mobility (m/s) Figure 13: 2.5 3 3.5 Mobility simulations - fraction of received packets. How many of the sent data packets are actually received and why have the dropped packets been dropped?

Of the different AODV versions, it can been seen in Figure 13 that both AODV versions that have MAClayer support are almost receiving all packets that are sent. AODV with both hello messages and MAC-layer support is slightly better than the version with only MAC-layer support. The reason for this is the same as mentioned earlier, the hello messages gets some prior knowledge of link breakages. The Essay Bernabei? AODV with only hello messages is however dropping a very large portion of the packets when the mobility increases. This large fraction of dropped packets is of course not acceptable and the reason for these drops has to do with the interval of the hello messages. Prompts Confidential? The interval between the hello messages and reviving the essay the number of allowed hello message losses are crucial for detection of college confidential link breakages. If the interval is decreased, link breakages are detected earlier, but it would also mean that the the essay bernabei control overhead in the network increases. The issue here is to composed wordsworth, try to find optimal values for reviving, these parameters. Mile Wordsworth? The choice of these parameters is also very dependent on the behavior that is desired; a higher fraction of the essay bernabei received packets, a high throughput, low delay or a low overhead. The fraction of received packets for college, the DSR versions is very large even for reviving bernabei, high mobility.

The DSR version without eavesdropping has a slightly smaller fraction of received packets. This difference is however so small that it is negligible. DSR with eavesdropping gets better result for the simple reason that it has a little more information when calculating the routes. A reason for the higher fraction received packets for DSR compared to english global argumentative, AODV is that DSR allows packets to stay in the send buffer for as long as 30 seconds, AODV only reviving the essay bernabei, 8 seconds (our implementation). It must however be noted that the AODV draft [19] does not specify how long a packet is allowed to stay in act essay the sendbuffer. When comparing these results with the results for DSDV it can clearly be seen that a proactive approach is not acceptable at all when the mobility increases. The fraction received packets drastically goes down to 56-57 %. This value is the essay bernabei, however for a very large mobility factor (vehicles).

But the fraction of received packets is not even 100 % when the mobility is 0, as for all other protocols. As A Essay? The reason for this is that packets are sent before the routing tables have had enough time to converge and the essay bernabei the packets are dropped. 40 The main reasons for dropping packets are that the protocol is sending packets on a broken route that it thinks is valid and that packet in the buffers are dropped because of congestion and timeouts. At this low load we only have a small fraction of the packets that have been dropped because of what response collision. It can also be seen that IP-based hello messages as only link breakage detection mechanism is not a good idea. Reviving The Essay? The results are very poor, even DSDV have slightly better results. Link layer feedback of link breakages informs the upper layer routing protocol is much quicker and it can therefore react immediately. 5.3.3 End-to-end delay AODV-HELLO-MAC AODV-MAC AODV-HELLO 0.14 0.12 Avg packet delay (seconds) 0.12 Avg packet delay (seconds) DSR-eaves dropping DSR 0.14 0.1 0.08 0.06 0.1 0.08 0.06 0.04 0.04 0.02 0.02 0 0 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 2.5 3 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 Mobility (m/s) 2.5 3 3.5 3.5 Mobility (m/s) AODV-HELLO-MAC DSR DSDV 0.14 Avg packet delay (seconds) 0.12 0.1 0.08 0.06 0.04 0.02 0 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 Mobility (m/s) Figure 14: Mobility simulations - delay. As seen in Figure 14, of the different AODV versions AODV with only hello messages has lowest delay on the data packets that are received. Slave Culture? The reason for this is not that it finds routes faster or that the reviving the essay bernabei routes are shorter or more optimal, instead AODV with only hello messages is the AODV version that gets significantly fewest packets through the network. The packets that it successfully gets through the american slave culture network have approximately the same low delay as for the other AODV versions.

The difference is that the other AODV versions have a portion of packets that have a higher delay (has been in a buffer a long time and still gets the reviving packets through the network). This affects the essays on we were average delay, which becomes larger. In AODV with only hello messages, packets in the buffers that have been there for a long time are dropped. The reason is that ADOV does not successfully find a new route for those packets and because broken links are not detected fast enough, resulting in the essay that a source can keep sending packets on a broken link believing that it is still working properly. AODV with both hello messages and act essay college MAC layer support has a slightly lower delay than AODV with only MAC-layer support. The reason for this is that as mentioned earlier, AODV with only the essay bernabei, MAC-layer support makes the composed essay mile wordsworth protocol completely on-demand, it only the essay bernabei, detects link breakages when actually trying to act essay prompts confidential, send packets. Packets that are sent after this breakage is detected will have a higher delay, because they are buffered during the the essay time it takes to find a new route.

AODV with both hello messages and Mac-layer support on the other hand will get some prior knowledge of the link breakage and has a chance to find a new route before any new packets are sent. English Language? 41 Both DSR versions show a tendency to get higher delay when mobility is increased. Reviving? The turning point comes at a mobility factor of approximately 1.0. DSR without eavesdropping has a negligible higher delay compared to DSR with eavesdropping. DSDV is the protocol that seems to what is a, have lowest delay in these results. The results are however somewhat misleading because DSDV drops so many packets that it cannot said to be valid. The packets that are dropped in reviving DSDV will successfully get through when using for instance DSR, but has a slightly higher delay, because of longer times in buffers etc.

These higher delay packets will make the average delay higher for DSR. The same can be said for AODV with only hello messages. The other two AODV versions have a slightly higher delay than the DSR versions. This has probably to do with the source routing concept of DSR. DSR gains so much information by the source routes that it will learn routes to composed few line mile william, many more destinations than a distance vector protocol like AODV.

This will mean that while DSR already has a route for a certain destination, AODV would have to bernabei, send a specific request for that destination. The packets would in what response essay the meanwhile stay in a buffer until a valid route is the essay, found. This will take some time and will therefore increase the essay average delay. In a packet based radio network without Quality of Service, the delays of the packets will vary much. The Essay Bernabei? The packets that do not have a route will be buffered until a route is found. What Essay? A critical parameter here is how long a packet should be allowed to stay in the buffer before it is thrown away. If the packets are allowed to reviving bernabei, be in the buffer for a long time, the following situation could happen: A packet is college, sent, but there does not exist any route to that destination so the packet is reviving, buffered and a route request is essays on we, sent. The destination node is however unreachable so no route reply is returned to the sending node.

After a long time, the reviving the essay destination node suddenly becomes reachable and slave the packet is bernabei, sent. This packet will have a very large delay. Should this situation be allowed to happen? Should the packet be dropped from the buffer at a much earlier stage or do we want all packets to get through the network, even though the delay can be very large. Mit Mba Analysis? In the case where we are using TCP, the retransmit operation will probably retransmit the packet at an earlier stage anyway, because no acknowledgement was received.

The allowed time for packets to bernabei, stay in the sendbuffer in DSR is 30 seconds and only 8 seconds for AODV. If a packet is received 30 seconds after it was sent, this will increase the essays on we were the mulvaneys average delay to some degree. 5.3.4 End-to-end throughput 2.4 2.2 2.2 Throughput (Kbit/s) 2.6 2.4 Throughput (Kbit/s) 2.6 2 1.8 1.6 1.4 2 1.8 1.6 1.4 1.2 1.2 AODV-HELLO-MAC AODV-MAC AODV-HELLO DSR-eaves dropping DSR 1 1 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 Mobility (m/s) 0 0.5 1 1.5 Mobility (m/s) 2.6 2.4 Throughput (Kbit/s) 2.2 2 1.8 1.6 1.4 1.2 AODV-HELLO-MAC DSR DSDV 1 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 Mobility (m/s) Figure 15: Mobility simulations - throughput. 42 2 2.5 3 3.5 Figure 15 shows the throughput curves for the different protocols with a packet size of 64 bytes. Reviving The Essay? It must however be mentioned that the curves in composed few line william wordsworth this case are only interesting from a relative view, as a comparison between the protocols. We have not tried to maximize the throughput, we have only tried to determine the relative difference in throughput for the different protocols with respect to the mobility factor and the specific load that we have used. Reviving Bernabei? The throughput curves for all protocols are very similar to the fraction received packet curves. This is logical because large packet drops will of is a response essay course mean lower throughput. Both DSR versions and reviving the AODV versions with link layer support have almost identical throughput. This throughput is prompts college confidential, also approximately constant, it decreases somewhat when mobility is reviving, as high as 2.5-3.5. AODV with only hello messages and DSDV have a throughput that drastically decreases when mobility increases.

AODV with only hello show a very poor result. The throughput curve drops almost immediately to half of what it is on we the mulvaneys, when mobility is 0. 5.3.5 Overhead 25000 1.8e+06 AODV-HELLO-MAC AODV-MAC AODV-HELLO 20000 1.4e+06 Control overhead (bytes) Control overhead (packets) AODV-HELLO-MAC AODV-MAC AODV-HELLO 1.6e+06 15000 10000 1.2e+06 1e+06 800000 600000 400000 5000 200000 0 0 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 Mobility (m/s) 2.5 3 3.5 0 25000 0.5 1 1.5 2 Mobility (m/s) 2.5 3 3.5 1.5 2.5 3 3.5 2.5 3 3.5 1.8e+06 DSR-eaves dropping DSR DSR-eaves dropping DSR 1.6e+06 1.4e+06 Control overhead (bytes) Control overhead (packets) 20000 15000 10000 1.2e+06 1e+06 800000 600000 400000 5000 200000 0 0 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 0 0.5 1 Mobility (m/s) 25000 1.8e+06 AODV-HELLO-MAC DSR DSDV AODV-HELLO-MAC DSR DSDV 1.6e+06 20000 1.4e+06 Control overhead (bytes) Control overhead (packets) 2 Mobility (m/s) 15000 10000 1.2e+06 1e+06 800000 600000 400000 5000 200000 0 0 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 Mobility (m/s) 2.5 Figure 16: 3 3.5 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 Mobility (m/s) Mobility simulations - overhead. Because the reviving bernabei routing protocol need to send control information to essays the mulvaneys, achieve the task of finding routes, it is the essay, interesting to see how much control information that is actually sent for each protocol. There exists some sort of slave culture essay tradeoff between the byte overhead and the number of control information packets sent. A large byte 43 overhead would of reviving course mean a larger part of wasted bandwidth. Many small control information packets would however mean that the radio medium on which packets are sent is prompts college confidential, acquired more frequently. Reviving? This can be quite costly in terms of power and network utilization. Mit Mba? The values that we have plotted do not include any physical layer framing or MAC layer overhead. We have only looked at the overhead at the IP-level. A completely fair comparison would also include the above mentioned overheads. We have chosen not to include these for the simple reason that the MAC layer can be different in bernabei a real life implementation.

We wanted to investigate the overhead generally, not the overhead that is essays were, dependent on particularly the IEEE 802.11 MAC protocol. The results are shown in Figure 16. The first column is reviving bernabei, overhead calculated in number of packets and the second column is the byte overhead. The number of control packets and byte overhead is a total for act essay prompts confidential, all simulations done where we have varied mobility. Reviving? Of the different AODV versions, it can be seen that the curves for the AODV versions that have link layer support are similar in appearance. The difference of about 8000-9000 packets and 270000-290000 bytes that can be seen corresponds to the hello packets. The AODV version with only hello messages has a much more stable form of the curve. The small rise that is visible is the triggered route replies that are sent when a link goes down and the new requests that are sent to find a new route during route failures.

A route failure therefore triggers both triggered replies and new requests. This rise is english global argumentative essay, much larger for reviving, the AODV versions with link layer support for the simple reason that it detects link failure much faster, which will lead to as a global language essay, much more messages. Reviving Bernabei? DSR does not include the data packets in the number of control packet calculations, only the extra byte overhead from these packets is essay analysis, included. Worth noting when observing the DSR versions is that the DSR version that does not use eavesdropping has approximately the double amount of reviving control overhead counted in english global number of messages and reviving about 400000 bytes more of byte overhead than the DSR version with eavesdropping at the highest mobility 3.5. Essays On We The Mulvaneys? The somewhat strange behavior of the byte overhead for DSR can be explained as a sum of both the sent packets and the sent control messages.

As mobility increases, fewer packets will get through the network. Fewer packets mean less byte overhead in the source route of the bernabei packets. Increased mobility also means more topology changes, which will increase the what essay number of update messages. The byte overhead is therefore decreasing and at approximately mobility 1.5 the bernabei increase of is a control messages will cause the byte overhead to increase. The number of control messages in reviving the essay DSDV is fairly constant, even when the english as a mobility is extremely high. This is the nature of a proactive protocol that is dependent on periodic broadcasts. The byte overhead on bernabei the other hand, will increase as mobility increases. The reason for this is that the amount of information sent in each update message will be larger as the amount of slave culture link changes increases. 5.3.6 Optimal path One internal aspect of the routing protocol is the routing accuracy, e.g. Reviving? how good the actual routes are compared to essays on we were the mulvaneys, the optimal routes. To illustrate this we have compared the actual hop count with the optimal shortest route for all received packets. We have then, for each protocol, calculated how large fraction the received packets that have been routed through the optimal route, a route with hopcount that is one larger than the optimal, a route with hopcount that is two larger than the optimal and so on.

The result is the essay bernabei, shown in Table 8. The results are the total results for all simulations done with varying mobility. To better illustrate the difference between some of the protocols, we have also plotted the results for one AODV version, one DSR version and compared it with the only proactive protocol DSDV. It can clearly be seen in act essay Figure 17 that DSDV is the reviving protocol that has the highest degree of optimality, almost 90 % of the received packets have been routed with optimal hop count. The AODV and DSR versions are almost identical. AODV is slightly better. This difference is essays the mulvaneys, however so small that it can neglected. The Essay Bernabei? The difference between the different DSR versions is quite large and english as a essay can be explained with the extra information that DSR with eavesdropping has when calculating routes. This extra information is apparently very informative when calculating shortest possible routes. AODV with only hello messages has best results of the different AODV versions. These due to the essay bernabei, the similarities with a proactive protocol like DSDV that is highly dependent on response essay periodic broadcasts.

Because of the reviving periodic updates DSDV needs some time before it converges to a steady state. This happens when we have high movement with a lot of act essay topology changes. Most of the packets that are sent during this time are dropped and the rest of reviving them get a little higher hopcount. All packets that are sent after the routing tables have converged to a steady state do however most likely have the optimal shortest path. Composed Essay Few Line William Wordsworth? AODV with only the essay, hello messages have a similar behavior. Link breakages are dependent on the hello messages. This will mean that high movement and frequent topology changes will lead to many packet 44 drops during this time.

The packet that successfully gets through the mit mba analysis network have done this during times when the network is somewhat stabile 1 AODV-HELLO-MAC DSR DSDV Packets (%) 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 0 2 Figure 17: 4 6 Nr of hops from optimal 8 10 Mobility simulations - optimal path difference. Because both DSR versions and the AODV versions with link layer support gets significantly more packets through the network when the number of topology changes is reviving bernabei, large, they will have a little lower fraction of packets that have a optimal route. Act Essay College Confidential? In times of frequent movement it is easy to get a route that at first is optimal and then the moment later is 1-2 hops longer than another route that become the optimal route. The protocols will keep sending packets on reviving bernabei the route that at first was optimal. A good relative comparison is to american essay, look at the average hop count difference for all packets received. DSDV has the smallest average with a hopcount at only 0.13 hops from the optimal path. Reviving The Essay Bernabei? Table 8: Protocol AODV 1 AODV 2 AODV 3 DSR 1 DSR 2 DSDV 0 79.1% 55.9% 68.4% 81.1% 63.2% 88.7% Optimal path difference for is a response essay, all protocols.

Number of hops from optimal path (% packets) 1 2 3 4 5 6 14.8% 3.68% 1.08% 0.30% 0.55% 0.06% 29.9% 9.04% 2.62% 1.09% 0.56% 0.20% 23.0% 5.37% 1.48% 0.84% 0.47% 0.14% 15.3% 2.73% 0.54% 0.13% 0.08% 0.01% 26.6% 7.21% 2.21% 0.56% 0.13% 0.05% 10.6% 0.59% 0.06% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 45 7 0.06% 0.38% 0.04% 0.02% 0.03% 0.00% Average 0.292170 0.682837 0.459423 0.234429 0.512004 0.126577 5.3.7 Summary mobility simulations The protocols that have link layer support for the essay bernabei, link breakage detection will be much more stable. The fraction of slave culture essay packets received for these protocols is bernabei, almost constant at 95 % even when mobility increases. Essays On We Were? This result indicates that these kinds of reviving the essay protocols will get the as a argumentative job done even when mobility increases. These protocols include both DSR versions and the two AODV versions that have this link layer support. Protocols that are highly dependent on bernabei periodic broadcast show a rather poor result, only little more than 50 % of the is a response packet are received when mobility is increased. Because DSR is a source routing protocol it is the essay bernabei, always interesting to see how much overhead this kind of protocol will have. The byte overhead is larger than for instance the AODV version that uses both hello messages and link layer support for mit mba essay, link breakage detection. The interesting thing with this is that the number of control messages is much smaller for DSR than any other protocol. This is interesting because this means that an approach that uses a source routing based approach to find routes combined with a destination vector approach for sending data packets could be desirable. 5.4 Offered load simulations We have used these protocols for these simulations: N N N AODV with both hello messages and MAC link layer support. DSR without eavesdropping DSDV We only used the more realistic version of both AODV and DSR, for the same reason as mentioned in the previous section.

5.4.1 Setup The offered load simulations where done by the essay bernabei, varying the load that we offer the network. We had mainly three parameters to adjust the essay offered load: N N N Packet size Number of CBR flows Rate at which the the essay bernabei flows are sending The mobility simulations that we have done used a packet size of 64 bytes, a rate of 5 packets/s and 15 CBR flows. This is a fairly moderate offered load, so for the offered load simulations, we wanted to prompts confidential, investigate how the protocols behave when the load was increased. We could increase the packet size or the number of the essay CBR flows, but the as a language argumentative parameter that best describes the load is the rate at which we are sending. By only increasing the rate for the CBR flows, the load for each flow will increase. This also gives some hints of how large the throughput can be. We have used four different offered load cases: N N N N 5 packets / second (same as the mobility simulations) 10 packets / second 15 packets / second 20 packets / second The packet size was held constant at the essay bernabei, 64 bytes and composed essay mile wordsworth the number of flows at 15.

We used the same randomized scenario files as in reviving the essay the mobility simulations. Essay? The same communication file was also used, with the exception that we changed the rate for reviving, the CBR sources. The parameters that we used during the offered load simulation are shown in Table 9. 46 Table 9: Parameters used during offered load simulations. Parameter Transmitter range Bandwidth Simulation time Number of nodes Pause time Environment size Traffic type Packet rate Packet size Number of flows Value 250 m 2 Mbit 250 s 50 1s 1000x1000 m Constant Bit Rate 5 packets/s 64 byte 15 5.4.2 Fraction of received packets 0.8 Fraction received packets 1 0.8 Fraction received packets 1 0.6 0.4 0.2 0.6 0.4 0.2 AODV 5 pkt/s AODV 10 pkt/s AODV 15 pkt/s AODV 20 pkt/s DSR 5 pkt/s DSR 10 pkt/s DSR 15 pkt/s DSR 20 pkt/s 0 0 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 Mobility (m/s) 2.5 3 3.5 1 1.5 2 Mobility (m/s) 2.5 3 3.5 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 Mobility (m/s) 2.5 3 3.5 1 Fraction received packets 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 DSDV 5 pkt/s DSDV 10 pkt/s DSDV 15 pkt/s DSDV 20 pkt/s 0 0 0.5 Figure 18: Offered load simulations - fraction of few line wordsworth received packets. At only 5 packets/s both AODV and DSR are rather constant, the fraction of received packets is only decreasing slightly when mobility increases (Figure 18). At 10 packet/s we can see that the bernabei fraction received packets is global language essay, decreasing much faster when the mobility factor is greater than 2. At 15 packets/s and 20 packets/s both AODV and DSR are dropping a large fraction of the packets. At the highest mobility and a rate of reviving the essay bernabei 20 packets/s, only 50-60 % of the sent packets are received. Composed Few Line Mile? The reason is more collisions in the air and congestion in buffers.

The results for AODV and DSR are fairly similar at bernabei, a packet rate of english as a global language argumentative essay 5 packets/s and 10 packets/s. The Essay? At data rates of 15 packets/s and 20 packets/s, AODV shows a better result than DSR. At these rates the protocols are however dropping a large fraction of the packets, even at english as a argumentative essay, a mobility factor of reviving the essay 0. DSR will have a much larger byte overhead than AODV at higher data rates (Figure 21). The reason for composed wordsworth, this is the source route in each data packet. This also increases the load on reviving the essay the network and causes more packets to be dropped; thus AODV will get more packets through the network.

47 DSDV is dropping a large fraction of the packets already at the lowest data rate 5 packets/s. It must however be noted that the increase in dropped packets is not as large for DSDV as for AODV and DSR. At the essay highest data rate, DSDV is almost as good as DSR. 5.4.3 End-to-end delay 0.7 0.7 AODV 5 pkt/s AODV 10 pkt/s AODV 15 pkt/s AODV 20 pkt/s 0.6 0.5 Avg packet delay (seconds) Avg packet delay (seconds) 0.6 DSR 5 pkt/s DSR 10 pkt/s DSR 15 pkt/s DSR 20 pkt/s 0.4 0.3 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.2 0.1 0.1 0 0 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 Mobility (m/s) Mobility (m/s) 0.7 DSDV 5 pkt/s DSDV 10 pkt/s DSDV 15 pkt/s DSDV 20 pkt/s Avg packet delay (seconds) 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 Mobility (m/s) Figure 19: Offered load simulations - average delay. The delay is also affected by high rate of CBR packets (Figure 19). The buffers becomes full much quicker, so the packets have to stay in the buffers a much longer period of time before they are sent. This can clearly be seen at the essay, the highest rate 20 packets/s. Composed Essay Few Line William Wordsworth? The high degree of packet drops, even at mobility 0 makes the delay high already from the start.

DSR has a much lower delay compared to AODV. The difference between AODV and DSR is most apparent at rate 10 packets/s. DSDV has the lowest delay of reviving bernabei them all. Slave? This is the essay, however an effect from the large fraction of packet drops that DSDV has, compared to act essay confidential, DSR and AODV. The increase in delay for DSDV also comes from the increased time that the reviving bernabei packets must stay in the buffers. The high delay at a mobility factor of 0-1 and a data rate of 20 packets/s that can be seen for all protocols is a result of the english as a global extremely high data rate and the low mobility. Reviving The Essay? The high data rate will fill up the buffers very quickly. The low mobility will mean that already found routes are valid for a much longer time period. This means that found routes can be used for more packets.

Even the packets that have stayed in the buffer for a long time have a chance to get through. When mobility increases, more routes will become invalid and new requests are necessary. While the requests are propagating the network in search for a new route, buffers will get full and packets are dropped. These packets are the packets that have stayed in the buffers for the longest time and therefore the delay will decrease. The increase in mobility actually results in a load balancing of the traffic between the is a response nodes; hot spots are “removed” due to reviving, mobility. For DSDV, the analysis average delay at reviving the essay bernabei, highest data rate will actually be lower than at the rate of mit mba essay 15 packets/s. This is a little strange but has probably something to do with the fact that DSDV only uses a buffer that only has room for the essay, 5 packets per flow.

At the rate of 15 packets/s and what response 20 packets/s, when mobility starts to get so high that the topology changes frequently, only 40-60 % of the reviving packets gets through the network. These 48 topology changes means that the protocol needs more time to converge before the packets can be sent. The buffers will therefore be congested almost all the time so the packets that actually get through have approximately the same the delay. 5.4.4 End-to-end throughput 8 8 6 Throughput (Kbit/s) 7 6 Throughput (Kbit/s) 7 5 4 3 5 4 3 2 2 AODV 5 pkt/s AODV 10 pkt/s AODV 15 pkt/s AODV 20 pkt/s 1 0 0 0 0.5 DSR 5 pkt/s DSR 10 pkt/s DSR 15 pkt/s DSR 20 pkt/s 1 1 1.5 2 Mobility (m/s) 2.5 1.5 2.5 3 3.5 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 Mobility (m/s) 8 7 Throughput (Kbit/s) 6 5 4 3 2 DSDV 5 pkt/s DSDV 10 pkt/s DSDV 15 pkt/s DSDV 20 pkt/s 1 0 0 0.5 1 2 3 3.5 Mobility (m/s) Figure 20: Offered load simulations - average throughput. At low CBR rates the throughput of what DSR and AODV is unaffected of the mobility (Figure 20), it stays constant at 2,5 Kbit/s. Reviving Bernabei? At higher CBR rates, the throughput will decrease when the mobility increases. This can already be seen at english argumentative essay, CBR rate 10 packet/s.

The decrease at CBR rate 10 packets/s is however very small. Reviving Bernabei? At rate 15 packets/s and 20 packets/s the throughput decreases very much for all protocols. This is however an effect from the large fraction of dropped packets. The result for AODV is mit mba, slightly better than for reviving, DSR. It must however be noted that the offered load definition that we use only includes the rate at which we are sending packets with; no control packets are included in this definition. The same applies for the throughput, only the english language argumentative data packets are included in the calculations of throughput. DSR have a much larger byte overhead than AODV at higher data rates (Figure 21). This also increases the load on the essay bernabei the network and causes more packets to be dropped; thus AODV will have a better throughput at what is a essay, higher data rate.

DSDV drops a large fraction of the packets already at a rate of 5 packets/s. This can be seen in the small decrease in the throughput at rate 5 packets/s. The throughput decreases more and more as the rate increases. 5.4.5 Overhead In Figure 21, the difference between distance vector and source routing can clearly be seen. The byte overhead for reviving bernabei, DSR is much larger than AODV even at low data rates and the difference becomes larger when the CBR rate increases. Essay Analysis? At CBR rate 20 packets/s, the byte overhead for DSR is reviving the essay bernabei, more than the double than for AODV. The reason for were, the larger byte overhead for the essay, DSR is of course the source route in each packet. The 49 number of control messages is though smaller for DSR. This is the other characteristic for source routing, it learns all routes in the source route and therefore does not need to send as many route requests. The reason for the increase in number of mit mba essay control packets is the MAC-layer support. The increase in reviving the essay bernabei rate means that the essay few line mile william wordsworth MAC-layer will detects link failures much faster.

This means that the triggered RREPs are sent much earlier also causing the source node to send out a new request much earlier. Reviving? All link failures are detected earlier with increased rate; thus there will be time for more RREQs, RREPs and triggered RREPs. 4e+06 35000 AODV 5 pkt/s AODV 10 pkt/s AODV 15 pkt/s AODV 20 pkt/s 30000 AODV 5 pkt/s AODV 10 pkt/s AODV 15 pkt/s AODV 20 pkt/s 3.5e+06 3e+06 Control overhead (bytes) Control overhead (packets) 25000 20000 15000 10000 2.5e+06 2e+06 1.5e+06 1e+06 5000 500000 0 0 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 Mobility (m/s) 2.5 3 0 3.5 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 Mobility (m/s) 35000 DSR 5 pkt/s DSR 10 pkt/s DSR 15 pkt/s DSR 20 pkt/s 30000 4e+06 3e+06 Control overhead (bytes) 25000 Control overhead (packets) DSR 5 pkt/s DSR 10 pkt/s DSR 15 pkt/s DSR 20 pkt/s 3.5e+06 20000 15000 2.5e+06 2e+06 1.5e+06 10000 1e+06 5000 500000 0 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 0 3.5 0 0.5 1 Mobility (m/s) 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 Mobility (m/s) 4e+06 DSDV 5 pkt/s DSDV 10 pkt/s DSDV 15 pkt/s DSDV 20 pkt/s 35000 DSDV 5 pkt/s DSDV 10 pkt/s DSDV 15 pkt/s DSDV 20 pkt/s 30000 3.5e+06 3e+06 Control overhead (bytes) Control overhead (packets) 25000 20000 15000 10000 2.5e+06 2e+06 1.5e+06 1e+06 5000 500000 0 0 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 Mobility (m/s) 2.5 Figure 21: 3 0 3.5 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 Mobility (m/s) Offered load simulations - overhead. The amount of control information in DSDV is mit mba essay, not affected to any great extent by the data rate for the CBR packets. By looking at Figure 21 it looks like the number of control packets is exactly the same for all data rates, but there is bernabei, actually a small difference. The number of control packets is actually a little smaller when the rate is 20 packets/s. This difference is essay few line mile william, about 80 packets.

The reason for this difference is that the high data rate causes more collisions, which means that some of the the essay bernabei update messages are dropped. These lost update messages will not be received by any node, and cannot therefore trigger new update messages. This means that when the response next update message actually is received a much larger update message has to be sent, thus we can see a slight increase of byte overhead when the rate increases. The Essay Bernabei? But when the mobility increases more and more packets will be dropped. At the highest data rate, many of the update messages are dropped, 50 even the packets with a little more information. Essays On We Were The Mulvaneys? This causes the byte overhead for DSDV at higher data rates not to increase to the same extent as for DSDV with lower data rates. 5.4.6 Optimal path Figure 22 illustrates the the essay bernabei difference in hopcount from the optimal hopcount at a CBR rate of 20 packets/s. It is the result for all simulations done at this rate. As A Global Language? If we compare this figure with Figure 17, which illustrates the the essay bernabei hopcount difference for global argumentative essay, the CBR rate 5 packets/s, we can clearly see that they are almost identical.

The rate does not affect the number of reviving the essay bernabei hops that the packets actually need to travel from source to destination. 1 AODV 20 pkt/s DSR 20 pkt/s DSDV 20 pkt/s Packets (%) 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 0 2 Figure 22: 4 6 Nr of hops from optimal 8 10 Offered load simulations – optimal path. 5.4.7 Summary offered load simulations The performance of the protocols differs slightly during different network loads. The most apparent difference is the byte overhead. Act Essay College? While DSDV has a rather unaffected overhead, it increases both for AODV and DSR during higher loads.

A higher sending rate causes the protocol to detect broken links faster, thus reacting faster. This leads to a slight increase in control packets, which also affects the reviving bernabei byte overhead. The most apparent is the increase in DSRs overhead as we increase the send rate. Since each data packet contains a source route, the essay analysis byte overhead increases dramatically. The Essay Bernabei? The increased send rate also set demands on the send buffer of the routing protocol.

Congestion occurs and act essay college confidential packets are dropped. The faster a routing protocol can find a route, the less time the packets have to spend in buffers, meaning a smaller probability of packet drops. 51 5.5 Network size simulations We did simulations on reviving the essay some of the english as a global language protocols and reviving varied the number of nodes that participated in the network. We decreased the number of nodes to 35 and 25 nodes. Essays? The decrease in number of the essay nodes basically meant that the connectivity also decreased; each node had fewer neighbors.

The results from what essay, these simulations did not give any new information regarding the performance of the protocols. The relative difference between the protocols was the same. Reviving The Essay Bernabei? Decreased connectivity meant of course that we did not get as many packets through the network as in the mobility simulations, but it must however be noted that the dependency between the scenarios and results are much larger in the network size simulations. The worst results for prompts, each protocol happened when the mobility was 0. Bernabei? This may sound strange, but the reason for the bad result when the nodes is what response, standing still is the randomized scenarios. If a randomized scenario has poor connectivity, this connectivity will be same during the whole simulation if the nodes are standing still. The nodes are not moving and cannot therefore affect the connectivity. In a scenario with moving nodes however, the reviving the essay connectivity will vary during the whole simulation. So even if a node is unreachable from the beginning, there is still a chance that it will be reachable some time later. 5.6 Realistic scenarios 5.6.1 Setup The randomized simulations we have done, gives a very good general picture of how the protocols behaves in respect to certain parameters, such as mobility, size and prompts network load. This kind of simulations also has some problems: N N N It is hard to identify situations in which the protocols fail or have problems It has no connection to a real life situation. It may favor complex protocols, while in real life scenarios simpler protocols can find the routes almost as effectively.

It is reviving the essay bernabei, therefore also very interesting to see how the protocols behave in a more realistic scenario. We have therefore done simulations on some scenarios believed to slave culture essay, be realistic. The realistic scenarios do not give a full picture of how the the essay protocols behave generally. Instead they give some sense of english as a argumentative weak points in the essay bernabei the protocols. Mit Mba Essay Analysis? The three basic types of scenarios that we have done simulations on are: N N N Conference type, with low movement factor.

Event coverage type, with fairly large movement factor. Reviving? Could for instance be reporters trying to interview politicians. Disaster area, with some relatively slow nodes and some very fast nodes (mounted on a car or a helicopter). The environment size is on we were, 1500 x 900 meters for all realistic scenarios. This size is scaled according to the range of the transmitters. In a real life conference scenario, the environment size would be significantly smaller and so would also the transmitter range.

The same thing would apply for the speed of the reviving the essay people moving around. The speed is also scaled to 10 m/s. English Global Language? All parameters used during the realistic simulations are shown in Table 10. 52 Table 10: Parameters used during realistic simulations. Parameter Transmitter range Bandwidth Simulation time Number of reviving the essay nodes Environment size Traffic type Packet rate Packet size Speed of a human Speed of a mobile node mounted on a vehicle Value 250 m 2 Mbit 900 s 50 1500x900 m Constant Bit Rate 4 packets/s 512 byte 1 m/s 20 m/s 5.6.2 Conference This scenario simulates 50 people that are attending a conference, seminar session or some similar activity. It involves communication between some of the people. Parameters specific for what is a response, the conference scenario are shown in Table 11 Table 11: Parameters used during conference scenario.

Parameter Number of CBR sources Number of receivers Number of flows Value 2 6 6 The scenario is reviving the essay, characterized by: N N N N N Low mobility factor, 10 % of the nodes are moving during any period of time. Links are long lasting and involves many hops. Act Essay Prompts College Confidential? The traffic is concentrated to a few nodes, typically only the speaker. Few obstacles which are far apart. Typically only one large obstacle, a wall with doors and windows that can be used for communication. Relatively large interference from other nodes, due to the concentration of reviving the essay transmitting nodes. Mit Mba Essay Analysis? This can in some cases lead to reviving the essay bernabei, local congestion. The scenario basically tests the protocols: N N N Ability to respond to mile, local changes for long links. Ability to cope with large concentration of traffic.

Message overhead with low mobility factor. Figure 23 shows how the scenario was designed and created with ad-hockey. The Essay? The scenario is divided into three zones that have their certain characteristics. N N N Zone 1 - Speaker zone: The speaker moves back and forth. Act Essay? This changes the closest neighbor in the audience.

Zone 2 - Audience zone: Static audience that is sitting still most of the time. Very seldom does a node go outside to the essay, return a certain amount of time later. This will probably result in a link breakage of analysis a longlasting link. Zone 3 - Outsider zone: Outsiders behind a wall that are trying to establish a connection between the speaker and each other. 53 Transmitter range Zone 1 Zone 2 Zone 3 = Node = Obstacle = Movement Figure 23: Conference scenario. The results for this scenario are shown in Table 12 and Table 13.

It must however be noted that we do not distinguish the results for nodes that are in zone 2 or zone 3. The calculated mobility factor for this scenario is reviving the essay bernabei, very low. All protocols except DSDV and the AODV version that only uses hello messages show quite good performance, delivering between 92-99% of the packets with an average throughput between 14.8 – 15.7 Kbit/s. DSDV delivers only 75.6% of the packets with an average throughput of 12.1 Kbit/s and the AODV version with only hello messages delivers 89.3 % of the packets, with a throughput of 14.3 Kbit/s. This shows that an ad-hoc routing protocol must quickly adapt to american essay, link changes even for long lasting routes as in this case where mobility is very low. Table 12: Mobility factor Received Throughput Sent Average delay Dropped Received packets Packet overhead Byte overhead Average hopcount DSDV 0.0439350 75.6% 12.1 Kbit/s 21510 0.052 s 5250 16260 44054 6406036 5.32 Conference simulation results. DSR - 1 0.0439350 97.1% 15.55 Kbit/s 21510 0.210 s 614 20896 3129 3689865 5.73 DSR - 2 0.0439350 98.0% 15.7 Kbit/s 21510 0.23 s 422 21088 4109 4093220 5.79 54 AODV - 1 0.0439350 89.3% 14.30 Kbit/s 21510 0.26 s 2298 19212 43881 1660020 6.62 AODV - 2 0.0439350 92.3% 14.79 Kbit/s 21510 0.29 s 1644 19866 14537 610884 6.53 AODV - 3 0.0439350 94.0% 15.00 Kbit/s 21510 0.39 s 1376 20134 54677 2112716 6.45 Both versions of DSR have the lowest packet overhead in reviving the essay this scenario, while all versions of AODV show the lowest byte overhead. The large byte overhead for DSR has to do with the english global argumentative essay fairly large amount of traffic and that the routes have an average hopcount that is as large as 5-6 hops.

As can be seen in Table 13. DSDV fails to deliver 3599 packets because of reviving the essay route failures. Prompts Confidential? This is due to the slow response time when links go down and the time it takes to find new routes. A lot of packets will be sent using a route that the protocol thinks is valid, while in fact the route is broken and the packets are dropped. Reviving? Also a lot of packets are dropped in as a argumentative essay the interface queue. AODV using only the essay, hello messages show the same tendency, dropping 1364 packets because of the same reasons. It is mit mba, however fewer packets than for DSDV. This has to do with the reviving the essay bernabei time between the HELLO messages. The less time between the composed few line william wordsworth messages, the faster can the protocol react to broken links and the essay avoid dropping the packets. In general, most of the packets are dropped in the sendbuffer. Act Essay Prompts College? Retransmission of these dropped packets could of course be handled by upper layer protocols, such as TCP.

Table 13: Cause for drop Sendbuffer Route failures ARP Interface queue End of the essay simulation DSDV 3599 74 1567 10 Packet drops in conference scenario. DSR – 1 519 30 34 18 13 DSR – 2 303 98 4 0 17 AODV –1 894 1348 22 4 30 AODV – 2 1364 201 21 10 48 AODV -3 1096 202 14 0 64 5.6.3 Event coverage This scenario simulates a group of 50 highly mobile people that are changing position quite frequently. It could for essay mile william wordsworth, instance represent a group of the essay bernabei reporters that are covering a political event, music concert or a sport contest. In real life it would be nearly impossible to establish a wired network between the reporters, but they must be in were constant communication with each other, enabling a fast reaction. Parameters that are specific for the event coverage scenario are shown in Table 14. Table 14: Parameters used during event coverage scenario. Parameter Number of CBR sources Number of receivers Number of flows Value 9 45 45 The scenario is characterized by: N N N N N Rather high mobility factor. Typically 50 % of the nodes are constantly changing their position during any time of period.

Every now and then the nodes tend to cluster. Links involve a few hops and relatively short-lasting. Traffic is spread all over the place. Many obstacles. Nodes can usually only reviving, communicate with a few nodes. This will lead to a low interference from the essay other nodes, except for the moments of the essay clustering. 55 The scenario tests the protocols: N N Ability to american slave, respond to fast link changes and fluctuating traffic. Message overhead with constant topology updates. Figure 24 shows how the scenario was designed. 50 % of the nodes are moving randomly with a constant speed of 1 m/s. Reviving? Every now and then a temporary cluster contain approximately 10 nodes will form.

These clusters remain static for a certain amount of time. Slave Culture? Temporary clusters = Node = Obstacle Figure 24: = Movement Event coverage scenario. The results for the event coverage scenario are shown in the essay bernabei Table 15 and Table 16. Act Essay College Confidential? As Table 15 shows, the two protocols that has the lowest fraction of the essay bernabei packets received are DSDV and the AODV version that entirely relies on feedback from link-layer. These protocols only have a fraction of packets received that lies around 91-92 %. For all other protocols/versions this value is at least 94 %. The mobility factor for the scenario is 0.72, which is essay analysis, quite low even though considering we have about reviving the essay, 50 % of the nodes in composed essay few line mile william movement. The nodes are however only moving with a speed of 1 m/s. DSDV has the highest overhead of all the protocols, counted in both number of control packets and bytes. DSR both with and without eavesdropping have a very low overhead. It must however be noted that the traffic load in reviving this scenario is mit mba essay, very low and most of the communication is taking place in a very small area, thus leading to a very low average hopcount of reviving bernabei approximately 1.5 for all protocols. In this scenario, AODV with only hello message shows better results than AODV with only essay, link-layer support and the reason is that the reviving the essay hello messages makes it possible to keep track of neighbors. Most of the communication is taking place within clusters, so to essay analysis, know the neighbors will probably mean that we will not have to make as many requests.

The topology of the network is changing quite frequently. This causes a protocol like DSDV to have a very large overhead. The communication however, take mostly place within the clusters. Reviving? This makes the job for the on-demand-based protocols much easier. The hopcount from source to destination is very small so the protocols will find a route very quickly. The protocols which are entirely on-demand will have a slightly 56 higher delay and the protocols that uses some sort of periodic messages (DSDV and the ADOV version that use hello messages) will have lower delay.

Table 15: Mobility factor Received Throughput Sent Average delay Dropped Received packets Packet overhead Byte overhead Average hopcount DSDV 0.721611 91.4% 14.75 Kbit/s 4500 0.075 s 385 4115 42415 10578764 1.46 hops Event coverage simulation results. DSR – 1 0.721611 97.5% 15.68 Kbit/s 4500 0.138 s 111 4389 1056 141196 1.53 hops DSR – 2 0.721611 97.7% 15.71 Kbit/s 4500 0.140 s 102 4398 1354 158420 1.57 hops AODV – 1 0.721611 94.5% 15.33 Kbit/s 4500 0.024 s 245 4255 31342 1137752 1.55 hops AODV – 2 0.721611 92.2% 14.89 Kbit/s 4500 0.214 s 352 4148 2722 117904 1.75 hops AODV – 3 0.721611 95.1% 15.36 Kbit/s 4500 0.015 s 219 4281 31443 1142180 1,55 hops Table 16 shows that most of the packets are dropped due to route failures and in those cases where there exists a sendbuffer, congestion/time-out in the sendbuffer. AODV that only uses link-layer support (AODV 2) has most of the dropped packets due to essay few line mile wordsworth, failed ARP requests and DSDV drops most of its packets at the interface queue. Table 16: Cause for bernabei, drop Sendbuffer Route failures ARP Interface queue End of simulation DSDV Packet drops in event coverage scenario. DSR - 2 81 19 1 AODV - 1 100 83 61 1 102 48 235 DSR – 1 81 21 9 9 AODV - 2 131 32 178 10 1 AODV - 3 100 15 104 5.6.4 Disaster area This scenario represents some sort of disaster area in a region that lacks any sort of telecommunication infrastructure. English Essay? It could for instance represent a natural disaster or a large rescue operation. Every rescue team member could have a personal communicator with ad-hoc network capability. These personal communicators are capable of communicating with each other and with relay nodes that are mounted on a vehicle, like a helicopter, car or boat.

The parameters that are specific for the disaster area scenario are shown in Table 17. Table 17: Parameters used during disaster area scenario. Parameter Number of CBR sources Number of bernabei receivers Number of flows 57 Value 38 87 87 The scenario is characterized by: N N N N N N A node movement, where approximately 95 % of the nodes are moving slightly, while the remaining 5 % are changing their position very often. Network partitioning now and what response then. Long and short lasting links that only are a few hops.

Traffic that is spread all over the nodes. Many obstacles. Low interference from the other nodes. The scenario tests the reviving bernabei protocol: N N Ability to work with both slow and essays were fast changing network topologies. Ability to cope with network partitioning. The Essay Bernabei? Figure 25 shows how the scenario was designed. There are two highly mobile nodes moving at the speed 20 m/s back and american culture essay forth. There are also three separate subnetworks that can connect to bernabei, each other through the composed few line relays mounted on the highly mobile nodes. Within each subnetwork, the movement is randomized at speed 1 m/s.

Subnetwork 2 Subnetwork 1 Vehicle 1 = Node Subnetwork 3 = Obstacle Figure 25: Vehicle 2 = Movement Disaster area scenario. The results for the disaster area scenario are shown in Table 18 and Table 19. The calculated mobility factor for the essay bernabei, this scenario is quite high. Many of the nodes are moving slightly (people), and some nodes are moving very fast (vehicles). Composed Essay Few Line Mile Wordsworth? The protocols that show the best results in this scenario are the purely reactive approaches, that is AODV using both hello messages and MAC support and reviving bernabei DSR with eavesdropping. They have a delivery ratio between 54–58 % of the packets with an average throughput of 14.1 – 14.8 Kbit/s. DSDV has the worst performance, delivering only 29,5% of the packets with an average throughput of college 12.42 Kbit/s. A delivery ratio of only 58 % for the best protocol may sound like a terrible ratio, but because of network partitioning, it is the essay, hard for any protocol to english language argumentative essay, successfully deliver more packets than that. 58 DSDV show the reviving bernabei lowest delay, but this is due to the low delivery ratio. All versions of AODV keep an average delay between 0.89 – 1.05 seconds, while the DSR versions lie between 1.19 – 1.25 seconds. Composed Essay Mile? Both DSR versions keep a low packet overhead compared to the other protocols.

The byte overhead is reviving, however twice as large for DSR compared to AODV. As expected, DSDV uses the shortest paths with an average of 3.42 hops. The other protocols has an american culture essay average hopcount of 5.0-5.2 hops. Table 18: Mobility factor Received Throughput Sent Average delay Dropped Received packets Packet overhead Byte overhead Average hopcount DSDV 1.154619 29.5% 12.42 Kbit/s 29616 0.196 s 20867 8749 41402 6497476 3.42 hops Disaster area simulation results. Bernabei? DSR – 1 1.154619 58.0% 14.79 Kbit/s 29616 1.252 s 12440 17176 27048 4880992 5.01 hops DSR – 2 1.154619 54.50% 14.43 Kbit/s 29616 1.187s 13464 16152 30692 5137148 5.16 hops AODV – 1 1.154619 48.0% 13.07 Kbit/s 29616 0.888 s 15382 14234 61557 2426164 5.23 hops AODV – 2 1.154619 52.2% 13.49 Kbit/s 29616 1.052 s 14161 15455 50686 2426164 5.24 hops AODV – 3 1.154619 54.0% 14.09 Kbit/s 29616 0.988 s 13635 15981 77311 3096228 5.26 hops DSDV drops a lot of packets because of route failures. The Mulvaneys? In this scenario, DSDV also drops a large amount of packets in the interface queue.

One large cause for drops in the other protocols, lies in the sendbuffer. If routes are not found within time, packets in the buffer are dropped because of timeouts or congestion. Another large cause for packet drops is route failures. This scenario is reviving bernabei, very interesting and should be investigated further, especially for act essay prompts college confidential, the AODV protocol. We discovered when running the simulations that AODV tend to form short lived routing loops. Reviving Bernabei? Since the author claim that this protocol should be loop free at all times, one possible cause for this might be invalid use of the sequence numbers or the on we the mulvaneys fact that sequence numbers are unsynchronized during network partitioning. Very few packets were dropped because of this (less than 5). Another interesting thing with this scenario is that all main nodes send traffic both ways to each other.

This causes AODV to respond to requests with temporary routes set up by other requests. Since it is unclear from the draft whether the temporary routes should be regarded as a normal route in the routing table or not, we decided to try both in this scenario. By only allowing RREPs to use the reviving temporary routes, and by not allowing a node to respond to american culture essay, a RREQ with a temporary route, the the essay bernabei routing loops could be avoided. However, the performance of the protocol decreased. We therefore used simulations where we considered the american slave culture temporary routes as a normal route.

Table 19: Cause for drop Sendbuffer Route failures ARP Interface queue End of simulation DSDV 15853 479 4528 7 DSR – 1 10033 1990 35 3 1 Packet drops in the essay disaster area. Is A Response Essay? DSR - 2 10277 2960 64 159 9 59 AODV – 1 9836 5047 292 34 2 AODV - 2 10693 3046 241 20 1 AODV - 3 10941 2470 64 44 116 5.6.5 Summary realistic scenarios The realistic scenarios show how the protocols behave in certain situations. For this purpose, three scenarios were designed and simulated with different versions of the protocols DSDV, DSR and AODV. Reviving The Essay? DSR show the best performance results overall. If source routing is undesirable, another good candidate is AODV with only MAC layer support.

It has a slightly higher packet overhead, but an english as a language argumentative essay overall good delivery ratio. The Essay Bernabei? 5.7 Observations The protocols that we have worked with most are AODV and prompts college DSR, thus we have observed some important differences for these protocols, that in some way affect the performance of the reviving the essay protocols. 5.7.1 Ability to english as a global, find routes AODV To illustrate AODVs ability to find routes, we use a simple scenario (see Figure 26). The scenario consists of four nodes A, B, C and D connected to each other. A C D B Figure 26: Simple example scenario. Node A needs a route to node D. Reviving? No data has been sent earlier, thus the only routes known to the AODV protocol are the culture essay different neighbors in the scenario. This is because AODV uses hello messages to keep track of the neighbors of a node. Reviving Bernabei? A RREQ is generated by node A and broadcasted to its neighbors. The RREQ propagates through the network until it reaches node C. Since node C has a route to node D it can comply with the slave culture essay RREQ and generate a RREP.

During the reviving propagation of the RREQ, a reverse path is set up to node A. The RREP is unicasted back to response essay, A. It uses the temporarily backward route set up by the RREQ. During the propagation of the reply, a forward route is reviving bernabei, set up to node D by all intermediate nodes, resulting in the routing table shown in Table 20, thus all temporary routes are updated to global language essay, active routes. Table 20: Node A Destination Nexthop B B D B Routing tables for AODV after a route discovery process. Node B Destination A C D Nexthop A C C Node C Destination B D A Nexthop B D B Node D Destination C Nexthop C After the route discovery process, only B and C have routes to all other nodes in the essay the scenario. Node A does not know that there is a route to node C, nor does node D know of the route to analysis, A and B. Thus AODV has to go through the reviving route discovery process several times to discover all the is a response routes. This leads to more control traffic and higher delays.

On the other hand, it saves memory by not having to keep information about routes that might not be used. Reviving The Essay Bernabei? 60 DSR The ability to is a response essay, find routes differs slightly between the DSR and AODV protocol. DSR can make use of the source route carried in each packet header to the essay, discover routes to nodes by mile william wordsworth, which the packet has traveled through. If new routes are found, DSR can take advantage of this without having to go through a new route discovery phase, thus reducing the reviving bernabei number of control packets and decreasing the delay. The memory usage of a node is instead increased by american slave culture essay, having to store more routes.

We consider the bernabei same scenario as for the AODV protocol (Figure 26). American Slave Culture Essay? Node A needs a route to node D. Bernabei? No data has been sent earlier, thus DSR has no knowledge of mit mba analysis any routes. Since no routes are known, the RREQ propagates until it reaches node D. During the propagation of the RREQ, every node in its path learn a route back to all the reviving the essay bernabei nodes by which the RREQ has passed through. The RREP is unicasted back to A, using the routes learned during the propagation of the analysis RREQ. As the RREP propagates, each node also learns the routes to all nodes for which the the essay RREP has passed through, resulting in the routing tables shown in essay Table 21. After the route discovery phase, each node has a route to reviving bernabei, every other node in this example. Table 21: Node A Destinatio n B C D Path B B-C B-C-D Routing caches for DSR, after a route discovery process. Node B Destinatio n A C D Path A C C-D Node C Destinatio n A B D Path B-A B D Node D Destinatio n A B C Path C-B-A C-B C 5.7.2 Temporary backward routes When a RREQ propagates in search for a route in AODV, a temporary backward route is set up towards the on we requesting node.

A RREP might use this backward route. This route is normally set to expire after 3 seconds if it is not used. It is not clear from the reviving the essay draft if this route may be used by application data as well. Essays On We Were The Mulvaneys? Using this route for data affects the behavior of the reviving bernabei protocol in some way and it is not described how the protocol should handle this. American Culture Essay? One of the problems with this temporary route is with the way it is the essay bernabei, set up. As A Global? When the RREQ propagates, we do not know who will be using the backward route, so no active neighbors can be put into the active neighbor list. If during this time, a link failure or an expired route entry somewhere breaks the route, the rest of the nodes in reviving the essay the route are not informed of this and therefore have redundant routes in their tables.

When the american essay route is used again, the application data will come to a node in the route that does not have a valid entry for the destination and will therefore be dropped while a triggered RREP tries to inform the nodes in reviving the essay bernabei the route that it is broken. This problem will become more apparent in a network with a higher load. Another problem is the essay short lifetime if temporary routes are installed into the routing table. Lets say node A sets up a temporary route to D. Node A can then respond with the temporary route to another request searching for a route to D. Since the temporary route has a short lifetime, it might expire before the actual data has a chance to use it. This results in unnecessary control overhead and packet drops. To deal with this, the routing agent could chose to only allow RREP to use the temporary route. Also a check of the expire time before responding with a RREP could be used to assure that the route wont timeout shortly after the node has responded with the information.

A question about reviving the essay, this was directed to the author of the protocol with the response that this check should not be done, instead the culture essay protocol should rely on the sequence numbers to provide the the essay bernabei freshness of a route. We implemented a version of the AODV protocol that used the temporary route for all packets since it showed a slightly better performance result then if not allowing data packets to use the temporary route. The implementation done in Gothenburg used the temporary route only for route replies. American? So we have a small difference in our implementations. 61 5.7.3 Buffers The use of send buffers in the routing protocol also affects the performance of the routing protocol; especially the size of the buffers and reviving bernabei the time a packet is mit mba analysis, allowed to stay there before it is dropped. The send buffer buffers data packets while the routing protocol requests a route to the destination. In our simulations, AODV used a buffer capable of bernabei holding 64 packets and act essay prompts college confidential allowing them to stay in the buffer for maximum 8 seconds. Allowing the packets to stay in the buffer for longer period of times will of course increase the amount of successfully routed packets, but also increase the average delay. Also the reviving the essay choice of queuing discipline will affect the measured performance.

If the buffer is full, there must be some smart algorithm to decide which packets should be dropped. The routing protocol could decide not to buffer any packets at all and depend on higher layer protocols such as TCP to essay few line, retransmit lost packets. This would however affect the measured performance in the simulations and give unfair results for reviving bernabei, the protocol. Slave Essay? 5.8 Discussion If we compare the reviving work that we have done against act essay confidential, the work that was done by the CMU Monarch project [3], many similarities can be seen. Reviving The Essay? Their conclusion was that both DSR and AODV performs well at all mobility rates and movement speeds.

We have come to the same conclusion, but we feel however that their definition of american culture essay mobility (pause time) does not represent the reviving the essay bernabei dynamic topology to the same extent as our mobility factor that is based on the actual relative movement pattern. The only is a essay, node speeds that they have tested are 1 m/s and 20 m/s, which are not showing the complete range. Our mobility factor has a speed range from 0 m/s up to bernabei, 20 m/s and shows how the protocols behave in american the complete range. They have also only shown the bernabei result for few line, one DSR version and one AODV version. The DSR version that they show the results for reviving the essay, is using eavesdropping, which we regard as being unrealistic, because of the security issuses discussed earlier. The AODV version that they have used is not using hello messages, which changes the behavior of AODV. We have tested different versions and shown that DSR with eavesdropping has a slightly better performance than DSR without eavesdropping. We have also shown that AODV with MAC-layer support and hello messages has better performance than AODV with only MAC-layer support. Our results also show that it is necessary to use some support from the MAC-layer to achieve a performance that is good even at high mobility factors. The CMU Monarch project, have used the american slave culture essay number of sources as a definition of the load that is offered the network. Their simulations with the different number of sources are almost identical to each other.

The only protocols that showed a significantly difference was TORA, that only delivered 40 % of the packets with the reviving the essay bernabei lowest pause time and highest number of sources. Our definition of load was based on the rate that the sources are sending packets with. Even DSR that had the best results in the CMU paper fails to deliver a large fraction of the packets when the rate is increased. The increase of the rate also very clearly shows how much the overhead for DSR increases compared to what is a response, for instance AODV. 5.9 Classification Why is reviving the essay, there any need for classification of routing protocols? If one routing protocol is superior than the other routing protocols for instance in essay few line mile william wordsworth very high mobile environments, why not always use that routing protocol? If it handles high mobile environments, it should also be good at reviving the essay bernabei, low mobile environments. American? In real life, many parameters affect the behavior of the the essay bernabei routing protocol.

It is also important to recognize the need that is required in a particular scenario. In one scenario, there is maybe more need for high throughput than there is for what is a response essay, low delay. In another scenario there is maybe more need for low delay etc. This is becoming more and more important now, in particular when active networks [29] is becoming an interesting issue in networking. Active networking means that you add user controllable capabilities to the network. The network is reviving bernabei, no longer viewed a passive mover of essays on we the mulvaneys bits, but rather as a more general computation engine. This makes it possible for instance to adjust the routing protocol depending on the scenario. You could basically send the routing protocol and let it install itself into the nodes. 62 5.9.1 Mobile networks As the simulation results show, the reviving the essay mobility of the english as a global language argumentative essay network greatly affects the performance of the protocols. It is crucial that the protocol ability to detect broken routes is fast enough and that they also react to these changes.

DSDV Since DSDV is dependent of its periodic updates, its ability to deal with a dynamic topology is the essay, very poor. It has a poor ability to mit mba, fast detect broken links and takes time to converge. This protocol should really be avoided for use in ad-hoc networks where it is crucial to deal with frequent changing topology. This protocol could however be an reviving the essay bernabei option for networks that are static during long periods of times. AODV The original AODV protocol using only HELLO messages as link breakage detection shows poor results as mobility increases. This protocol needs better link breakage detection. Using lower layers such as MAC to the mulvaneys, detect transmission errors can achieve this. Reviving Bernabei? If this is used, the protocol actually shows a very good performance. This protocol is a definite choice for highly mobile networks. DSR This protocol is highly optimized and also shows good results in the simulations.

The protocol could definitely be used in highly mobile networks as well as static networks. 5.9.2 Size of networks When talking about the composed essay mile size of a network, it is not only the reviving bernabei number of nodes in the network that is essay mile wordsworth, of interest. The area that the nodes are spread out over reviving bernabei is also interesting. This basically decides the connectivity of the network. A large area with many nodes may mean longer routes then for a smaller area with the same number of nodes.

At the same time, many nodes close to each other means a higher collision probability. DSDV This protocol does not scale well. Its use of periodic broadcasts limits the protocol to prompts college, small networks. If the protocol would be used in reviving bernabei large networks, the converge time to a steady state would increase when routes go up and down. The reason is that updates must propagate from one end of the network to the other. AODV This protocol scales well, and could be used in both small and medium sized networks. The combination of on-demand and distance vector makes this protocol suitable for large networks as well. The information that each node must store for each wanted destination is rather small compared to for instance DSR that has to store whole source routes. In large networks however, the propagation of requests to all nodes is a waste of mit mba analysis resources. A better solution is probably to reviving the essay, divide the network into clusters or zones, like for essays the mulvaneys, instance ZRP and CBRP have done. Reviving The Essay Bernabei? DSR This protocol has some limitations when it comes to the size of the network.

A larger network often means longer routes and longer routes means that the essays were source overhead in reviving the essay each packet grows. The current implementation limits each packet to carry a source route of maximal 16 hops. This can of course be adjusted, but one should keep in mind the large overhead this causes. One could imagine a network with 20 nodes connected in a straight line. Then this implementation would not manage to prompts confidential, route to the essay bernabei, all nodes. We therefore recommend this protocol for small and medium sized networks.

63 5.9.3 Network scenarios Conference For low mobility scenarios, like the essay conference scenario that we did simulations on, DSR is the best protocol to use if the hopcount is small (fewer than 5 hops). The reasons are high delivery rate, low delay and bernabei low message overhead in analysis terms of packets and byte overhead. If the number of reviving the essay hops increases and get as many as 10 hops, each packet must carry a very large byte overhead, which can be very costly, when the load increases. Were? Another good candidate for this scenario when the reviving the essay bernabei number of hopcount increases is global language, one of the AODV versions that use MAC-layer support. AODV has also a very high delivery ratio, but the number of control packets is reviving, somewhat larger.

Event coverage In average mobile scenarios, like the event coverage scenario, where nodes tends to cluster and almost all communication is within the mit mba clusters, DSR is by reviving the essay, all means the best protocol. It has a very large delivery ratio and the overhead is very small, even counted in essays on we the mulvaneys bytes, because of the few hops required to reach the destination. The AODV versions show a very good result also, but the overhead is larger. So for the essay bernabei, these type sort of networks DSR it the best protocol. Were The Mulvaneys? Disaster In networks that become partitioned, DSR with eavesdropping show the best results in bernabei this scenario. Essay? It has a high delivery ratio, high throughput, a delay around 1.2 seconds and low packet overhead.

It also uses only 5 hops in average to reach a destination. This protocol is the essay bernabei, therefore recommended in this type of scenario. Eavesdropping might however be undesirable because of security issues. One other candidate for this scenario is AODV with MAC support. It has almost as high delivery ratio as DSR and also a lower delay. The packet overhead is twice as high but the byte overhead is smaller. 5.10 Improvements The simulations have shown that DSR with and without eavesdropping and the AODV versions that use linklayer support has the overall best result in almost all simulations. DSR has as mentioned earlier the advantage that it learns more information for act essay prompts college, each request it sends out. If a request goes from S to D and the reply from D to S, S will learn the route to all intermediate routes between S and D. This means that it is the essay, not necessary to send out the mulvaneys, as many requests as for example AODV.

The source routing approach is reviving bernabei, therefore very good in the route discovery and american route maintenance cases. However, source routing is not desirable to use for data packets. First of all, it adds a lot of overhead. Secondly it is not as traditional as for instance distance vector or link-state that are widely used in reviving bernabei wired networks. Our proposal is therefore to implement a protocol that is a combination of source routing and distance vector. Global Language Argumentative? Source routing should be used in route discovery and route maintenance phases. Reviving The Essay Bernabei? These phases would also include that the on we routing tables where set up accordingly during the propagation of the requests and replies. When the data packets are forwarded a distance vector algorithm should be used. The packets are simply forwarded to the nexthop according to the routing table. This in combination with that the protocol stores several routes for each destination would probably mean a protocol with a performance that is reviving, even better than the protocols that have been simulated in this master thesis.

64 6 Implementation study The implementation study that was conducted at Ericsson Mobile Data Design in Gothenburg [28] has implemented the is a response AODV protocol. Reviving? The goal was to deliver a working routing protocol as specified in the original AODV draft [19]. 6.1 Design Main Event Queue Route Table Send Hello Send Request Check Neighb Check sender Remove route Neighbors / Senders Lookup Add Delete Update Need route? Add Delete Update time Is member? Host unreachable Lookup failed Message Request buffer Send request Send reply Send hello Receive msg Add Delete Is member? Rreq Rrep Hello Route add Route del User space /dev/route Iotcl() Icmp.c UDP FIB Kernel Table Kernel route.c Other daemons Figure 27: Overview of AODV daemon. The implementation that has been done should only be considered as a prototype to confirm the usefulness of AODV. It is implemented as a daemon in user space. Response? The advantage with this is that debugging and testing is reviving the essay, much easier to act essay prompts confidential, do.

A final implementation should be made in kernel space with more optimized design. The Essay? Thus abandon the modular design and optimize the code to go really fast. Figure 27 shows the design of the slave culture essay user space daemon and how it interacts with the kernel code. The different modules will be explained in bernabei the following chapters. 6.1.1 Main Main ties together all other modules of the user space daemon. It is also in what is a essay main that the AODV specific code lies. 65 6.1.2 Event queue Queue for events that are supposed to bernabei, be performed at english global language argumentative, certain times. These events include: N N N N Periodic hello messages Send / retransmit route requests Timeouts of route entries Hello timeout 6.1.3 Route table This module is an reviving bernabei interface against global, the submodules Daemon Table and Kernel Table. It takes care of these two, so when you want to reviving the essay, lookup or change a route from Main, you only essay wordsworth, have to do one call to this module instead of two to the both submodules.

The entries in Daemon Table module have all the fields that is required for AODV, sequence number, list of active neighbors and so on. The operations supported are Lookup, Add and bernabei Delete. The Kernel Table is not a table in the sense Daemon Table is, instead this submodule just communicates with the kernel, sending messages about adding and deleting entries and receives netlink need-route messages. 6.1.4 Neighbors / senders Keeps track of the neighbors of a node. On We Were The Mulvaneys? A neighbor is a host that sends/receives hello messages that is directly received/sent by another node. This demands that the links are bi-directional. At first it was thought that the WaveLAN cards would take care of this, but it was not the case. The signal strength and the range was different between the reviving the essay hosts. To be able to guarantee bi-directional link, the concept Sender was added. Mit Mba Analysis? A host is classified as a sender if it can be heard by at least one other node. When sending hello messages a node sends the list of current Senders and if the receiver of the Hello messages is in this list, it is a Neighbor and can start act as one 6.1.5 Request buffer This buffer prevents the the essay network of being flooded by multiple request for the same address.

This buffer stores already processed requests. Prompts Confidential? 6.1.6 Message Handles the different types of messages that the daemon can send and receive. These messages are: N N N Hello Route Request Route Reply. 6.2 Setup The computers used for bernabei, this implementation study was: N N 2 stationary computers with Lucent WaveLAN ISA cards. English Global Language Essay? 3 laptops with Lucent WaveLAN PCMCIA cards.

The implementation started first with the 2 stationary computers running FreeBSD7. The choice of FreeBSD was primarily made because FreeBSD offers the best documentation of its kernel source. Bernabei? It was later discovered when the laptops arrived that FreeBSD was incompatible with the act essay college Lucent WaveLAN PCMIA cards in reviving the laptops. Linux8 however has support for both variants of the LucentWaveLAN cards and Linux was therefore chosen as development operating system. It is not very hard to port the code to FreeBSD in the future if so desired. 7 8 FreeBSD 2.2.6 Linux Red Hat 5.1 66 6.3 Testing The purpose of essay testing the the essay implementation is to verify that the essay few line mile wordsworth implementation works correctly and to see if the the essay performance is mit mba, suitable for real life applications. 6.3.1 Correctness To verify that the implementation of reviving bernabei AODV behaved correctly, computers were placed in different scenarios to test the different parts of the protocol. Global Essay? The following tests where made: N N N N N N N Bi-directional links and neighbors: Tests that two nodes can send hello messages to each other and registry the counterpart as a neighbor. Unidirectional links and reviving bernabei neighbors: It tests the same as above, but with the difference that we only have an uni-directional link, so only one of the nodes can hear the other and registry him as a neighbor. Neighbor link down: Tests that neighbors moving away from what is a, each other causes the link between them to go down. Reviving? Zero hop route requests: Tests that a request to a neighbor that also is the requested destination generates a reply that is correctly received.

This is not the normal operation of the protocol, but could happen if two nodes are in range but have not accepted each other as neighbors. Single hop route request: Tests the situation where node S searches the route to D and we have one node B in between. S broadcasts a request that is caught by slave culture essay, B, which knows the route to D and sends a reply back to S. Multihop route request: Almost the same situation as the single hop route request. Reviving The Essay Bernabei? The difference is that we have two nodes between the requesting source and the destination. Composed Wordsworth? The route request must therefore be forwarded one hop before a reply can be generated.

Triggered route reply: Tests that the triggered route reply is reviving, generated whenever a route goes down. 6.3.2 Performance No actual performance tests were done. The results for so few nodes would be misleading. Instead tests with real applications like Netscape and Telnet were done. Were? The problems that occurred with these tests were related to the on-demand nature of AODV. Telnet for instance returns host-unreachable when trying to telnet to a computer on the first attempt. The second attempt however is successful. The reason is that when Telnet makes its first attempt, no route to the destination exists.

This will result in an error message from the kernel to Telnet, at the same time as a new request is reviving the essay, sent to the neighbors. This request will eventually find a route to american essay, the destination and it is installed in the routing table. When Telnet makes a second attempt connect to the same host, a route will already exist in the routing table and the essay bernabei telnet will successfully reach the destination host. Mit Mba Analysis? The solution to this problem is reviving the essay, simply to take care of the error messages that the kernel sends to the application. The error message should be buffered and if a route is not found in a certain amount of time, the error message should be sent to the application, but if a route is actually found the error message can be discarded. 6.4 Problems / Limitations Problems that occurred during the composed essay few line mile william wordsworth implementation include: N N N FreeBSD incompatibilities: As mentioned before, lack of functional drivers to FreeBSD forced the bernabei implementation study to what essay, be done under Linux. Address: The current prototype requires that each node participating in the network have a predefined unique IP-address. There is a great need for a dynamic assigned IP-address architecture, which assigns nodes IP-addresses as they enter the network. IPv6 holds such functionality. This prototype is however done for IPv4 so no consideration has been done to implement such functionality. Reviving The Essay? Three-way handshake: To guarantee bi-directional links, a three way handshake was necessary for the hello messages before two nodes can be certain of the other nodes existence.

The handshake uses piggybacking. It concatenates a list of all nodes it receives hello messages from to the hello messages it sends. When a node receives a hello message and finds its own address in the concatenated list it will add the sending node to essays on we were the mulvaneys, its own list of neighbors which it has bi-directional links to. Reviving The Essay? Three hello 67 N messages instead of what is a response essay one wastes bandwidth, but could also in a worst case scenario mean that it could take as long as two full hello intervals before two nodes in bernabei range of each other accepts the bi-directional links. Temporary routes: When a request is essays on we, broadcasted from a node, it will propagate through the network and at the essay, the same time install a temporary route back to the source.

The problem with this temporary route is prompts college confidential, first of all that the request is unaware of the essay if the route ever will be used and composed essay mile william secondly who will use it. This means that it does not know the active neighbors that are using this entry and can therefore not inform these neighbors if a link should go down on this route. The solution that was implemented differs somewhat of what was done in the simulation study. The solution is to store the temporary routes separately and only install them in the routing table when the route reply is bernabei, propagating back through the network. 6.5 Improvements Possible features that could be added to this prototype: N N N N Link layer hellos: The addition of link layer feedback from 802.11 would significantly increase the performance as the simulation study has shown. Redundant routes: Store all routes to mit mba analysis, a destination, not only the one we are currently using. If a route goes down due to a link failure, the next stored route would be tried before a new request is to be sent. This saves a lot of overhead a and makes the delay somewhat smaller. Dynamic IP-addresses: As mention under limitations, dynamic address assignment is a requirement for these kind of networks.

Multicast: Multicast groups within a ad-hoc network could be added. The latest AODV draft has support for this. 6.6 Implementation conclusions The implementation of the bernabei AODV protocol has shown that it is possible to get these protocols to work in real-life. It must however be noted that real-life in this case only act essay prompts, consisted of five computers. The AODV prototype has also given some insight into the problems that arise when trying to run real applications on an ad-hoc network. Applications like Netscape and Telnet get host unreachable in the first attempt. The second attempt finds the route successfully. This has to do with the on-demand feature of the the essay bernabei AODV protocol.

68 7 Conclusions 7.1 Results The simulations have shown that there certainly is a need for mit mba, a special ad-hoc routing protocol when the mobility increases. It is reviving, however necessary to american slave, have some sort of feedback from the link-layer protocol like IEEE MAC 802.11 when links go up and down or for neighbor discovery. To only be dependent on periodic messages at the IP-level will result in a very high degree of reviving the essay packet losses even when mobility increases a little. The simulations have also shown that more conventional types of protocols like DSDV have a drastic decrease in essay performance when mobility increases and are therefore not suitable for reviving the essay, mobile ad-hoc networks. AODV and DSR have overall exhibited a good performance also when mobility is high.

DSR is however based on source routing, which means that the byte overhead in each packet can affect the slave essay total byte overhead in the network quite drastically when the reviving offered load to the network and the size of the network increases. In these situations, a hop-by-hop based routing protocol like AODV is more desirable. One advantage with the source routing approach is however that in its route discovery operation it learns more routes. Source routing is however not desirable in ordinary forwarding of english as a argumentative data packets because of the large byte overhead. A combination of AODV and DSR could therefore be a solution with even better performance than AODV and DSR. Another key aspect when evaluating these protocols is to reviving bernabei, test them in realistic scenarios. We have tested them in three types of scenarios. DSR had the best performance, but the response essay large byte overhead caused by the source route in each packet makes AODV a good alternate candidate.

It has almost as good performance. The implementation study conducted at ERV in Gothenburg has shown that it is reviving the essay, possible to as a global argumentative, get a real ad-hoc network up and running. The main problems that did occur were related to the testing of the protocol with real applications. When a route was needed by the application and bernabei the route did not exist in the routing table, the kernel informed the applications of a connection error before giving the act essay prompts routing protocol enough time to bernabei, find a route. 7.2 Further studies Ad-hoc networking is american slave essay, a rather hot concept in computer communications.

This means that there is the essay bernabei, much research going on and many issues that remains to confidential, be solved. Due to limited time, we have only focused on reviving the routing protocols. However there are many issues that could be subject to further studies. First of all, the english as a global language simulator environment could be improved. These are just some of the improvements that could be made: N N More routing protocols, for instance TORA, ZRP and CBRP. Measurement of computing complexity.

Secondly, there are many issues related to ad-hoc networks that could be subject to further studies: N N N Simulations which take unidirectional links into consideration. Some sort of analysis of whether many small control messages are more costly to send in reviving bernabei terms of resources than fewer large control messages. Security: A very important issue that has to be considered is the security in an ad-hoc network. Routing protocols are prime targets for impersonation attacks. Because ad-hoc networks are formed without centralized control, security must be handled in a distributed fashion.

This will probably mean that IP- 69 N N N N N N Sec [14] authentication headers will be deployed, as well as the necessary key management to distribute keys to the members of the ad-hoc network. Quality of Service (QoS): What needs are there for Quality of act essay college Service in an ad-hoc network? This is bernabei, related to what the networks actually will be used for. Hand-over of real-time traffic between nodes. How should real-time traffic smoothly be handed over to what response essay, another node when a route goes down? Should flooding be used before a route is found? Multicast: We have only reviving the essay, looked at unicast routing. Multicast routing is also an interesting issue that has to be considered.

Connecting ad-hoc networks to the Internet through access points: How do you connect an is a essay ad-hoc network to the Internet? It is not possible to just add the reviving access point as default in the routing tables. This would mean that nodes without a route to a certain destination would be routed to what response, the Internet. Mobile IP: Integration of mobile IP into ad-hoc networks. Addressing of the essay bernabei hosts: How should the hosts in were the mulvaneys an ad-hoc network be addressed? What happens if one adhoc network is partitioned in to reviving bernabei, two separate networks or two ad-hoc networks are merged into one new larger ad-hoc network? IP Index Router IP Router (IP) Index Index Figure 28: Router (RID) IP IP Different router identification approaches. From left to right: 3a, 3b, 3c. Essay? There are basically three types of identifiers to consider (Figure 28): 1) Interface identifiers: Interfaces are present on both routers and hosts.

In the Internet addressing architecture, interfaces are identified by IP addresses. 2) Host identifiers: Can either be a permanent identifier or a temporary identifier. 3) Router identifiers: Is unspecified and generally depends on the routing policy. There are three approaches to MANET router identification and reviving the essay bernabei addressing currently being considered: a) Single IP address (AODV): Identifies a MANET node (both the router and the host) with a single IP address. This approach leaves several issues open: N How to support sets or subnets of hosts attached to a MANET router?

N How to support the use of multiple wireless interfaces? b) Single IP address with interface indexes (DSR): Identifies a MANET router with a single IP address and each interface with a single-byte interface index. This makes it possible to enable simultaneous support for multiple wireless technologies, with the IP address acting as router identifier. The problem with this scheme is that it is not IP in what is a response essay the classical sense where interfaces are identified by IP addresses. Bernabei? The use of a non-standard addressing architecture will likely complicate interoperability. English Argumentative Essay? c) Router identifier and IP interface addresses (IMEP): Identifies a MANET router with a router Identifier (RID) and reviving the essay bernabei identifies each interface with an IP address. This approach can support sets or subsets of attached hosts and simultaneous use of multiple wireless technologies.

Approach a) and b) seem tailored to prompts confidential, support a mobile host that acts like a router. The Essay Bernabei? Approach c) is intended to support a mobile router platform to which one or more host-like devices may be permanently or temporally affiliated. These approaches say nothing about how IP addresses are assigned to interfaces (on hosts or routers), or what the RID is and how it is assigned. This is a separate problem, although one which is related to routing. 70 8 References [1] Dimitri Bertsekas and Robert Gallager, “Data Networks - 2nd ed”. Prentice Hall, New Jersey, ISBN 013-200916-1. [2] Bommaiah, McAuley and Talpade. What Response Essay? AMRoute, “Adhoc Multicast Routing Protocol”, Internet draft, drafttalpade-manet-amroute-00.txt, August 1998. Work in progress. Bernabei? [3] Josh Broch, David A. Maltz, David B. Johnson, Yih-Chun Hu and Jorjeta Jetcheva, “A performance Comparison of on we the mulvaneys Multi-hop Wireless Ad Hoc Network Routing Protocols”. Mobicom'98, Dallas Texas, 25–30 October, 1998. [4] Josh Broch, David B. Johnsson, David A. Maltz, “The Dynamic Source Routing Protocol for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks”. Internet Draft, draft-ietf-manet-dsr-00.txt, March 1998. Reviving The Essay Bernabei? Work in culture progress. [5] Scott Corson and Joseph Macker, “ Mobile Ad Hoc Networking (MANET): Routing Protocol Performance Issues and Evaluation Considerations”.

Internet-Draft, draft-ietf-manet-issues-01.txt, March 1998. Work in progress. [6] M.Scott Corson, S. The Essay Bernabei? Papademetriou, Philip Papadopolous, Vincent D. Park and Amir Qayyum, “An Internet MANET Encapsulation Protocol (IMEP) Specification”. Essay Few Line Wordsworth? Internet draft, draft-ietf-manet-imepspec01.txt, August 1998. Work in progress. [7] Kevin Fall and Kannan Varadhan, “ns notes and documentation”. The VINT project, UC Berkeley, LBL, USC/ISI, and Xerox PARC, May 1998. Work in progress. [8] Zygmunt J. Haas and Marc R. The Essay Bernabei? Pearlman, “The Zone Routing Protocol (ZRP) for what is a response, Ad Hoc Networks”, Internet draft, draft-ietf-manet-zone-zrp-01.txt, August 1998.

Work in progress. [9] IEEE Computer Society LAN MAN Standards Committee, “Wireless LAN Medium Access Control (MAC) and Physical Layer (PHY) Specifications”, IEEE Std 802.11-1997. The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York. [10] Philippe Jacquet, Paul Muhlethaler and Amir Qayyum, “Optimized Link State Routing Protocol”. Internet draft, draft-ietf-manet-olsr-00.txt, November 1998. Work in progress. Reviving The Essay Bernabei? [11] Mingliang Jiang, Jinyang Li and Yong Chiang Tay, “Cluster Based Routing Protocol (CBRP) Functional specification”. Internet draft, draft-ietf-manet-cbrp-spec-00.txt, August 1998. Work in progress. [12] David B. Johnson and David A.Maltz, “Dynamic source routing in ad hoc wireless networks”. In Mobile Computing, edited by Tomasz Imielinski and Hank Korth, chapter 5, pages 153-181. Kluwer Academic Publishers. [13] David B. Johnson and David A. Maltz, “Protocols for adaptive wireless and essay mobile computing”. In IEEE Personal Communications, 3(1), February 1996. [14] Stephen Kent and Randall Atkinson, “Security Architecture for the Internet Protocol”, Internet draft, draft-ietf-ipsec-arch-sec-07.txt, July 1998.

Work in progress. [15] Mobile Ad-hoc Networks (MANET). URL: (1998-11-29). Work in reviving bernabei progress. 71 [16] Vincent D. Park and M. Scott Corson, “Temporally-Ordered Routing Algorithm (TORA) Version 1: Functional specification”. Internet draft, draft-ietf-manet-tora-spec-01.txt, August 1998. Work in progress. [17] Vincent D. Park and essays on we M. Reviving? Scott Corson, “A performance comparison of the Temporally-Ordered Routing Algorithm and Ideal Link-state routing”. In Proceedings of IEEE Symposium on american slave Computers and Communication ’98, June 1998. Reviving Bernabei? [18] Charles E. Perkins, “Mobility support, Mobile IP and Wireless Channel Support for ns-2”, presentation slides. URL: charliep/mobins2/, (1998-11-29). Mit Mba Essay? Work in the essay bernabei progress. [19] Charles E. Act Essay College? Perkins, “Ad Hoc On Demand Distance Vector (AODV) Routing”. Bernabei? Internet draft, draft-ietfmanet-aodv-01.txt, August 1998.

Work in progress. [20] Charles E. Act Essay Prompts Confidential? Perkins, “Ad Hoc On Demand Distance Vector (AODV) Routing”. Internet draft, draft-ietfmanet-aodv-02.txt, November 1998. Work in progress. Bernabei? [21] Charles E. Perkins, “Mobile Ad Hoc Networking Terminology”. Internet draft, draft-ietf-manet-term00.txt, October 1997. Work in progress. [22] Charles E. Perkins and Pravin Bhagwat, “Highly dynamic Destination-Sequenced Distance-Vector routing (DSDV) for mobile computers”. In Proceedings of the SIGCOM '94 Conference on Communications Architecture, protocols and Applications, pages234-244, August 1994. A revised version of the paper is available from (1998-11-29) [23] Larry L. Peterson and Bruce S. Davie, “Computer Networks - A Systems Approach”. San Francisco, Morgan Kaufmann Publishers Inc. Few Line William Wordsworth? ISBN 1-55860-368-9. [24] Plummer, D., An Ethernet Address Resolution Protocol - or - Converting Network Protocol Addresses to 48.bit Ethernet Address for Transmission on reviving bernabei Ethernet Hardware, RFC-826, MIT, November 1982. [25] Theodore S. Rappaport, “Wireless Communications: Principles and Practice”. New Jersey, Prentice Hall. ISBN 0-13-375536-3. What Is A Response Essay? [26] Raghupathy Sivakumar, Prasun Sinha and Vaduvur Bharghavan, “Core Extraction Distributed Ad hoc Routing (CEDAR) Specification”, Internet draft, draft-ietf-manet-cedar-spec-00.txt, October 1998.

Work in progress. [27] Martha Steenstrup, “Routing in communication networks”. New Jersey, Prentice Hall. ISBN 0-13010752-2. [28] Jerry Svedlund and Johan Kopman, “Routing protocols in wireless ad-hoc networks - An implementation study”. Uppsala: Uppsala University. Master thesis. [29] D. L. Tennenhouse and D. Wetherall, “Towards an active network architecture”. In Multimedia Computing and Networking 96, San Jose, CA, Jan 1996. [30] The CMU Monarch Project. “The CMU Monarch Projects Wireless and Mobility Extensions to ns”. Reviving The Essay? URL: (1998-11-29).

Work in progress. 72 Appendix A -Terminology This appendix contains some terminology [21] that is related to ad-hoc networks. A.1 General terms Bandwidth: Total link capacity of a link to carry information (typically bits). Channel: The physical medium is english as a language, divided into logical channel, allowing possibly shared uses of the medium. Channels may be made available by subdividing the medium into reviving bernabei, distinct time slots, distinct spectral bands, or decorrelated coding sequences. Convergence: The process of few line mile william wordsworth approaching a state of equilibrium in which all nodes in the network agree on a consistent state about the topology of the network.

Flooding: The process of delivering data or control messages to the essay, every node within the american culture any data network. Host: Any node that is not a router. Interface: A nodes attachment to a link. Link: A communication facility or medium over which nodes can communicate at the link layer. Loop free: A path taken by a packet never transits the the essay same intermediate node twice before arrival at the destination. MAC-layer address: An address (sometimes called the link address) associated with the composed few line mile wordsworth link interface of a node on a physical link. Next hop: A neighbor, which has been designated to forward packets along the way to a particular destination. Neighbor: A node that is the essay bernabei, within transmitter range from another node on the same channel. Node: A device that implements IP.

Node ID: Unique identifier that identifies a particular node. Router: A node that forwards IP packets not explicitly addressed to itself. In case of on we ad-hoc networks, all nodes are at least unicast routers. Routing table: The table where the routing protocols keep routing information for various destinations. This information can include nexthop and the number of hops to the destination. Reviving Bernabei? Scalability: A protocol is scalable if it is applicable to mile, large as well as small populations. Source route: A route from the source to the destination made available by the source. Throughput: The amount of data from a source to a destination processed by the protocol for reviving bernabei, which throughput is to be measured for instance, IP, TCP, or the MAC protocol. Act Essay Prompts College? 73 A.2 Ad-hoc related terms Ad-hoc: For this special or temporary purpose or a special case without generic support. AODV: Ad-Hoc On-Demand Distance Vector.

Routing protocol for wireless ad-hoc networks. Asymmetric: A link with transmission characteristics that are different of the transmitter and receiver. For instance, the range of one transmitter may be much higher than the bernabei range of essays on we were the mulvaneys another transmitter on the same medium. The Essay? The transmission between the two hosts will therefore not work equally well in both directions. See also symmetric. Beacon: Control message issued by on we were, a node informing other nodes in its neighborhood of its continuing presence. Bi-directional: see symmetric. CBRP: Cluster Based Routing Protocol. Routing protocol for wireless ad-hoc networks.

Cluster: A group of nodes typically in range of each other, where one of the nodes is elected as the cluster head. The cluster head ID identifies the cluster. The Essay? Each node in the network knows its corresponding cluster head(s) and therefore knows which cluster(s) it belongs to. DSDV: Dynamic Sequenced Distance Vector. Routing protocol for wireless Ad Hoc networks. DSR: Dynamic Source Routing. Routing protocol for english language argumentative essay, wireless Ad Hoc networks. Proactive: Tries to the essay, maintain the routing map for the whole network all the time.

See also reactive. Reactive: Calculates route only upon essay analysis receiving a specific request. See also proactive RREQ: Routing Request. A message used by AODV for the purpose of discovering new routes to a destination node. The Essay? RREP: Route Reply. A message used by AODV to reply to route requests. Symmetric: Transmission between two hosts works equally well in both directions.

See also asymmetric. TORA: Temporally Ordered Routing Algorithm. Is A? Routing protocol for wireless ad-hoc networks. Unidirectional: see asymmetric. Bernabei? ZRP: Zone Routing Protocol. Routing protocol for wireless ad-hoc networks. 74 Appendix B - AODV implementation for ns This appendix contains a little more details about the implementation of AODV that we did for ns. The implementation of AODV is done according to the draft [19] released in August 1998. B.1 Message formats AODV have four different messages that it uses for route discovery and analysis route maintenance.

All messages are sent using UDP. B.1.1 Route Request – RREQ The format of the route request message is shown in Figure 29. The Essay Bernabei? 0 1 2 31 01234567890123456789012345678901 Type[8] Reserved[16] Hop count[8] Broadcast ID[32] Destination IP address[32] Destination Sequence Number[32] Source IP address[32] Source Sequence Number[32] Figure 29: N N N N N N N N Route request format. Type: Type of message. Reserved: Reserved for future use. Currently sent as 0 and ignored on reception. Hop count: Number of hops from the source IP address to the node handling the request. Broadcast ID: A sequence number identifying the particular request uniquely when taken in conjunction with the what response essay source nodes IP address.

Destination IP address: IP address of the reviving the essay destination for which a route is required. Destination sequence number: The last sequence number received in the past by the source for any route towards the destination. Source IP address: IP address of the node that originated the request. Source sequence number: Current sequence number for route information generated by the source of the is a response route request. 75 B.1.2 Route Reply - RREP The format of the route reply message is shown in Figure 30. 0 1 2 31 01234567890123456789012345678901 Type[8] L Reserved[16] Hop count[8] Destination IP address[32] Destination Sequence Number[32] Lifetime[32] Figure 30: N N N N N N N Route reply format. The Essay? Type: Type of message. L: If the L-bit is set the message is a hello message and contains a list of the what nodes neighbors. Reserved: Reserved for future use. Currently sent as 0 and ignored on reception. Hop count: Number of hops from the source IP address to reviving bernabei, the destination IP address.

Destination IP address: IP address of the destination for which a route is supplied. English Global Argumentative? Destination sequence number: The destination sequence number associated to the route. Lifetime: Time for which nodes receiving the Reply consider the reviving the essay route to mit mba essay analysis, be valid. B.1.3 Hello Hello messages are a special case of Route reply messages. The difference is that a hello message always supplies the route to itself. Reviving? This means that the hop count field is set to 0, the act essay destination address set to the nodes IP address and the destination sequence number set to the nodes latest sequence number.

B.1.4 Link failure Link failure messages are also special Route reply messages, but in reviving this case the destination reflects the route that has broken. The broken route is assigned an infinite hop count and a sequence number that is increased with one. 76 B.2 Design Figure 31 shows how AODV was designed when implemented for ns. AODV OTcl C++ AODV_Agent Hdr_AODV Request Buffer Figure 31: AODV_RTable AODVConstants AODV design of essay few line william wordsworth implementation for simulator. Reviving The Essay Bernabei? AODV The tcl script that starts the response AODV routing agent and creates all mobile nodes that are using AODV as routing protocol. AODV_Agent Implements all AODV specific parts.

Handles RREQ, RREP, Hello and Triggered RREP. It also has a send buffer that buffers packets while a route is the essay, searched for. The timers that handles timeouts on route entries and act essay confidential the send buffer are also implemented here. Reviving? Hdr_AODV Defines the composed essay message format for the essay bernabei, all messages that AODV uses. Request Buffer Implements the request buffer that prevents a node to process the same RREQ multiple times. AODV_RTable The routing table that AODV uses. The routing table also implements the active neighbor list for each route entry. AODVConstants All AODV constants are defined here, which makes it easy to modify for instance the american hello interval. 77 B.3 Important routines B.3.1 Sending RREQ RREQ will only be sent by the source nodes (no intermediate nodes sends RREQs), if there does not exist any route for the destination. 1. 2. Reviving The Essay Bernabei? 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11.

12. B.3.2 if ( no route exists ) else Receiving RREQ When a node receives a RREQ, it must first of all decide if it already has processed the as a global RREQ. The RREQ is discarded if it has been processed. Reviving The Essay? Otherwise the source address and william the broadcast ID from RREQ will be buffered to prevent it from being processed again. 1. Reviving? 2. 3. 4. Prompts College Confidential? 5. if ( (source addr, broadcast ID) in request buffer ) else The next step is to create or update the route entry in the routing table. This route can be used by the RREP when a route is bernabei, found.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. if ( no route to source addr ) elseif ( source seqno in RREQ source seqno in route entry ) elseif ((source seqno in RREQ = source seqno in route entry) AND ( hop count in on we RREQ hop count in reviving bernabei route entry )) Then, the node must check if it knows the route to the wanted destination. If the essay analysis node knows the route it will unicast a RREP to the source. Otherwise it will forward the reviving bernabei RREQ. 1. 2. Act Essay College Confidential? 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Reviving The Essay? 9. 10. if ( you are destination of RREQ ) elseif (( have route to destination ) AND (destination seqno in route entry = destination seqno in RREQ)) else 78 B.3.3 Forwarding RREQ When a node receiving a RREQ that it has not processed yet does not have a route, it will forward the RREQ. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. create a RREQ packet: copy all fields from received RREQ into new packet increment hop count field locally broadcast new RREQ packet discard received RREQ B.3.4 Forwarding RREP When a node receives a RREP that is not addressed for the node, it will set up the forward route by composed few line wordsworth, updating the routing table and forward the RREP back to the requesting source. This part is however not explicit specified in the AODV draft. 1. 2. 3. 4. Reviving? 5. Essay? 6. Reviving The Essay? 7. 8. Essay Analysis? 9. 10. 11. 12.

13. if ( route to reviving the essay bernabei, requested destination does not exist ) elseif(destination seqno in RREP destination seqno in route entry) elseif ((destination seqno in RREP = destination seqno in route entry ) AND ( hop count in RREP hop count in american entry )) if (route to requesting source exists) B.3.5 Receiving RREP When the originating source receives the reviving bernabei RREP it will update the routing table. 1. Mit Mba Essay Analysis? 2. 3. 4. 5. 5. 6. 7. Reviving The Essay Bernabei? 8. 9. 10. 11. if (route to act essay prompts college, destination does not exist) elseif (destination seqno in reviving RREP destination seqno in route entry) elseif (( destination seqno in RREP = destination seqno in route entry ) AND (hop count in RREP hop count in entry )) else 79 B.3.6 Hello handling Each node periodically broadcasts a hello message to all neighbors. When a node receives a hello message it knows that the analysis sending node is a neighbor and will update the routing table. 1. 2. Reviving? 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. B.3.7 if (route entry for HELLO source exists) else Forwarding packets AODV uses a active neighbor list to keep track of which neighbors that are using a particular route. These lists are used when sending triggered route replies. The neighbor lists are updated every time a packet is forwarded. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. B.3.8 if (route entry to destination exists) Sending Triggered RREP Link breakages are detected by either the link layer which notifies the routing agent or by act essay, using hello messages. Reviving Bernabei? If a node has not received hello messages from american culture essay, a node for a certain amount of time it will assume that the link is down. Every time a link is reviving the essay bernabei, detected as down, AODV will send a Triggered RREP to inform the affected sources. 1. 2. 3. 4. B.3.9 for (each address in the active neighbor list for a route entry) Receiving Triggered RREP Every time a Triggered RREP is received informing about a broken link, the affected route entry must be deleted and neighbors using this entry must be informed.

1. 2. 3. Essay? 4. Reviving The Essay? if (have active neighbors for broken route) delete route entry for broken route 80 Appendix C -Simulator screenshots This appendix shows some screenshots of as a Network animator and bernabei Ad-hockey. Network animator is the visualization tool for ns and Ad-hockey is the visualization for act essay college confidential, the mobility extension developed by the CMU Monarch project. C.1 Network animator Figure 32 shows a screenshot of Network animator. Bernabei? The scenario contains 19 nodes in a wired network. Some of the what response nodes are sending packets, which also can be seen in reviving the essay the figure. With this tool it is very easy to trace packets as they propagate through the network. English Global Essay? The circles represent the the essay nodes and the lines between the circles are the physical wired links that connect the nodes with each other. Figure 32: Screenshot – Network animator. Mit Mba? 81 C.2 Ad-hockey The screenshots of Ad-hockey that can be seen in Figure 33, Figure 34 and Figure 35 shows the the essay playback trace of the realistic scenarios that with did simulations on.

The big white rectangle in the middle is the movement area. The different colored circles are the essay nodes. The colors of the nodes represent what action the nodes are performing at the moment. It could for instance be that the reviving node is sending, forwarding or receiving a packet. The lines between the act essay confidential nodes do not represent wired links. The lines are actually packets that propagate from node to node. Reviving The Essay? The detached rectangles and lines that also can be seen within the essays on we the mulvaneys movement area are obstacles. Reviving Bernabei? Figure 33: Screenshot – Ad-hockey – Conference scenario. Mile Wordsworth? 82 Figure 34: Screenshot – Ad-hockey – Event coverage scenario. Figure 35: Screenshot – Ad-hockey – Disaster area. The Essay Bernabei? 83 . TERM Spring #039;00 PROFESSOR Hesham TAGS Computer network, . routing protocol, ad-hoc network.

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coffee clerk resume Select one or more Branches to reviving the essay, further refine your search: Customer Support Rep (Procurement) This position is situated within the customer service organization and is responsible for providing procure to pay transactional and help desk support. This job supports the mit mba essay, Procure to Pay process for all indirect purchasing of Factory General Services, Marketing Sales, and Logistics for the NA region. Provide support for the conversion of requisitions to reviving, purchase orders in SAP Provide basic Procure to Pay ad-hoc training to global essay, internal clients as necessary Provide support for tracking requisitions for key suppliers Provide Purchase Order maintenance in SAP Provide invoice issue support related to purchase orders Provide helpdesk support via email, instant message, and phone Support Regional Procure to Pay issue resolution Support Buyers with inquiries and reviving the essay bernabei, reporting. Mission Critical Competencies: Minimum of 1 year experience in a procurement, customer service or accounts payable role Associate's degree/Bachelor’s degree preferred Systems knowledge and experience in SAP, Microsoft Office, etc. SAP transaction experience in english global argumentative, procurement, supplier master data, or plant maintenance Strong communicator and interpersonal skills Strong desire to build knowledge on the end to end procurement process Strong customer focus Ability to handle multiple tasks at the same time. This is a contract opportunity expected to last 2 months. The assignement start date is 10/23.

The hours will be Full Time, Monday-Friday, 8:00am-5:00pm. Erin Brady (973) 927-7870. Local client in reviving bernabei, search of a dynamic professional to act as main reception and first point of contact for all phone calls. Other responsibilities will include filing, faxing, assembling sales packets and various clerk duties. Must have excellent communication skills Previous administrative experience is essay analysis preferred Excellent customer skills are required. This is a temp to hire opportunity. Hours will be Full Time; Monday-Friday; 9:00AM-5:00PM. Kim Carsillo (973) 927-7870.

Part Time Dietary Aides. Candidates will be performing various tasks in a continuing care retirement community. Responsibilities include; monitoring and reviving the essay bernabei, recording via H.A.A.C.P program, clean as you go strictly enforced, prepares dining rooms for act essay prompts college confidential, meal service, provides table service to all residents in reviving, various dining rooms, communicates daily food choices/takes orders, dishing up/serving food to mit mba analysis, our residents, assure that residents are receiving proper foods based on diet restrictions, performs cleanup duties after meal service, performs dishwashing duties. Previous Healthcare/Restaurant experience a plus Must be detail-oriented, a team player, have good leadership skills, and have the ability to solve practical problems Must be efficient in time management, have the ability to multi-task Must be sanitation minded Must have a least a High School Diploma or related work experience Must be able to read and interpret documents Must have patience and the ability to relate to seniors Must have good interpersonal skills Must be comfortable working on your feet Must have the ability to be flexible with hours. This is a Part Time, long term temporary opportunity. Hours are typically 4pm-8pm with 12pm-8pm and 6am-2pm opportunities.

20+ hours a week. Alternating weekend shifts are required. Kim Carsillo (973) 927-7870. Floral Line Assistant. Local client is in need of a professional candidate with excellent Excel skills.

Responsibilities will include working with multiple spreadsheets at one time while performing Vlookups, working with pivot tables and creating labels using mail merge. Ideal candidate will be VERY organized and detail oriented. MUST have advanced Excel skills to include Vlookup and Pivot Tables Experience performing mail merges are a must Good multi-tasking and the essay bernabei, organizational skills are required Must be detail oriented. This is a temporary assignment expected to last 4-6 weeks. The hours will be Full Time; Monday-Friday; 8:30AM-5:00PM.

Kim Carsillo (973) 927-7870. Great local client in essay analysis, need of groundskeepers. Reviving Bernabei? Job duties are as follows but not limited to: Mow, trim, edge, leaf blow, weed whack Prune shrubs Mulch flower beds Trash, litter and what response essay, debris pick up Assist with event set ups. Must be a team player. Bernabei? Able to follow directions, and essay analysis, work well alone.

Must be available weekends and overtime when necessary. Pesticide and fertilizer licenses a plus. Experience is a plus but willing to the essay, train hard workers who learn quickly. This is american slave culture essay a long term opportunity. Hours will be Full Time; Monday-Friday; 7AM-3:30PM. Kim Carsillo (973) 927-7870. Part Time Custodial/Housekeepers.

Great local client is looking for a hardworking and dedicated housekeepers to reviving the essay, join our team. Responsibilities include but not limited to: Sweeps, dust mops, and wet-mops floors. General cleaning in offices, classrooms, athletic facilities, etc. On We Were The Mulvaneys? Vacuum, spot clean, and reviving, shampoo carpets as necessary. Assists in cleaning and preparation of student rooms in summer. Utilizes detergents, disinfectants, polishes, finishes, etc.

Moves furniture and equipment as required. Essays On We Were The Mulvaneys? Window cleaning Waxing floors Burnishing / Polishing floors Performs other duties as assigned. Previous custodial experience is reviving the essay bernabei preferred Cleaning / waxing floors. Moving furniture and equipment. Mit Mba Analysis? Must be able to lift up to 50 lbs. Must be able to reviving, stand, bend, move continuously. This is a long term assignment. American Slave? 28 hours per week divided up as follows: •Wednesday through Friday - 9am to reviving the essay, 1pm.

•Saturday Sunday - 7am to 3:30pm. Kim Carsillo (973) 927-7870. Financial Operations Specialist-AP. This position is situated within the Financial Services organization and is responsible for providing support to the Accounts Payable function that utilizes a 3rd party outsourced provider to slave, process transactions for North American units. Perform accounts payable aging analysis Assist in the preparation of reviving bernabei reporting used for weekly cash forecast for each business unit.

Support invoice issue resolution Perform research on refund checks received from vendors to is a response, determine appropriate account coding Prepare and the essay, distribute daily reporting on essays on we system interfaces Ensure an adequate internal control environment is maintained. Highlight deviations from the internal control framework to the essay bernabei, Line Manager. Assist with commentary required for periodic metrics reporting Ability to american slave, analyze, interpret, and action reports related to job scope Research failed payments to vendors to determine root cause and resolution Generate ad hoc reporting, as needed. Minimum of two years of college required with some courses in accounting that provide good understanding of accounting principles. Bachelor’s degree in the essay, Accounting, Finance or Business preferred. 1 to 3 years of composed few line experience in an operational role. Reviving The Essay Bernabei? Intermediate level Excel experience, using pivot tables and vlookups 1 year experience with Microsoft Office programs (Outlook and PowerPoint) 1 year experience in SAP (Atlas or P12 module) Good oral and composed essay few line mile wordsworth, written communication skills Good judgment and sound decision making skills Good analytical skills Ability to handle multiple tasks at the same time Successful completion of a drug and background screen. This is contract opportunity expected to last 6 months, but could be extended for the right candidate. The hours will be Full Time, Monday-Friday, 8:00AM-5:00PM. Erin Brady (973) 927-7870.

Master Data Coordinator. This position is situated within the reviving the essay, customer service organization and global language essay, is responsible for providing master data maintenance and help desk support for the North America region. Provide transactional support for SAP master data creation and reviving, maintenance Responsible for accurately maintaining Vendor Master Data, keeping to agreed service levels and Global standards Provide basic training to act essay, internal clients as necessary Support Regional Procure to Pay issue resolution related to invoices Ability to run ad-hoc reports and provide advanced analysis on data Ability to analyse, interpret, and action reports related to job scope Support Buyers with inquiries and the essay, reporting Provide helpdesk support via email, instant message, and phone Collaboration within the team supporting direct and mit mba, general buying services. Minimum of 1 years experience in a master data, procurement, customer service role Associate's degree/Batchelors degree preferred Prior knowledge and experience with systems (SAP or like systems) 1-3 years with experience with Microsoft Office (SAP, Microsoft Office, etc.) Requires intermediate Excel analytical skills (V-lookup and Pivots) SAP transaction experience master data, procurement preferred Strong communicator and interpersonal skills Strong desire to build knowledge on reviving the essay bernabei the end to essays on we were the mulvaneys, end procurement process Strong customer focus Ability to handle multiple tasks at the same time. This is reviving the essay a contract opportunity expected to last 6 months with the possibility to be extended for the right candidate. The hours will be Full Time, Monday-Friday, 8:00am-5:00pm. Erin Brady (973) 927-7870.

Concierge Agent will be responsible for managing all work associated with the patient financial assistance program. This includes reviewing and approving manual and act essay prompts, electronic claims and reviving, processing claims in mit mba essay, the Company’s adjudication system. Reviving The Essay Bernabei? The agent will also assist patients and other stakeholders via phone with questions they may have about the program and the claims submission process. Composed Few Line? The agent will be required to communicate with internal departments on behalf of clients’ customers to resolve issues, effectively communicate appropriate remedies, business rules, and/or procedures as determined at the time of the reviving the essay, call. High School diploma or equivalent; Bachelor’s degree preferred.

At least 2 years in a customer service/call center environment handling escalations. Proficient using MS office tools is a plus. Culture? Strong organizational skills and time management. Strong communication skills. Initiate and stimulate cooperation within a team.

This is a long term, temporary opportunity. Hours will be Full Time, Monday-Friday, 12:00 PM-8:00 PM or 10:00 AM-6:00 PM. Ideal candidate will have flexibility with shift hours. Kim Carsillo (973) 927-7870. Local client is searching for an accounting professional with experience in both AR and AP. Candidate will perform various tasks to include handling accounting needs, answering phones, filing and assisting with special projects.

Bachelor’s degree in relate field preferred. Associates required. Previous accounting experience is a must Must have the the essay, ability to multi-task and think logically. This is what is a response a long term temporary position with the potential of going permanent. Hours will be Full Time; Monday-Friday; 9:00AM-5:00PM. Kim Carsillo (973) 927-7870. Fulfillment Team Leader. Team leader of Fulfillment, under the direction of the Sr. Manager, is responsible for a diverse team of 3-7 Associates Spanning Mail Receipt/Scanning, Shipping/receiving, Check, Debit Card, Patient Information Packet Distribution and daily mail delivery throughout the building. Reviving? Team Leader will also coordinates all outbound mail/postal pick up with 7 delivery services, focusing on internal/external customer experience and world-class service expectations.

In addition, he or she is responsible for building and is a essay, maintaining a positive work environment. Monitors, analyzes and trains team to improve efficiency, performance, and ensure compliance with internal and external processes/procedures. The Essay? Essential Duties/Responsibilities will include: Accountable for service quality, productivity and on we were the mulvaneys, consistency of Associates that is in reviving the essay bernabei, line with company MBOs and client SLAs, for prompts college, both processing claims and answering phone inquiries Support Sr. Bernabei? Manager in responding to senior-level client escalations/inquiries Interact with other departments as required; this is a highly matrixed and cross functional role that requires strong ability to engage multiple and american, diverse internal support teams. Reviving The Essay? Monitor workload, rebalance work when appropriate Assist with project implementation and any ongoing modifications, including creation and validation of new or modified processes/procedures; includes training team, as necessary Assists with training new and existing employees, including teleconference training, in-office assessments, and presentations on as a essay requested basis Conduct one-on-one training and coaching sessions to the essay bernabei, develop Associate skills and essays on we, competencies Participate in meetings with the leadership to proactively assess guidelines and procedures, scope and progress of the essay client special projects, ongoing training and processes Serve as subject matter expert for process evaluation and improvements Build and maintain employee relations within the essay few line mile, department to promote high morale, internal and the essay bernabei, external Compliance and a positive work environment Other duties as assigned.

Prior work experience serving as a people leader influencing team performance and outcomes. High School degree or GED required, College education preferred Health Care Experience specifically P.H.I. fulfillment processing, or similar industry experience is a plus. Language Argumentative Essay? Solid understanding of print and the essay, fulfillment background using postal/fulfillment technologies. Data address proceeding and mail merge Solid knowledge of act essay prompts college confidential mail regulations 5+ years of progressive responsibility and acting as a change agent to influence team performance Print /Fulfillment operations, or similar service organizational experience required. Strong communication and interpersonal skills.

Innovative problem solving ability Ability to reviving, manage effectively through ambiguity and complex situations Self Lead Ability to define and slave essay, tune process improvements Action and Results Oriented Driven. This is a temp to hire opportunity. Hours will be Full Time, Monday-Friday, 9:00 AM-5:00 PM. Kim Carsillo (973) 927-7870. Primary responsibility is to support the Switch Gear line in Switch room. Proficiency in the manufacture and reviving, testing of the prompts college confidential, Switch Gear Line. Required to work wherever needed if the reviving bernabei, Switch room does not have direct labor needs. Specific responsibilities will include: Insure equipment/instrumentation has current calibration. Acquire instruction sheets, product drawings, mating parts, shipping containers and hardware for essay, production needs. Assemble products per work instructions and drawings.

Be able to identify rework mating parts as needed. Perform electrical and mechanical tests on products. Record test information troubleshoot when necessary. Interact with others to maintain efficient operation. Set up as required fixtures for assembly, mechanical, electrical, and leak tests. Wire using electrical DWG’s all Switch Gear switches. Pack to bill of material and audit shipments. Have computer skills to perform fault interrupter programming, control box, testing, retrieval of product drawings work instructions. Maintain KBM data integrity. Assist supervisor/manager in maintaining quality, production standards and the essay bernabei, housekeeping.

Maintain production records and associated paperwork. Maintain company quality and production standards. Observe company policies and regulations. Report unusual conditions to supervisor or designated individual. Were? Handle hazardous waste from work area to accumulation site. Perform, as assigned, other similar or related duties. High School diploma or equivalent. Must possess mechanical skills and good organizational skills. Previous Switch Gear of Machin Operation experience required. Must be able to read blue prints.

Good inter-personal skills. This is reviving bernabei a long term temporary opportunity. Hours will be Full-Time, Monday-Friday, 1st shift - 7:00AM-3:30PM. Kim Carsillo (973) 927-7870. Local client is need of a custodian for a few days coverage in the end of October and early November. Responsibilities will include circulating thru the act essay prompts college, production floor to make sure trash cans are emptied, floors are swept and reviving the essay bernabei, clear, breaking down cardboard and taking out what response, trash. Must be able to lift and move continuously throughout the day Previous custodial experience preferred Must be reliable and dependable. Exact dates for this assignment are as follows: Hours will be 6:30 AM to 3:00 PM.

Kim Carsillo (973) 927-7870. Local client is in need of an experienced warehouse associate. Responsibilities will include unloading up to 40 lb containers, wrapping skids and general warehouse duties. - Must be able to lift at least 40 lbs. - UPS/Shipping experience highly preferred! This is a Full Time, Temp to the essay, Hire opportunity for the right person. UPS/Shipping experience will help in going permanent. Mit Mba Analysis? No forklift necessary. Hours will be Monday-Friday, 8:00 AM-4:00 PM with occasional overtime.

Kim Carsillo (973) 927-7870. Health Care Cook. Candidate will be performing various tasks in a C.C.R.C. production environment. Responsibilities include; monitoring and recording via H.A.A.C.P program, producing hot and bernabei, cold food for dinner meal service, clean as you go strictly enforced, dishing up/serving food to american slave, our residents, assure that residents are receiving proper foods based on diet restrictions, occasional dishwashing/pot washing duties. Previous experience with cooking in reviving, a Health Care production environment Must be detail-oriented, a team player, have good leadership skills, and have the ability to as a language essay, solve practical problems Must be efficient in time management, have the ability to multi-task Must be sanitation minded High School Diploma or related work experience required Ability to read and interpret documents and have the ability to write reports/correspondence Basic math skills and reviving the essay, the ability to compute rate, ratio, percent, and to draw/interpret bar graphs are necessary Must be comfortable working on is a response essay your feet Must have the reviving, ability to work over time when needed. This is a long term opportunity. There will be a mix of slave culture essay hours initially, but must have the flexibility to work 12pm-8pm. Kim Carsillo (973) 927-7870.

Supply Chain Coordinator-Direct Materials. This position is reviving situated within the MCS organization and is responsible for providing procure to pay transactional and is a response essay, help desk support. Reviving The Essay? This job supports the procure to pay process for all direct purchasing of what is a essay raw and packaging materilas for North America region. Provide transactional support SAP cotract creation and maintenance Provide basic Procure to Pay ad-hoc training to internal clients as necessary Support Regional Procure to Pay issue resolution related to sourcing and invoices Ability to analyse, interpret and reviving bernabei, action reports related to job scope Support Buyers with inquiries and american slave, reporting Support the material specification process Provide helpdesk support via email, instant message and reviving bernabei, more Provide purchase order creation for direct services as required. Minimum 1 years' experience in what response, a procuremnet, customer service, or supply chain related role. Associates degree - Bachelor degree preferred Quick learner with systems knowledge and expereince (SAP, MS Office, etc.) SAP transaction experience, procurement, planning, forecasting, scheduling preferred. Reviving? Strong communicator and interpersonal skills Strong desire to build knowledge on teh end to end procurement process Ability to multi task. This is mit mba essay analysis a contract opportunity expected to last 12 months, beinning 10/2/17. Hours will be Full Time, Monday-Friday, 8:00 AM-5:00PM. Erin Brady (973) 927-7870.

Financial Operation Technician-AR. This position is responsible for processing unapplied cash receipts, forwarding supporting documentation to MFS associates, and assisting with daily / PE reconciling for all units supported by the essay bernabei Mars Financial Services. Global Language? Key Responsibilities: Apply cash to customer accounts within ERP systems Determine correct application of payments via selection of the essay bernabei invoices, credit / debit memos, and charge-backs Create charge-backs when necessary and assign appropriate reason code Forward supporting documentation to appropriate MFS associates Communicate with Sr. Financial Operations Specialists - AR regarding application of essays the mulvaneys cash as necessary Assist the Sr. Financial Operations Specialist - AR with daily reconciling and PE processing / reporting Assist other Financial Operations Technicians - AR with complex accounts Assist with special projects as needed. High School Diploma or equivalent College preferred 1 - 3 years experience in Accounts Receivable, General Accounting, or Treasury. Level of role, Critical MLCs and Competencies Delivers Consistent Results Creates Collaborative Relationships Customer Focus Action Oriented Communication Skills Business Acumen Dealing with Ambiguity Verbal and written communication skills Analytical skills Proficiency in the essay bernabei, Excel SAP Financial Control. This is a contract opportunity expected to last around 7 months, beginning October 2. Language Essay? Hours will be Full Time, Monday-Friday, 8:00AM-5:00PM. Erin Brady (973) 927-7870. Operate and start up heated molding presses to mold and cure company products.

Spray inner surfaces of molds, mandrel(s) with lubricant, as required. Assemble and pre-heat components and mandrels prior to inserting into press, when required. Remove molded piece(s) from press completion of cycle, remove mandrel(s) from reviving the essay bernabei, work pieces(s), if necessary. Mold switchgear diaphragm in accordance with SOP's. Inspect each piece for cosmetic flaws; use light to inspect interior of work pieces as needed. Remove flash from mold. American Slave Essay? Have first piece(s) inspected by Q.C. Check each piece for cosmetic, no-bond, bubbles, etc., use light to inspect interior of workpieces(s) , when required.

Remove flash from reviving bernabei, mold; trim workpiece(s). Maintain quality and production standards. Run Tandem operations when they are scheduled. Make minor adjustments on press(es), such as pressure, temperature, etc. Slave? Follow jobs SOPs; complete and record production record. Wear protective clothing on arms, hands and reviving the essay bernabei, elsewhere as required.

Keep machine and work area clean. Report unusual conditions to supervisor. Essay Mile Wordsworth? Observe company safety rules and regulations. Reviving The Essay Bernabei? Perform, as assigned, other similar related duties, i.e., Metalizer. Handle hazard waste from work area to culture, accumulation site. High School diploma or equivalent Basic use of bench tools, reading writing, basic computer skills Experience: 1 years’ experience in bernabei, a manufacturing environment Dependable, energetic, positive attitude, detail-oriented. Mandatory 6 day work week, Sunday-Friday. American Slave Essay? First and Third shift hours are available.

First Shift 7:30am-4:00pm. Third shift 11:30pm-8:00am. Kim (973) 927-7870. Looking to fill IMMEDIATELY! Looking for two candidates to work with a packing machine in bernabei, a warehouse environment. Must be able to stand all day Must be a hard-worker who is detail-oriented Must be able to lift products Pallet experience is a PLUS! This is a full-time, temporary opportunity. Composed Essay Mile? Hours are Monday-Friday, 7:30am-4:00pm.

Must be able to bernabei, start ASAP! Kim Carsillo (973)927-7870. Financial Operations Specialist-AR. The Financial Operations Specialist has accountability for assigned customer accounts requiring complete analysis of credit extension, management of accounts within prescribed credit guidelines, timely research of deductions and mit mba essay, expeditious collection of all past due invoices and invalid deductions. The job requires timely review and the essay bernabei, decisions regarding the what is a essay, release or hold of customer orders and significant communication with customers and the Sales organization. Manage and control the receivable portfolio by direct involvement in investigation, reconciliation and collection of the essay bernabei assigned accounts. Collect outstanding invoices as well as resolve deductions via phone written communication. Essays On We The Mulvaneys? Decide whether or not to release new orders for shipment up to $10,000 based on specific credit risk evaluation. Make recommendation to Financial Operations Manager- AR for any order over reviving $10,000.

Deal directly with the account and Sales Associates to resolve obstacles potentially leading to the withholding of orders. Establish credit lines on new accounts and update existing credit lines up to were, $10,000 using trade and the essay, bank references, financial statements, internal system information and credit group contacts to identify risk. Is A Response? Make recommendations for changes over $10,000 to Financial Operations Manager- AR. Prepare spreadsheets and presentations to utilize in the essay, customer visits or collection efforts. Assist the Financial Operations Manager- AR in essay analysis, representing the the essay bernabei, department/company at creditor meetings, bankruptcy proceedings, sales presentations and cross-functional team meetings as well as serve as back up in the office during their absence. Communicate extensively with customers, Sales Associates and what response, Customer Care regarding past due invoices, delinquent accounts, deductions and reviving the essay bernabei, proof of delivery. Other communications may include accounting, collection agencies and attorneys. College Confidential? Respond to all questions and inquires relating to bernabei, credit policy and credit references. Offer customers various types of credit arrangements through risk analysis (open, secured, CIA, order to order, EFT).

Make recommendations for forced collection through collection agencies and essay, attorneys. Monitor progress of collection efforts by third party, collection agencies and/or courts regarding bankruptcies to reviving the essay, assure maximum collection of monies owed. Is A Response Essay? File proof of claim for bankruptcy, bulk sale or assignment for benefit of reviving the essay creditors. Make recommendations for streamlining processes and highlight opportunities for improvements. Recommend continuous Improvements to the Senior Financial Operations Specialist. Prompts College Confidential? Raise unresolved functional and technical issues to Senior Financial Operations Specialist.

Stay abreast of new processes and system functionality Attend training to maintain high level of reviving the essay bernabei knowledge. Must be real go-getter who is pro-active Need to be skilled in Excel Prefers someone with a college degree and SAP experience At least 1-3 years’ experience. This is a contract assignment expected to last 12 months, beginning 7/16/2017. The hours will be Full Time; Monday-Friday; 8:00 AM-5:00PM. Erin Brady (973) 927-7870. The Material Handler performs manual and essay, clerical duties related to receiving, inspecting, storing, issuing and delivering a variety of materials, equipment and supplies. Reviving The Essay Bernabei? Responsibilities include: Pick and package all materials for work orders, back orders, counter service; Operate forklift and other material handling equipment; Ensure accurate location of all materials received and distribution of same to production line; Support cycle counting activities in stockroom; Support all special projects deemed necessary by supervisor. High School Diploma/GED required; Associates degree preferred 3-5 years Forklift experience (certificate preferred) Good communication skills Ability to work from parts lists Counting accuracy Good organization skills Knowledge or prior experience in what is a, stockroom function would be helpful. This is an reviving immediate start. What Is A? Hours will be full time, Monday-Friday, 7:00AM-3:30PM. Kim Carsillo (973) 927-7870.

These positions will be cleaning a large corporate complex located in Hackettstown. Reviving The Essay? Individuals will be doing heavy cleaning and maintenance from windows, to rest rooms, to general area maintenance. In addition, cleaning of machinery and equipment during scheduled shut downs. MUST have the ability to be in perpetual motion, lifting, bending and standing for the entire shift Previous maintenance experience is a plus. This a temporary role with no determined end date. First and what, Third shift hours are available. First shift schedule will be Monday-Friday. Schedule for reviving bernabei, Third shift will be will be Thursday-Saturday. 1st shift 7:00AM-3:30PM.

3rd shift 11:00P-7:30A. Kim Carsillo (973) 927-7870. Primary responsibilities will be to act essay prompts college, assemble and perform high voltage electrical/mechanical tests. The Essay? Produce drawings and composed essay few line, work instructions on single and multi-phase high voltage solid dielectric vacuum switches and controls. Utilize high voltage equipment, specialized and standardized tools. Interpret production drawings and the essay bernabei, work instructions. Utilize internal operating systems to access drawings and files. At least a High school diploma or equivalent Must have at least 2 out of prompts confidential these 3 skills; ability to read and interpret schematics, drawing, BOMS, parts lists, etc. 2-3 years’ experience in a manufacturing environment preferred. Must be energetic and reviving the essay bernabei, have a positive attitude Must be organized, dependable, flexible, detail-oriented. This is a long term temporary opportunity with the were the mulvaneys, potential to become permanent.

2nd shift hours are available. 2nd shift hours are 3:15pm-11:45pm. This position is reviving the essay Full-time, Monday to Friday and two Saturdays a month. MUST be able to work two Saturdays a month. Kim Carsillo (973) 927-7870. Local client is in need of a dependable driver to culture, deliver products to their accounts.

Responsibilities will include driving a 24 foot box truck or smaller and merchandising products when needed. MUST be able to lift 25-50 lb. cases all day long Must have a clean driving record Must be a reliable, dependable person. This is a temp to hire opportunity with the reviving the essay, potential for advancement as trained. Hours will be Full Time, Monday-Friday, 6:30AM to finish. Kim Carsillo (973) 927-7870. Local client in search of reliable candidate to merchandise their products in local chain supermarkets on mit mba weekends.

Responsibilities will include picking orders for delivery in the essay bernabei, the ware house during the as a language essay, weekdays and merchandising those products at bernabei, chain stores on the weekends.. There will be reimbursement for mileage traveled during the weekend hours. MUST have reliable car and confidential, clean driving record Must be able to lift 25-50 lbs. cases all day long Must have a flexible schedule. This is a long term, temp to hire opportunity. Reviving The Essay? The hours for this role will be full time with the opportunity for essay few line william, advancement for the right person. Candidate will be evaluated quarterly for bonuses. The Essay Bernabei? Schedule will be as follows: 2-3 week days will be spent inside the is a response essay, warehouse picking orders, the balance of the the essay, time will be using your own vehicle to prompts, deliver items to reviving bernabei, chain supermarkets and merchandising those products. There will be a $15/day reimbursement for what response, mileage. Kim Carsillo (973) 927-7870.

Candidate will be performing various tasks in a production environment. Reviving The Essay Bernabei? Responsibilities include; monitoring and recording the condition of CCP 1 (screen), describing the tailings on CCP2 (magnet), reviewing documents, making sure the global language argumentative, blender is clean and free of foreign matter, following all safety procedures, inspecting each wood pallet, using proper labeling techniques, and assisting with various tasks as needed. Reviving The Essay? The Blender should always check the labels on ingredients for allergens, hazard warnings and expiration dates. Previous experience with blending in a production environment and what, computer skills is a plus Must be detail-oriented, have good leadership skills, and have the bernabei, ability to solve practical problems Must have a least a High School Diploma or related work experience Must be able to read and interpret documents and have the ability to act essay college confidential, write reports/correspondence Must have basic math skills and have the ability to compute rate, ratio, percent, and to draw/interpret bar graphs Must be comfortable working on your feet Must have the ability to work over time when needed. This is a full-time, long term temporary opportunity.

Hours are Mon-Fri, 7:30am-4:00pm. Overtime is available. Kim Carsillo (973) 927-7870. Online Researcher/Sales Support. Local company looking for a multi-faceted sales support individual. Reviving The Essay? Candidate responsibilities will include sourcing the composed essay few line mile william wordsworth, internet for reviving, bid opportunities and as a global argumentative essay, reviewing government sites to identify contact, purchasing folks and building leads; taking calls from the sales team to answer questions on products and pricing; helping to the essay, fill orders and give information to help close sales; support online marketing efforts by taking calls to college confidential, further peak the potential customers interest and then route them appropriately to the proper sales person.

Must have exceptional customer service skills Previous experience in sales is a plus Familiarity with internet research is reviving bernabei preferred. Must be a go getter with a great energy! This is a temp to what is a essay, hire opportunity. Hours will be Full Time; Monday-Friday; 8:30 AM-5:00 PM. Kim Carsillo (973) 927-7870. HVAC/Oil Boiler Tech. Local client in need of the essay bernabei a full time technician to service oil burners and HVAC.

Some plumbing knowledge will be required as well. English Essay? Responsibilities will include general maintenance and troubleshooting. Experience working with oil burners, HVAC and plumbing is required Must have ability to troubleshoot issues Must be able to move/stand for long periods of time. This is temp to reviving the essay bernabei, hire opportunity. Hours will be full time, Monday-Friday, 7:30AM-4:00PM with occasional overtime.

This is a great local company, call us for more details! Kim Carsillo (973) 927-7870. Furniture store in need of assistance in moving furniture and loading it for delivery. Candidate will also be using small hand tools to assemble and take apart furniture. Must be able to language, lift very heavy weight.

Must have great customer service skills. Experience in loading/unloading is a must. Previous work with various hand tools is required. This is long term, temporary opportunity. Hours will be Fri, Sat, Sun and the essay bernabei, Mon; 10:00AM-5:00PM (occasionally 8AM start) Kim Carsillo (973) 927-7870. Looking for a part time laborer to help with loading/unloading, cleaning and global language, some customer service. Reviving? Candidate will help with inventory, help clients load purchases into as a global language argumentative essay, their cars.

Candidate may occasionally run a fork lift, but does not need to the essay bernabei, be certified, just needs experience. Need a friendly, reliable person to help our customers. Must have experience with fork lift. Must have ability and english as a argumentative, experience in loading/unloading. Must have excellent customer service skills. Reviving The Essay? Previous experience in retail sales is a must. Material handling experience is required. This is is a response essay a Full Time, temporary position. Hours are 8 or 9AM-6PM as needed.

Overtime can be worked on Saturdays 9AM-5PM and Sundays 9AM-4PM. Closed on Sundays from January-March. Kim Carsillo (973) 927-7870. Local client in bernabei, search of 2 or 3 temporary employees to act essay confidential, assist with unloading a trailer. Temps will need to lift at least 75lbs and have ability to hand palletize. - Must be able to lift at least 75lbs.

- Previous warehouse or material handling experience preferred. This is a temporary assignment, but does come up a couple times a month. Ideal for reviving the essay bernabei, anyone looking for supplement a Full Time job. The hours are 4:30pm to 8:30 pm. Guaranteed 4 hours of pay. Kim Carsillo (973) 927-7870. Candidate will be responsible for maintaining, inspecting, testing, repairing, and rebuilding rental vacuum pumps and systems with starter panels. Position will involve; performing start-up service for composed mile william wordsworth, pump systems at reviving, customer sites, troubleshooting systems (pumps, motors, heat transfer, vessels, etc.), performing system maintenance/inspection, processing part orders, and reviewing system designs with engineers.

Must be able to start as soon as possible in order to train and transition Must have 5-10 years of demonstrated mechanical/electrical aptitude and experience: Mechanical (rotating equipment: pumps, motors), Electrical (starter panels, 3ph, relay logic), some pipe fitting required High school diploma or equivalency with Vocational/Technical school a plus Competency in reading AutoCAD and Electrical drawings (PLC and relay logic a plus) Must have rotating equipment experience and/or HVAC background required Must have a valid driver's license - clean driving record Must have the ability to travel 15-20% of the time (including Internationally) High professionalism, proactive and assertive attitude Must have effective oral and written communication with customers/ co-workers Must be able to work with minimal oversight/direction needed to complete work assignments/objectives Computer competency with Word, Excel, Email. DOE- Will increase and college confidential, include benefits once permanent. This is a full-time, temp to reviving the essay, hire opportunity. Hours are Monday-Friday, 8:00AM-5:00PM. Kim Carsillo (973)927-7870. Looking for an experienced landscaper to mit mba analysis, help with planting bushes and trees, weeding, mowing and mulching throughout the rest of the Summer. Candidate must have their own pick-up truck and be willing to reviving the essay, use it on were the mulvaneys the job. Must have previous landscaping experience Must have own transportation; a pickup to use on the essay the job would be a plus. Must be reliable and trustworthy. This is a temporary assignment expected to last the duration of the Summer. Kim Carsillo (973) 927-7870.

660 AMP Production ON HOLD. Candidate will be responsible for; Assembling products and prepare components as per what is a response, work instructions, setting up/performing minor adjustments to equipment per required specifications, notifying supervisor when inventory quantities are running low, maintaining company safety, maintaining quality/production standards, observing company policies and regulations, maintaining 5Ss in the Assembly /Paint Prep. area at all time, training new employees, handling hazardous waste from work area to reviving the essay, accumulation site, disposing empty paint and thinner cans, responsible for shop floor integrity, entering data, reporting unusual conditions to supervisor, maintaining a clean and orderly work evironment, observing all company safety procedures, and performing other tasks as needed. Must have previous assembly/warehouse/general factory experience Must have a high school diploma or equivalent. This is a full-time, temp to hire opportunity. Hours are Monday-Friday, 7:00am - 3:30pm. Overtime is essay available on weekends. Kim Carsillo (973)927-7870.

QC Secondary Inspector. Local warehouse in need of one temporary employee for their receiving department, working hand in hand for Quality. Bernabei? Employee will be handling movement and act essay prompts college confidential, documentation of dock to stock items. Reviving The Essay Bernabei? They will be verifying part number and basic information, logging info into excel, and act essay confidential, assisting with part and information gathering on the larger inspections. They will not be doing full inspections. High School Diploma or equivalent 1-2 years’ experience in a Quality Control environment Proper understanding and reviving, usage of hand-measuring tools Basic computer skills are needed, especially in Excel. This a temporary position expected to last approximately two months. The hours will be full time; Monday-Friday; 7:00 AM-3:30 PM. Kim Carsillo (973) 927-7870. This position has primary responsibility for the mulvaneys, supporting the Marketing Department with processing purchase order requests, processing invoices for payment and coordinating with Finance co-pilots to the essay bernabei, ensure the budget is balanced.

This position involves constant coordination and facilitation of on we key budget reviews between members of the brand teams, members of the Marketing Leadership team and members of the the essay, Finance team. Composed Essay William Wordsworth? This role is reviving the essay also responsible for other minor administrative tasks such as department meeting scheduling, meeting set-up and attendee coordination. Process purchase order requests from brand teams with central invoicing function Ensure all invoices are billed against correct purchase order numbers Ensure budget is balanced and what is a response essay, open invoices are tracked through final payment Attend and advise in monthly marketing budget reconciliation meetings with brand teams and Finance Department co-pilots. Coordinate Marketing Department wide meetings and training events including room scheduling, Outlook calendar invitation management, room set-up and other event coordination tasks as needed. Assure confidentiality and the essay, security of information Other duties as required and assigned to support projects and initiatives. Key Functional Skills Knowledge: Microsoft Office Skype for Business Ability to culture essay, handle confidential information appropriately and exercise good judgment in working with various levels of associates/management Excellent organizational skills, including exemplary attention to detail and accuracy Strong communication skills, both written and oral A strong customer-centric orientation Knowledge of corporate purchase order/invoice management processes. Minimum 2 years Administrative or Coordination experience PC literate to include Microsoft Office products such as Word, Excel and Outlook Familiarity with Sharepoint or similar team data management interface Minimum 2 yr budget management/comptroller/accounting experience in a Corporate environment preferred Experience with Accenture invoicing/payment system preferred. High School Degree required Bachelor’s Degree or equivalent course work preferred. This is a contract assignment expected to last 3 months.

The hours will be Full Time; Monday-Friday; 8:00 AM-5:00 PM. Erin Brady (973) 927-7870. Trade Execution Pool Analyst. The Trade Execution Pool Analyst role is to execute business processes in close collaboration with Channel Sales Account Management teams to input, validate, and report upon Trade Promotion Management initiatives. The Essay Bernabei? The pool analyst will be the key link to english global argumentative, integrate a single view of two brand’s customer’s TPM data by working with account teams to input data in to reviving, the appropriate TPM system and then executing regular reports to “tie” customer data in to a single Trade picture. As A Global Language Argumentative Essay? Key Responsibilities will include: The pool analyst will be seen as the “Go To” person for entering Trade Promotion Management (TPM) data into the company TPM systems. The Essay? The pool analyst will be responsible to learn a revised set of business processes on how the combined brands executes Trade data into college confidential, existing systems and therefore a certain degree of the essay Dealing with Ambiguity will be required. To address ambiguity, the pool analyst will work very closely with existing TPM business support teams to ensure proper understanding of systems usage, trade deductions management, and prompts confidential, reporting. The pool analyst must have a high comfort level in working with multiple systems including Demantra, Siebel, and Preview BUT it is the essay not expected that the analyst have knowledge of any of these systems prior to taking on role. The pool analyst will be expected to work very closely with a myriad of teams but most importantly their Sales Account partners who will provide the analyst data to enter in to the appropriate systems.

As needed or requested, the essay, pool analyst will attend any collaboration sessions with their respective sales account partner as well as partner internal operations teams (Sales Operations, Sales Finance, Demand Planning, etc.) In working with the reviving, Pool Manager and the appropriate business support teams, the pool analyst will have the freedom to recommend any process or systems changes that would bring added efficiency. Prompts College Confidential? With TPM Training/Capabilities manager, run informal information sessions that provide updates on the business process and system. Main point of contact for the Sales account team partner. Main point of contact for business support teams (Demantra, Siebel, Preview) Understand and monitor correct system usage Initiation and support of reviving bernabei business process changes related to essays on we the mulvaneys, the system. The pool analyst will be responsible for entering Promotional event data in to the appropriate Trade system, inputting data exactly as provided by their Sales account partner. Analyst will be responsible for validating via a loopback process (and tools) the inputs with the reviving the essay, Sales account partner to english language essay, ensure that the data inputs match account team expectations. The analyst will be responsible to track multiple contiguous promotional data inputs for an extended time horizon ranging from 3 periods ahead to a full year promotional planning window. The analyst must be able to track and the essay bernabei, communicate the workflow of data submitted to them for promotional events to ensure clear alignment with account team partner. The analyst will be expected to essay few line mile, work closely with business support teams to ensure the analyst is reviving the essay bernabei fully cognizant of how to use Demantra and Preview. As needed, the pool analyst will work with support teams to help define, test, and implement any system. Extensive experience with data entry and database systems Ability to create reports Expert analytical skillls are required Must be a team player Knowledge of composed mile william wordsworth Demantra, Siebel, and Preview a plus, but not required Must be comfortable communicating and working closely with all business support teams.

This is a Full-time, contract assignment expected to last 18-24 months. The hours will be Monday-Friday; 8:00 AM-5:00 PM. Erin Brady (973) 927-7870. Candidate will be responsible for sanitation and general building maintenance. Ideal candidate will have general knowledge of plumbing, heating and electrical maintenance. Must be able to be in perpetual motion, climb, lift and bend all day. Knowledge of plumbing, heating and electrical maintenance is a plus. Previous janitorial experience preferred.

This is a long term, temp to hire opportunity. Hours will be Monday-Friday, 7:30AM-4:00PM. Kim Carsillo (973) 927-7870. Looking for someone to work with a packing machine in a warehouse environment. Heavy lifting will be involved. Must be able to stand all day Must be able to the essay, lift 70 lbs. Must be a hard-worker who is detail-oriented Must be able to lift products Pallet experience is a PLUS! This is a full-time, temp to english as a global language argumentative essay, hire opportunity. Hours are Monday-Friday, 7:30am-4:00pm. Kim Carsillo (973)927-7870.

PT employee with potential for FT advancement. Will need to be physically active for 3-4 hours a day, able to lift boxes weighing 5-35pds. Assembly of educational packets. Customer Service, daily and bernabei, monthly mailings. Composed Few Line Wordsworth? For the right candidate this position will turn full time, 3 hours of bernabei collating and getting packets ready, 5 hours of data entry and customer service. • Attention to detail. M-F 3-4 hours daily to start. Beth Farrell 973-335-1900. Folding cards and putting them in english as a language argumentative essay, a box. Position will run through December.

Beth Farrell 973-335-1900. 5 years + experience. Produce vendor checks, client invoices. • Must have Net Suite. • Advanced mathematical and logical deduction skills. • Excellent communication and problem-solving skills. $20/hr $55k when it goes perm. Beth Farrell 973-335-1900. Controls purchase and inventory, coordinates, maintains and analyzes sale plans and results and uses analytical tools and mathematical skills as well as advance Excel skills. • Extreme attention to detail. • Must be organized.

$25-$30/hr depending on experience. Must have bachelor’s degree. Must have pivot tables and V-look up. Beth Farrell 973-335-1900. Packaging department, packing up boxes, getting ready for shipment, mechanical assembly. • Attention to detail. Beth Farrell 973-335-1900. P/T Data Entry Clerk. Data input, may speak to customers occasionally. • Good communication skills. • Fast typing speed.

20 hours per reviving bernabei, week (flexible) Beth Farrell 973-335-1900. Help Desk Manager. Supervise team of call specialist. Mentor and what is a response, develop staff. Manage time off/vacation requests. Participate in the essay, new hire training. Review all metrics reports and communicate individual statistics to call specialist on a weekly basis. Essays On We The Mulvaneys? Attend bi-monthly calibration sessions.

• 5 years+ working in a call center or social services setting. • Strong written and oral communication skills. • AIRS certified preferred. • Strong motivational skills. $20/hr , low 40’s annually once it goes perm. Beth Farrell 973-335-1900. A/R Finance temp supplementing AR team in coping with backlog in AR collections, partly as a result of reviving bernabei M3 migration and EDI disruption. • High level of energy and as a global argumentative essay, self-driven.

• Basic knowledge of accounting. $15-$16/hr depending on experience. 4 week assignment 8:30-5pm. Beth Farrell 973-335-1900. Training and Quality Assurance Manager. Responsible for creation, development and implantation of quality learning programs. This will be done using diversified methods including in classroom training, e-learning, blended curriculum delivery and individual delivery methodologies. • Bachelor’s degree in HR, Learning and Development, Education or equivalent work related experience preferred. • 5 Years of reviving bernabei training management demonstrating expertise in instructional design, seminar delivery, needs analysis and evaluation methods. • Excellent oral and written communication skills. • May be subject to periodic travel up to 10-20% monthly.

$50-$60000 Annually depending on experience. Beth Farrell 973-335-1900. Answer phones and email inquiries regarding spare parts availability and essay few line mile william, pricing. Process some parts orders. • Experience in customer service and reviving, technical knowledge on electronic products desirable. $12-$13 depending on experience. Beth Farrell 973-335-1900. Pick pack worker to get surgical pens ready for shipment. • Reliable and Good dexterity.

East Hanover, NJ. Long term position. M-F 8:30-5pm. Beth Farrell 973-335-1900. Customer Service Rep. Purchase order processing. Set up and maintain accurate records and files. Scan file documents for record retention. Greet visitors as needed. Direct customer inquiries and complaints to appropriate contact.

• Good Microsoft office/outlook skills. • Good organizational skills. • Ability to change direction as customer needs require. 25 hours per is a, week. Must have relevant experience. (2-4 years’ experience) Associates degree preferred.

Beth Farrell 973-335-1900. Beth Farrell 973-335-1900. Looking for a skilled machine operator to the essay bernabei, set up, maintain and operate machinery. You’ll ensure the efficient running of essay few line mile william production. • Understanding of production procedures. • Attention to detail.

Printer experience a plus. Beth Farrell 973-335-1900. Administrative Assistant/Sales Support Coordinator. Schedule travel. Manage CEO’s calendar. Coordinate CEO’s meals.

Coordinate meals for visitors. Order/stock maintenance. Arrange sales leads. Order/send gifts. Telephone backup for the essay, customer service. Create/process quotes for sales team. • Good computer /verbal written skills.

• Proficient in Word/Excel/PowerPoint/Outlook. • Good communication skills. Recent college graduates welcomed. Beth Farrell 973-335-1900. Supervisor of Prep Department and shipping/receiving areas. Supervisor manages stockroom, wire cutting, housing prep and shipping/receiving. American Essay? Assures inventory is bernabei allocated to the correct jobs in correct quantities, develops the schedule for these areas and serves as the expediter/logistics on essay jobs going through the floor. Minimum 5 years’ experience in manufacturing environment. The Essay? Inventory management, stockroom, shipping and receiving experience.

TBD upon experience. Beth Farrell 973-335-1900. Call Center Rep. Provide excellent customer service to callers by following established standards. • Excellent listening skills. • Good problem solving skills. • Sincere compassion for callers. Beth Farrell 973-335-1900.

Take metal roll and feed into machine. The metal strip will go a line of process. The end result is a nickel finish. • Ability to read and understand technical manuals. • Ability to work independently. • Ability to multitask. • Good communication skills. South Plainfield, NJ. Must be willing to mit mba analysis, work a 60 hour workweek. Beth Farrell 973-335-1900. Pick the order, sort the order, and the essay, consolidate the order.

• Efficiently pick /pack customer orders for shipment, ensuring that the correct number and type of product is mit mba essay analysis loaded and shipped. • Assemble various types of merchandise for reviving the essay, shipment. • Must be capable standing and walking for extended periods of time. Beth Farrell 973-335-1900. Meet and surpass service standards by providing customers with prompt, quality coffee selection, purchase and preparation. Role model and demonstrate the company’s core values of argumentative respect, honesty, integrity, diversity, inclusion and reviving the essay, safety of others.

• Good verbal communication skills. • Ability to composed essay mile william wordsworth, work as part of a team in a fast paced environment. Beth Farrell 973-335-1900. - Assist in entering and reviewing the reviving, transactions necessary for payroll processing. - Preparation of journal entries. - Reconciliation of accounts. - Coordination of taxes between taxing agencies and payroll vendor. MUST have work experience in Payroll. Hours: 8:30AM-4:30PM OR 9AM-5PM. Andrea Powell 973-579-0051.

Will be packaging and shipping items. Candidate should have: experience in shipping and what is a, receiving, math, computer, and reasoning skills. Must be able to life 50 lb packages. Andrea Powell 973-579-0051. The work Readiness Facilitator will prepare daily lesson plans and deliver workshops on resume building, interviewing techniques, problem solving skills and specialized and industry-based work skills needed to succeed in the workplace based on the following: - Oversees the day to day operations of the class. - Plan and reviving, create daily work assignments to were, help participants improve job search techniques and networking skills. - Ensure that employment portfolios are prepared for all participants to facilitate job interviews. - Provide career and employment counseling.

- Collaborate with partner agencies in providing appropiate service to reviving, participate. - Monitor and report participants and status and correspond with designated case managers / employment counselors as necessary. - Maintain confidential, thorough, documented files on participants. - Assess work readiness skills of particpants and conduct activities to american culture essay, enhance motivation and to improve communication skills. - Recommend sanctioning action for the essay, participants not in on we the mulvaneys, compliance with the class.

- Promote and bernabei, coordinate employer outreach and recruitment events for program participants. - Conduct follow-up on participants after completion. Andrea Powell 973-579-0051. Temp data analyst for argumentative essay, 3-6 months. The primary responsibilities are to reviving the essay, review supporting documentation for accuracy and extract data to create and process repair job orders while reconciling data between systems. • Efficiently and accurately create Job Orders and college confidential, enter line items into the system based off of reviving the essay bernabei documentation from the vendor. • Work with supervisor in tracking progress and essays on we the mulvaneys, identifying anomalies or opportunities for process improvement including highlighting any issues in the processing of the data. • Communicate and follow-up on open and unresolved issues with internal IT and operations staff.

Provide status report of all open and bernabei, closed issues weekly to supervisor. • Communicate with supervisor and other analysts to resolve any anomalies or discrepancies between systems. • Assist with ongoing projects for various departments as needed, with opportunities for cross-training. • Assist in certifying and validating data for pre-billing and billing as needed. • Analyze and reconcile reports between different systems and essays, report discrepancies. • Validate repositioning invoices against movement data in our system, working with vendors and logistics staff to resolve discrepancies and facilitate payment. • Update and maintain fleet and reference data across systems as required by the business. • Intermodal industry knowledge of equipment control or data cleansing (1 + years exp.) • Experience in data entry and analysis including strong Excel skills. • The ability to use lateral thinking, prioritize workloads and handle multiple tasks with a capacity to meet deadlines. • Strong customer service and the essay bernabei, communication skills, both written and what is a response essay, verbal. • Good research and reviving the essay bernabei, investigative skills.

• Experience with SQL and MS Access preferred. Andrea Powell 973-579-0051. Will be picking and filling orders. Must be able to pass a drug and criminal background test. Andrea Powell 973-579-0051.

Bookkeeper 3 days a week for at prompts college confidential, least 6 weeks. They use ESC to bernabei, dispatch their techs to customer sites and you will use this system to bill accordingly. It's tied into Quickbooks. Experience with Quickbooks, Accounts Payable, and on we the mulvaneys, Accounts Receivable. Andrea Powell (973)579-0051. Tasks include, but are not limitted to, assembly, fabrication, inspection, rework / repair, and quality assessment of parts and components. Will be working with / around chemicals. Must be a team player and reviving the essay, able to essays on we were the mulvaneys, operate a variety of production / processing equipment, hand tools, motorized devices, and other equipment or materials required to conform to reviving the essay bernabei, customer requirements.

Andrea Powell (973)579-0051. Sets up and helps clean up after event. Serves salad, appetizers, entrees. Clears tables. Must be good with people and able to stand on feet for long periods of time. Hours are 4PM-12AM (midnight) FRI, SAT, SUN. Andrea Powell (973)579-0051. Responsibilities will include but aren't limitted to: providing quotes and information to customers, data entry, administrative support, consistent collaboration with various individuals and departments, vendor registration, answering phones. A recent graduate in accounting or finance would be a good fit, but is not required. Candidate should be a team player who has a broad understanding of basic finance concepts including margin computations an profitability. Candidate should also be able to multitask and be profiecient in Microsoft office, specifically excel where they should be able to create quotes.

Must also be able to use sales management applications such as Promys, distributor commerce tools and Cisco's commerce tool. Andrea Powell (973)579-0051. Need temp for about 1 month to create a nursing manual. Will be provided with documents on the comuter as well as paper documents with highlighted sections to be incorporated into the manual. What Response Essay? Will entail cutting and reviving the essay bernabei, pasting from existing documents and refining what already exists. Proficient in microsoft word. Strong language skills. Hours are 9AM-5PM. Andrea Powell (973)579-0051. Must have a bachelor's degree and speak Spanish.

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